CannaSearch Breaking News on CBD + Hemp

Hemp seed pill may improve chronic constipation of the elderly and reduce the burden of helpers.

Hemp seed pill may improve chronic constipation of the elderly and reduce the burden of helpers.

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Hemp seed pill may improve chronic constipation of the elderly and reduce the burden of helpers.

J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Jun;8(6):2150

Authors: Iwasaki K, Takayama S

Abstract
Traditional Chinese medicine Hemp seed pill () could improve chronic constipation of elderly in the difficult case.

PMID: 31334198 [PubMed]

Promoting cannabis products to pharmaceutical drugs.

Promoting cannabis products to pharmaceutical drugs.

Icon for Elsevier Science Related Articles

Promoting cannabis products to pharmaceutical drugs.

Eur J Pharm Sci. 2019 Apr 30;132:118-120

Authors: Koltai H, Poulin P, Namdar D

Abstract
Cannabis sativa is widely used for medical purposes. However, to date, aroma, popular strain name or the content of two phytocannabinoids-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are mostly considered for therapeutic activity. This is despite the hundreds of compounds in this plant and their potential synergistic interactions in mixtures. New, specific and effective cannabis-based drugs must be developed to achieve adequate medical standards for the use of cannabis. To do this, the comprehensive molecular profile of cannabis-based drugs must be defined, and mixtures of compounds should be tested for superior therapeutic activity due to synergistic effects compared to individually isolated cannabis compounds. The biological pathways targeted by these new drugs should also be characterized more accurately. For drug development and design, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination versus toxicity (ADME/Tox) must be characterized, and therapeutic doses identified. Promoting the quality and therapeutic activity of herbal or synthetic cannabis products to pharma grade is a pressing need worldwide.

PMID: 30851400 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Pharmacology of Medical Cannabis.

Pharmacology of Medical Cannabis.

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Pharmacology of Medical Cannabis.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1162:151-165

Authors: Amin MR, Ali DW

Abstract
The Cannabis plant has been used for many of years as a medicinal agent in the relief of pain and seizures. It contains approximately 540 natural compounds including more than 100 that have been identified as phytocannabinoids due to their shared chemical structure. The predominant psychotropic component is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), while the major non-psychoactive ingredient is cannabidiol (CBD). These compounds have been shown to be partial agonists or antagonists at the prototypical cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The therapeutic actions of Δ9-THC and CBD include an ability to act as analgesics, anti-emetics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-seizure compounds and as protective agents in neurodegeneration. However, there is a lack of well-controlled, double blind, randomized clinical trials to provide clarity on the efficacy of either Δ9-THC or CBD as therapeutics. Moreover, the safety concerns regarding the unwanted side effects of Δ9-THC as a psychoactive agent preclude its widespread use in the clinic. The legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes and for recreational use in some regions will allow for much needed research on the pharmacokinetics and pharmocology of medical cannabis. This brief review focuses on the use of cannabis as a medicinal agent in the treatment of pain, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the paucity of information, attention is paid to the mechanisms by which medical cannabis may act to relieve pain and seizures.

PMID: 31332738 [PubMed – in process]

Cannabidiol binding and negative allosteric modulation at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: An In Silico study.

Cannabidiol binding and negative allosteric modulation at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: An In Silico study.

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Cannabidiol binding and negative allosteric modulation at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: An In Silico study.

PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0220025

Authors: Chung H, Fierro A, Pessoa-Mahana CD

Abstract
Recent evidence has raised in discussion the possibility that cannabidiol can act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Here we have used computational methods to study the modulation exerted by cannabidiol on the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the possibility of direct receptor blockade. We propose a putative allosteric binding site that is located in the N-terminal region of receptor, partially overlapping the orthosteric binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations reveled a coordinated movement involving the outward rotation of helixes 1 and 2 and subsequent expansion of the orthosteric binding site upon cannabidiol binding. Finally, changes in the cytoplasmic region and high helix 8 mobility were related to impaired receptor internalization. Together, these results offer a possible explanation to how cannabidiol can directly modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the cannabinoid receptor type 1.

PMID: 31335889 [PubMed – in process]

Potential occupational and respiratory hazards in a Minnesota cannabis cultivation and processing facility.

Potential occupational and respiratory hazards in a Minnesota cannabis cultivation and processing facility.

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Potential occupational and respiratory hazards in a Minnesota cannabis cultivation and processing facility.

Am J Ind Med. 2019 Jul 23;:

Authors: Couch JR, Grimes GR, Wiegand DM, Green BJ, Glassford EK, Zwack LM, Lemons AR, Jackson SR, Beezhold DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been legalized in some form for much of the United States. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation request from a Minnesota cannabis facility and their union to undertake an evaluation.
METHODS: NIOSH representatives visited the facility in August 2016 and April 2017. Surface wipe samples were collected for analysis of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol acid (Δ9-THCA), cannabidiol, and cannabinol. Environmental air samples were collected for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), endotoxins (limulus amebocyte lysate assay), and fungal diversity (NIOSH two-stage BC251 bioaerosol sampler with internal transcribed spacer region sequencing analysis).
RESULTS: Surface wipe samples identified Δ9-THC throughout the facility. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were measured in initial VOC screening and subsequent sampling during tasks where heat transference was greatest, though levels were well below the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Endotoxin concentrations were highest during processing activities, while internal transcribed spacer region sequencing revealed that the Basidiomycota genus, Wallemia, had the highest relative abundance.
CONCLUSIONS: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published report of potential diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure in the cannabis industry, most notably during cannabis decarboxylation. Endotoxin exposure was elevated during grinding, indicating that this is a potentially high-risk task. The findings indicate that potential health hazards of significance are present during cannabis processing, and employers should be aware of potential exposures to VOCs, endotoxin, and fungi. Further research into the degree of respiratory and dermal hazards and resulting health effects in this industry is recommended.

PMID: 31332812 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Vapor inhalation of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats.

Vapor inhalation of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats.

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Vapor inhalation of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2019 Jul 20;:172741

Authors: Javadi-Paydar M, Creehan KM, Kerr TM, Taffe MA

Abstract
RATIONALE: Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound found in many strains of the Cannabis genus, is increasingly available in e-cigarette liquids as well as other products. CBD use has been promoted for numerous purported benefits which have not been rigorously assessed in preclinical studies.
OBJECTIVE: To further validate an inhalation model to assess CBD effects in the rat. The primary goal was to determine plasma CBD levels after vapor inhalation and compare that with the levels observed after injection. Secondary goals were to determine if hypothermia is produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and if CBD affects nociception measured by the warm water tail-withdrawal assay.
METHODS: Blood samples were collected from rats exposed for 30 min to vapor generated by an e-cigarette device using CBD (100, 400 mg/mL in the propylene glycol vehicle). Separate experiments assessed the body temperature response to CBD in combination with nicotine (30 mg/mL) and the anti-nociceptive response to CBD.
RESULTS: Vapor inhalation of CBD produced concentration-related plasma CBD levels in male and female Wistar rats that were within the range of levels produced by 10 or 30 mg/kg, CBD, i.p. Dose-related hypothermia was produced by CBD in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and nicotine (30 mg/mL) inhalation enhanced this effect. CBD inhalation had no effect on anti-nociception alone or in combination with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhalation.
CONCLUSIONS: The vapor-inhalation approach is a suitable pre-clinical model for the investigation of the effects of inhaled CBD. This route of administration produces hypothermia in rats, while i.p. injection does not, at comparable plasma CBD levels.

PMID: 31336109 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Dosage Related Efficacy and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Children With Treatment-Resistant Epileptic Encephalopathy: Preliminary Results of the CARE-E Study.

Dosage Related Efficacy and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Children With Treatment-Resistant Epileptic Encephalopathy: Preliminary Results of the CARE-E Study.

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Dosage Related Efficacy and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Children With Treatment-Resistant Epileptic Encephalopathy: Preliminary Results of the CARE-E Study.

Front Neurol. 2019;10:716

Authors: Huntsman RJ, Tang-Wai R, Alcorn J, Vuong S, Acton B, Corley S, Laprairie R, Lyon AW, Meier S, Mousseau DD, Newmeyer D, Prosser-Loose E, Seifert B, Tellez-Zenteno J, Huh L, Leung E, Major P

Abstract
Purpose: There is uncertainty regarding the appropriate dose of Cannabidiol (CBD) for childhood epilepsy. We present the preliminary data of seven participants from the Cannabidiol in Children with Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy (CARE-E) study. Methods: The study is an open-label, prospective, dose-escalation trial. Participants received escalating doses of a Cannabis Herbal Extract (CHE) preparation of 1:20 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): CBD up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day. Seizure frequency was monitored in daily logs, participants underwent regular electroencephalograms, and parents filled out modified Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) and Side Effect rating scale questionnaires. Steady-state trough levels (Css, Min) of selected cannabinoids were quantified. Results: All seven participants tolerated the CHE up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day and had improvements in seizure frequency and QOLCE scores. CSS, Min plasma levels for CBD, THC, and cannabichromene (CBC) showed dose-independent pharmacokinetics in all but one participant. CSS, Min CBD levels associated with a >50% reduction in seizures and seizure freedom were lower than those reported previously with purified CBD. In most patients, CSS, Min levels of THC remained lower than what would be expected to cause intoxication. Conclusion: The preliminary data suggest an initial CBD target dose of 5-6 mg/kg/day when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used. Possible non-linear pharmacokinetics of CBD and CBC needs investigation. The reduction in seizure frequency seen suggests improved seizure control when a whole plant CHE is used. Plasma THC levels suggest a low risk of THC intoxication when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used in doses up to 12 mg/kg CBD/kg/day.

PMID: 31333569 [PubMed]

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

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Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Jul 12;175:112752

Authors: Citti C, Linciano P, Forni F, Vandelli MA, Gigli G, Laganà A, Cannazza G

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the two major active principles present in Cannabis sativa, is gaining great interest among the scientific community for its pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic applications. CBD can be prepared either by chemical synthesis or extraction from Cannabis sativa (hemp). The latter is more convenient from several points of view, including environmental and economic, but mainly for the absence of harmful organic solvents generally employed in the chemical synthesis. Although CBD produced by hemp extraction is the most widely employed, it carries two major impurities. The first one is the already known cannabidivarin (CBDV), whereas the second one is supposed to be the butyl analog of CBD with a four-term alkyl side chain. In this work, we report the isolation by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and the unambiguous identification of this second impurity. A comprehensive spectroscopic characterization, including NMR, UV, IR, circular dichroism and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), was carried out on this natural cannabinoid. In order to confirm its absolute configuration and chemical structure, the stereoisomer (1R,6R) of the supposed cannabinoid was synthesized and the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties, along with the stereochemistry, matched those of the natural isolated molecule. According to the International Nonproprietary Name, we suggested the name of cannabidibutol (CBDB) for this cannabinoid. Lastly, an HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative determination of CBDV and CBDB in samples of CBD extracted from hemp and produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices regulations for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use.

PMID: 31330283 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Mechanical, physical and chemical characterisation of mycelium-based composites with different types of lignocellulosic substrates.

Mechanical, physical and chemical characterisation of mycelium-based composites with different types of lignocellulosic substrates.

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Mechanical, physical and chemical characterisation of mycelium-based composites with different types of lignocellulosic substrates.

PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0213954

Authors: Elsacker E, Vandelook S, Brancart J, Peeters E, De Laet L

Abstract
The current physical goods economy produces materials by extracting finite valuable resources without taking their end of the life and environmental impact into account. Mycelium-based materials offer an alternative fabrication paradigm, based on the growth of materials rather than on extraction. Agricultural residue fibres are inoculated with fungal mycelium, which form an interwoven three-dimensional filamentous network binding the feedstock into a lightweight material. The mycelium-based material is heat-killed after the growing process. In this paper, we investigate the production process, the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of mycelium-based composites made with different types of lignocellulosic reinforcement fibres combined with a white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. This is the first study reporting the dry density, the Young’s modulus, the compressive stiffness, the stress-strain curves, the thermal conductivity, the water absorption rate and a FTIR analyse of mycelium-based composites by making use of a fully disclosed protocol with T. versicolor and five different type of fibres (hemp, flax, flax waste, softwood, straw) and fibre processings (loose, chopped, dust, pre-compressed and tow). The thermal conductivity and water absorption coefficient of the mycelium composites with flax, hemp, and straw have an overall good insulation behaviour in all the aspects compared to conventional materials such as rock wool, glass wool and extruded polystyrene. The conducted tests reveal that the mechanical performance of the mycelium-based composites depends more on the fibre processing (loose, chopped, pre-compressed, and tow), and size than on the chemical composition of the fibres. These experimental results show that mycelium-composites can fulfil the requirements of thermal insulation and have the potential to replace fosile-based composites. The methology used to evaluate the suitability and selection of organic waste-streams proved to be effective for the mycelium-material manufacturing applications.

PMID: 31329589 [PubMed – in process]

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

Related Articles

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Jul 12;175:112752

Authors: Citti C, Linciano P, Forni F, Vandelli MA, Gigli G, Laganà A, Cannazza G

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the two major active principles present in Cannabis sativa, is gaining great interest among the scientific community for its pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic applications. CBD can be prepared either by chemical synthesis or extraction from Cannabis sativa (hemp). The latter is more convenient from several points of view, including environmental and economic, but mainly for the absence of harmful organic solvents generally employed in the chemical synthesis. Although CBD produced by hemp extraction is the most widely employed, it carries two major impurities. The first one is the already known cannabidivarin (CBDV), whereas the second one is supposed to be the butyl analog of CBD with a four-term alkyl side chain. In this work, we report the isolation by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and the unambiguous identification of this second impurity. A comprehensive spectroscopic characterization, including NMR, UV, IR, circular dichroism and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), was carried out on this natural cannabinoid. In order to confirm its absolute configuration and chemical structure, the stereoisomer (1R,6R) of the supposed cannabinoid was synthesized and the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties, along with the stereochemistry, matched those of the natural isolated molecule. According to the International Nonproprietary Name, we suggested the name of cannabidibutol (CBDB) for this cannabinoid. Lastly, an HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative determination of CBDV and CBDB in samples of CBD extracted from hemp and produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices regulations for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use.

PMID: 31330283 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

Related Articles

Analysis of impurities of cannabidiol from hemp. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of cannabidibutol, the novel cannabidiol butyl analog.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Jul 12;175:112752

Authors: Citti C, Linciano P, Forni F, Vandelli MA, Gigli G, Laganà A, Cannazza G

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the two major active principles present in Cannabis sativa, is gaining great interest among the scientific community for its pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic applications. CBD can be prepared either by chemical synthesis or extraction from Cannabis sativa (hemp). The latter is more convenient from several points of view, including environmental and economic, but mainly for the absence of harmful organic solvents generally employed in the chemical synthesis. Although CBD produced by hemp extraction is the most widely employed, it carries two major impurities. The first one is the already known cannabidivarin (CBDV), whereas the second one is supposed to be the butyl analog of CBD with a four-term alkyl side chain. In this work, we report the isolation by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and the unambiguous identification of this second impurity. A comprehensive spectroscopic characterization, including NMR, UV, IR, circular dichroism and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), was carried out on this natural cannabinoid. In order to confirm its absolute configuration and chemical structure, the stereoisomer (1R,6R) of the supposed cannabinoid was synthesized and the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties, along with the stereochemistry, matched those of the natural isolated molecule. According to the International Nonproprietary Name, we suggested the name of cannabidibutol (CBDB) for this cannabinoid. Lastly, an HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative determination of CBDV and CBDB in samples of CBD extracted from hemp and produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices regulations for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use.

PMID: 31330283 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Related Articles

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Brain Behav Immun. 2019 Jul 18;:

Authors: Osborne AL, Solowij N, Babic I, Lum JS, Huang XF, Newell KA, Weston-Green K

Abstract
Cognitive impairment is a major source of disability in schizophrenia and current antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have minimal efficacy for this symptom domain. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-intoxicating component of Cannabis sativa L., exhibits antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties. We recently reported the effects of CBD on cognition in male offspring of a maternal immune activation (polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C)) model relevant to the aetiology of schizophrenia; however, the effects of CBD treatment in females are unknown. Sex differences are observed in the onset of schizophrenia symptoms and response to APD treatment. Furthermore, the endogenous cannabinoid system, a direct target of CBD, is sexually dimorphic in humans and rodents. Therefore, the present work aimed to assess the therapeutic impact of CBD treatment on behaviour and neurochemical signalling markers in female poly I:C offspring. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 16) were administered poly I:C (4 mg/kg; i.v.) or saline (control) on gestational day 15. From postnatal day 56, female offspring received CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle treatment for approximately 3 weeks. Following 2 weeks of CBD treatment, offspring underwent behavioural testing, including the novel object recognition, rewarded alternation T-maze and social interaction tests to assess recognition memory, working memory and sociability, respectively. After 3 weeks of CBD treatment, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) were collected to assess effects on endocannabinoid, glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling markers. CBD attenuated poly I:C-induced deficits in recognition memory, social interaction and glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) binding in the PFC of poly I:C offspring. Working memory performance was similar between treatment groups. CBD also increased glutamate decarboxylase 67, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts glutamate to GABA, and parvalbumin protein levels in the HPC. In contrast to the CBD treatment effects observed in poly I:C offspring, CBD administration to control rats reduced social interaction, cannabinoid CB1 receptor and NMDAR binding density in the PFC, suggesting that CBD administration to healthy rats may have negative consequences on social behaviour and brain maturation in adulthood. Overall, the findings of this study support the therapeutic benefits of CBD on recognition memory and sociability in female poly I:C offspring, and provide insight into the neurochemical changes that may underlie the therapeutic benefits of CBD in the poly I:C model.

PMID: 31326506 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Related Articles

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 19;9(1):10481

Authors: Park SH, Staples SK, Gostin EL, Smith JP, Vigil JJ, Seifried D, Kinney C, Pauli CS, Heuvel BDV

Abstract
Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana or hemp, produces a non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). To investigate the defensive role of CBD, a feeding preference assay was performed with tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. The larvae clearly show feeding preference towards the Cannabis tissue containing low CBD over high CBD. While the larva avoided the high CBD diet, we investigated detrimental effects of CBD in the insects’ diet. Contrasted to the performance on low CBD-infused artificial diet (AD), larvae reared on the high CBD diet suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Through testing different carriers, we found that the increase of EtOH in the diet is negatively correlated with insect development and behaviors. Notably, CBD treatment significantly improved ethanol-intoxicated larval survival rate by 40% and also improved diet searching activity, resulting in increased diet consumption. Electrophysiology results revealed that the CBD-treated ganglia had delayed but much larger response with electric stimuli in comparison to the larvae reared on AD only and EtOH-added diet. Our results show CBDs’ defensive role against pest insects, which suggests its possible use as an insecticide. We also provide evidence that CBD alleviates alcohol-induced stress; consequently, improving the performance and viability of M. sexta larvae.

PMID: 31324859 [PubMed – in process]

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Neuropharmacology. 2019 Jul 17;:107716

Authors: Alalawi A, Dodu JC, Woolley-Roberts M, Brodie J, Di Marzo V, Soderstrom K

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-euphorigenic compound derived from Cannabis, shows promise for improving recovery following cerebral ischemia and has recently been shown effective for the treatment of childhood seizures caused by Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Given evidence for activity to mitigate effects of CNS insult and dysfunction, we considered the possibility that CBD may also protect and improve functional recovery of a complex learned behavior. To test this hypothesis, we have applied a songbird, the adult male zebra finch, as a novel pre-clinical animal model. Their learned vocalizations were temporarily disrupted with bilateral microlesions of HVC (used as a proper name) a pre-vocal motor cortical-like brain region that drives song. These microlesions destroy about 10% of HVC, and temporarily impair song production, syntax and phonology for about seven days. Recovery requires sensorimotor learning as it depends upon auditory feedback. Four CBD doses (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) within three surgery conditions (microlesion, no-microlesion, sham-microlesion) were evaluated (n = 5-6). Birds were recorded over 20 days: three baseline; six pre-microlesion drug treatment days and; 11 post-microlesion treatment and recovery days. Results indicate 10 and 100 mg/kg CBD effectively reduced the time required to recover vocal phonology and syntax. In the case of phonology, the magnitude of microlesion-related disruptions were also reduced. These results suggest CBD holds promise to improve functional recovery of complex learned behaviors following brain injury, and represent establishment of an important new animal model to screen drugs for efficacy to improve vocal recovery.

PMID: 31325430 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Related Articles

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 19;9(1):10481

Authors: Park SH, Staples SK, Gostin EL, Smith JP, Vigil JJ, Seifried D, Kinney C, Pauli CS, Heuvel BDV

Abstract
Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana or hemp, produces a non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). To investigate the defensive role of CBD, a feeding preference assay was performed with tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. The larvae clearly show feeding preference towards the Cannabis tissue containing low CBD over high CBD. While the larva avoided the high CBD diet, we investigated detrimental effects of CBD in the insects’ diet. Contrasted to the performance on low CBD-infused artificial diet (AD), larvae reared on the high CBD diet suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Through testing different carriers, we found that the increase of EtOH in the diet is negatively correlated with insect development and behaviors. Notably, CBD treatment significantly improved ethanol-intoxicated larval survival rate by 40% and also improved diet searching activity, resulting in increased diet consumption. Electrophysiology results revealed that the CBD-treated ganglia had delayed but much larger response with electric stimuli in comparison to the larvae reared on AD only and EtOH-added diet. Our results show CBDs’ defensive role against pest insects, which suggests its possible use as an insecticide. We also provide evidence that CBD alleviates alcohol-induced stress; consequently, improving the performance and viability of M. sexta larvae.

PMID: 31324859 [PubMed – in process]

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Related Articles

Contrasting Roles of Cannabidiol as an Insecticide and Rescuing Agent for Ethanol-induced Death in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta.

Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 19;9(1):10481

Authors: Park SH, Staples SK, Gostin EL, Smith JP, Vigil JJ, Seifried D, Kinney C, Pauli CS, Heuvel BDV

Abstract
Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana or hemp, produces a non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). To investigate the defensive role of CBD, a feeding preference assay was performed with tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. The larvae clearly show feeding preference towards the Cannabis tissue containing low CBD over high CBD. While the larva avoided the high CBD diet, we investigated detrimental effects of CBD in the insects’ diet. Contrasted to the performance on low CBD-infused artificial diet (AD), larvae reared on the high CBD diet suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Through testing different carriers, we found that the increase of EtOH in the diet is negatively correlated with insect development and behaviors. Notably, CBD treatment significantly improved ethanol-intoxicated larval survival rate by 40% and also improved diet searching activity, resulting in increased diet consumption. Electrophysiology results revealed that the CBD-treated ganglia had delayed but much larger response with electric stimuli in comparison to the larvae reared on AD only and EtOH-added diet. Our results show CBDs’ defensive role against pest insects, which suggests its possible use as an insecticide. We also provide evidence that CBD alleviates alcohol-induced stress; consequently, improving the performance and viability of M. sexta larvae.

PMID: 31324859 [PubMed – in process]

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model.

Neuropharmacology. 2019 Jul 17;:107716

Authors: Alalawi A, Dodu JC, Woolley-Roberts M, Brodie J, Di Marzo V, Soderstrom K

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-euphorigenic compound derived from Cannabis, shows promise for improving recovery following cerebral ischemia and has recently been shown effective for the treatment of childhood seizures caused by Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Given evidence for activity to mitigate effects of CNS insult and dysfunction, we considered the possibility that CBD may also protect and improve functional recovery of a complex learned behavior. To test this hypothesis, we have applied a songbird, the adult male zebra finch, as a novel pre-clinical animal model. Their learned vocalizations were temporarily disrupted with bilateral microlesions of HVC (used as a proper name) a pre-vocal motor cortical-like brain region that drives song. These microlesions destroy about 10% of HVC, and temporarily impair song production, syntax and phonology for about seven days. Recovery requires sensorimotor learning as it depends upon auditory feedback. Four CBD doses (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) within three surgery conditions (microlesion, no-microlesion, sham-microlesion) were evaluated (n = 5-6). Birds were recorded over 20 days: three baseline; six pre-microlesion drug treatment days and; 11 post-microlesion treatment and recovery days. Results indicate 10 and 100 mg/kg CBD effectively reduced the time required to recover vocal phonology and syntax. In the case of phonology, the magnitude of microlesion-related disruptions were also reduced. These results suggest CBD holds promise to improve functional recovery of complex learned behaviors following brain injury, and represent establishment of an important new animal model to screen drugs for efficacy to improve vocal recovery.

PMID: 31325430 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Global Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) Market – Porter's Five Forces Strategy Analysis and Forecast 2024 – Ketchum Keystone — An e-newspaper for the greater Ketchum Idaho community

Global Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) Market – Porter's Five Forces Strategy Analysis and Forecast 2024 – Ketchum Keystone — An e-newspaper for the greater Ketchum Idaho community Global Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) Market – Porter’s Five Forces Strategy Analysis and Forecast 2024  Ketchum Keystone — An e-newspaper for the greater Ketchum Idaho community

Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) market report provides investors, analysts, researchers, business executives and others with analyses and forecasts for the …

FDA Says It'll Have Long-Awaited CBD Regulations Report Ready by Fall – Weedmaps News

FDA Says It'll Have Long-Awaited CBD Regulations Report Ready by Fall – Weedmaps News FDA Says It’ll Have Long-Awaited CBD Regulations Report Ready by Fall  Weedmaps News

1/3 FDA is expediting its work to address the many questions about cannabidiol (CBD). This is an important national issue with public health impact, & an …

Eureka 93 Inc. Announces Voting Results for Election of Directors and Other Business Matters – GlobeNewswire

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OTTAWA, July 19, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Eureka 93 Inc. (CSE: ERKA), one of North America’s largest hemp-derived cannabidiol (CBD) extraction and …

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Icon for Royal Society of Chemistry Related Articles

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Analyst. 2019 Jul 18;:

Authors: Hacke ACM, Lima D, de Costa F, Deshmukh K, Li N, Chow AM, Marques JA, Pereira RP, Kerman K

Abstract
Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in pure and mixed solutions at different ratios, as well as of six different Cannabis sativa extracts containing various proportions of CBD and THC by using spectrophotometric (reducing power assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging assays) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry). The isolated cannabinoids, the different stoichiometric ratios of CBD and THC, and the natural extracts proved to have remarkable antioxidant properties in all the methods employed in this work. The antioxidant activity of CBD and THC was compared against that of the well-defined antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), resveratrol (Resv) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clear evidence of the synergistic and antagonistic effects between CBD and THC regarding to their antioxidant activities was observed. Moreover, a good correlation was obtained between the optical and electrochemical methods, which proved that the reported experimental procedures can easily be adapted to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from various Cannabis sativa species and related compounds.

PMID: 31318364 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Related Articles

Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

Analyst. 2019 Jul 18;:

Authors: Hacke ACM, Lima D, de Costa F, Deshmukh K, Li N, Chow AM, Marques JA, Pereira RP, Kerman K

Abstract
Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in pure and mixed solutions at different ratios, as well as of six different Cannabis sativa extracts containing various proportions of CBD and THC by using spectrophotometric (reducing power assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging assays) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry). The isolated cannabinoids, the different stoichiometric ratios of CBD and THC, and the natural extracts proved to have remarkable antioxidant properties in all the methods employed in this work. The antioxidant activity of CBD and THC was compared against that of the well-defined antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), resveratrol (Resv) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clear evidence of the synergistic and antagonistic effects between CBD and THC regarding to their antioxidant activities was observed. Moreover, a good correlation was obtained between the optical and electrochemical methods, which proved that the reported experimental procedures can easily be adapted to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from various Cannabis sativa species and related compounds.

PMID: 31318364 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Retail Merchants of Hawaii cautions Island stores about CBD product sales – Pacific Business News (Honolulu)

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The Retail Merchants of Hawaii and the state Department of Health are reminding retailers about the rules and regulations surrounding cannabidiol products …