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Long U.S. Gov’t History With Hemp

Few realize the U.S. and state governments have long worked with hemp. This document has a little bit for everyone; chemurgy, vegetarian foods, breeding, botany, oilseeds, protein, animal feed, Henry Ford, more. Here are selected excerpts, listed chronologically, from:

HISTORY OF U.S. FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS’ WORK WITH SOYBEANS (1862-2017): EXTENSIVELY ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCEBOOK

Including:
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) State Land-Grant Colleges and Universities, and their Agricultural Experiment Stations and Extension Services
Charles V. Piper and William J. Morse
Frank N. Meyer
U.S. Regional Soybean Laboratory (Urbana, Illinois)
North Regional Research Laboratory (Peoria, Illinois)

Compiled by William Shurtleff & Akiko Aoyagi 2017

Copyright © 2017 by Soyinfo Center

Georgia Experiment Station Bulletin. 1890. Potash and paying crops. No. 9 (Special). 48 p. Oct. See p. 12.

• Summary: In the section titled “Nitrogen regulates plant growth” (p. 11) is a full-page table (p. 12) showing “how many pounds of the constituents mentioned are withdrawn per acre by an average crop.” Forty crops are listed, including soja bean (Soja hispida), yellow lupine (Lupinusluteus), green lupine, lucerne [alfalfa] (medicago sativa), seradella [serradella], hemp (cannabis sativa), etc. The three constituents (minerals) are potash (kali; K2O), phosphoric acid (P2O5), and nitrogen (N).The Introduction (by the German Kali Works, Washington, DC) states that this is the “first public documentation issued by the Department of Agriculture, after its elevation to an executive department with a Cabinet officer at its head…”

Brooks, William P. 1892. The Agricultural Division. Massachusetts (Hatch) Agricultural Experiment Station, Annual Report 4:8-11. Jan. See p. 8-9.

• Summary: “The Japanese millets mentioned in the last annual report [p. 4], together with two other species of millet and a number of varieties of Soja bean, have been given further trial. The millets show remarkable cropping capacity.”

“Several varieties of Soja bean, Glycine hispida, which have been under cultivation, prove well adapted to our soil and climate, and on soil of medium quality have yielded indifferent years from about 25 to 35 bushels to the acre. About 8 bushels of these beans were ground into a fine meal by the local miller last winter, and an experiment in feeding the meal to milch cows would have been undertaken had not the destruction of our barn by fire prevented. This experiment will be undertaken the present winter, upon a smaller scale, made necessary by the loss of our stock of seed.” “Hemp of two varieties and flax of three have been successfully raised.” Address: Agriculturist, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Brooks, William P. 1892. Division of Agriculture. Massachusetts (Hatch) Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 18. p. 41-104. April.

• Summary: The section titled “Report on trial of miscellaneous crops” (p. 97-104) includes many varieties imported from Japan: Oats (3 varieties). Millet, Panicumcrus-galli. Millet, Panicum miliaceum. Hemp. Flax. Wheats. Japanese varieties of beans.

Hicks, Gilbert H. 1895. Oil-producing seeds. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture p. 185-204. For the year 1895. See p. 204.

• Summary: Contents: General remarks. Cotton-seed oil. Flax. Castor-oil bean. European spurge. Sunflower. Madiasativa (Chile). Niger seed (Guitozia oleifera). Peanut. Sesame. Hemp (Cannabis sativa). Rape. Poppy. Other oil producing seeds (Melon, soja bean, maize, tobacco, fennel, dill, anise, parsley, caraway, coriander, celery, lovage, and wormseed (Chenopodium anthelminticum)).

Hicks, Gilbert H. 1895. Pure seed investigation. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture p.389-408. For the year 1894. See p. 395.

• Summary: In the section on “Methods of seed control,” the subsection titled “Amount of seed to be used in a test” states(p. 395): “250 grams of rye, wheat, barley, oats, corn, beans, pease, lupine, soja bean, sunflower, red and sugar beet, oak, beech, ‘pits’ of drupaceous fruits. ”In the section on “Germinating test,” the subsection titled “Duration of the germinating experiment” states(p. 399): “10 full days for cereals, clovers, spurry, peas, beans, vetches, lentils, lupines, soja beans, sunflowers, rape, cabbage, mustard, dodder, flax, chicory, hemp, poppy, tobacco.” Address: Asst., Div. of Botany, U.S. Dep. of Agriculture.

Wiley, Harvey W. 1900. The relation of chemistry to the progress of agriculture. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture p. 201-58. For the year ending 1899.

• Summary: This important, long article has been called a precursor of the concept of chemurgy, and an important contribution to the growing interest in “scientific agriculture.” Among the many ideas it discusses: The relation of chemistry to agriculture at the beginning of the [19th] century. The impetus given to scientific agriculture in its relation to chemistry by the discoveries of Liebig, Gilbert, Boussingault, and other workers, which began to produce effects about the middle of the century. Knowledge of the composition of agricultural crops (work of Sir Humphry Davy). Review of the early knowledge of the relation of chemistry to agriculture. Scientific agriculture about the middle of the [19th] century: Era of Liebig (“The publication of Liebig’s work entitled ‘Chemistry in its applications to agriculture and physiology,’ in 1840, marked a complete change in the theories of chemistry in respect to agriculture existing at the beginning of the century…”), mineral theory of plant nutrition. Relations of chemistry to agriculture at the present time: Methods by which results of chemical studies have been made of practical use (teaching of agriculture in schools, colleges, universities, etc., role of chemistry in the agricultural colleges and experiment stations, instructions in the relations of chemistry to agriculture given in the agricultural press). Chemistry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The debt of agriculture to chemistry.

Note: This is the earliest document seen (March 2017) by or about Harvey W. Wiley. It laid the foundations for the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, which established the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Address: Dr., Chemist.

Merrill, Lewis A. 1903. Department of Agronomy. Agricultural College of Utah, Annual Report 14: xiv-xvii. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903.

• Summary: “To the Director: The Report of the Department of Agronomy of the Experiment Station for the year ending June 30th, 1903, is herewith respectfully submitted.” “Hemp. In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture, five acres of the College farm were seeded to hemp… The crop, after harvesting, will be shipped to Chicago for manufacture into twines, yacht cordage, etc.”

Winton, Andrew Lincoln; Moeller, Josef. 1906. The microscopy of vegetable foods: With special reference to the detection of adulteration and the diagnosis of mixtures. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. xvi + 701 p. Illust. Index. 24cm. [49* ref]

• Summary: This book, containing 589 superb illustrations by the authors, is divided into ten parts including: II. Grain: Its products and impurities. III. Oil seeds and cakes. IV. Legumes. V. Nuts. VIII. Alkaloidal products and their substitutes (incl. coffee, cocoa bean, kola nut, tea, and tobacco).

In the part on Legumes, the section titled “Analytical key to leguminous seeds” (p. 235-37) includes the soy bean. The section titled “Soy bean” (p. 248-49) has the following contents: Introduction. Histology: The spermoderm(S) (palisade cells {pal}, column cells {sub}, spongyparenchyma {p}), an endosperm (E, consisting of aleurone cells and compressed cells), and embryo or cotyledon (C, with epidermis {ep} and aleurone cells {al}). Diagnosis: “The absence of starch, the presence of long (35-50 μ)I-shaped column cells readily isolated from the surrounding tissues, and the presence of an endosperm layer (E), furnish ready means for the identification of this seed.” Bibliography(8 refs). An excellent illustration by Winton (p. 248) shows the outer portion of the soy bean seed in cross section, with each of the layers (X 160 magnification).

Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2016) concerning the detection of soybeans or soy protein in mixtures.

Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document seen (Oct. 2004) that uses the term “embryo” in connection with soy-beans. In a soy bean seed, the embryo and cotyledon appear to be the same.

The section on coffee has a subsection on coffee substitutes and adulterants (p. 435-38), with a long bibliography. Soja beans are listed as one of the many seeds most commonly used. Although the names and main ingredients of many commercial European and American coffee substitutes are given, none contain soy. The most popular ingredients seem to be chicory root, barley, and figs. Peanuts and Cyperus esculentus are each used in one product.

This book also discusses: Linseed (p. 202-05). Hempseed (p. 212-17). Gluten flour, feed and meal (p. 54, 96).

Legumes (general, p. 235-37). Adzuki bean (Phaseolus Mungo var. glaber Roxbg.; p. 241). Yellow lupine, white lupine, and blue lupine (p. 253-55). Almond (whole nuts, paste, cake, shells, coffee substitute; p. 333-37, 436). Peanut(p. 266-73).

Note 2. Andrew L. Winton lived 1864-1946. The Preface begins: “The development of vegetable histology, both as a pure and an applied science, has been largely in the hands of continental [European] investigators.” There is extensive German- and French-language literature, but little in English. It explains that this book was written with the collaboration of Dr. J. Moeller, author of Mikroskopieder Nahrungs- und Genussmittel (2nd ed.). “It is with the deepest gratitude that the writer acknowledges this generous cooperation of his honored teacher and friend. Had it not been for Professor Moeller’s unselfish aid, the writer would never have undertaken investigations in this field, much less a comprehensive treatise.” Address: 1. PhD, in charge of the Analytical Lab., Connecticut Agric. Exp. Station, New Haven, Connecticut; Instructor in proximate organic analysis, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale Univ.; 2. Prof. of Pharmacy, and head of the Pharmacological Inst., Univ. of Graz [Styria, Austria-Hungary].

Benedict, Francis G.; Osborne, Thomas B. 1907. The heat of combustion of vegetable proteins. J. of Biological Chemistry 3:119-34. [7 footnotes]

• Summary: “Very few determinations of the heat of the literature. The earliest appear to be those made by Danilewsky (1881), who found for ‘Pflanzenfibrin’ 6231, forlegumin 5573 and gluten 6141 calories per gram.” Values are given for glycinin (a globulin forming the greater part of the protein matter of the soy bean, Glycinesoja). For yellow soy beans, the values range from 5,147 to5,255 calories/gram on an “as is” basis. For Japanese soybeans, the values range from 5,016 to 5,056 calories/gram. Calculated to an ash- and water-free basis, the two values are 5,667-5,672 and 5,619-5,665.

Values are also given for amandin (a globulin forming the greater part of the protein matter of the seeds of the almond, Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis), edestin (from hempseeds), phaseolin (from the Japanese adzuki bean, Phaseolusradiatus), conglutins  and Beta (from yellow and blue lupins), glutenin (from wheat gluten), and hordein (from barley).

A table (p. 133) summarizes the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen in each type of protein and the average heat of combustion–which ranges from 5,358 for globulin (wheat) to 5,916 for hordein (barley). “In general the higher heats of combustion are found for those proteins which have a higher carbon content and similarly for those with a lower oxygen content. “Address: Chemical Lab. of Wesleyan Univ. [Middletown, Connecticut] and the Lab. of the Connecticut Agric. Exp. Station.

Galloway, B.T. 1908. Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Annual Reports of the Department of Agriculture (USA) p. 257-341. For the year ended June 30,1907.

• Summary: A section titled “New forage crops” (p. 326)states: “A new soy bean from Manchuria, which has been named ‘Meyer,’ has yielded seed at the rate of 24 bushels to the acre, out-yielding any other variety grown on the Arlington Experimental Farm. In view of the fact that the culture of soy beans as a grain crop has been decreasing in this country because the yield averages only 12 bushels tithe acre, this new variety is of great promise.”

The section titled “Arlington Experimental Farm”(p. 295-98) states: “Many problems of a general nature connected with crop growth and crop conditions are being worked out at the Arlington Experimental Farm, which is in charge of Prof. L.C. Corbett, some of the principal lines of work carried on there being outlined below.”

Contents of this Arlington section: Investigations conducted by various bureaus (incl. the bureaus of Forestry, Entomology, Soils, and Plant Industry). Agronomic investigations (for “extensive cultural and variety tests of sorghums, cowpeas, and other legumes of promise for forage, grain, or green manuring.” Also for grasses and alfalfa). The drug garden. Soil improvement. Orchard cultivation. The testing gardens. Greenhouses. Heating plant. Nursery work.

Also discusses: Peanuts (p. 299-300). Hemp seed for fiber (p. 327). Address: Chief of Bureau.

Logan Republican (Logan, Utah). 1908. Cache at the State fair: Fine exhibits of stock and college work, amusement attractions and races will be first class. Oct. 7. p. 1.

• Summary: “The exhibits from the three state experiment stations are a revelation to many of the possibilities of agriculture in the state… From the Lehi station are exhibited potatoes, apples, grapes and tomatoes, stalks of corn and hemp twelve feet high, Kentucky hemp eight feet high, millet peanuts and soy beans.”

Note 1. Cache is the name of a county in northern Utah; the county seat and largest city is Logan. Utah State University, founded in 1888 as Utah’s agricultural college, is located in Logan.

Note 2. Talk with Bob Parson, University Archivist, Utah State University. Logan is not the best place in Utah for agricultural experimentation. The agricultural college was located here largely for political reasons.

Osborne, Thomas B.; Leavenworth, C.S.; Brautlecht, C.A. 1908. The different forms of nitrogen in proteins. American J. of Physiology 23(3):180-200. Dec. [17 ref]

• Summary: Glycinin and legumelin were extracted from soy-beans (see tables on p. 186, 194, 198-99). Table VI (p. 194), lists the following types of protein, their [amino acid]composition, and the seeds from which they are derived: Globulin (squash seed). Excelsin (para-nut). Edestin (hempseed). Globulin (cotton seed). Globulin (castor-bean).Amandin (almond). Legumin (pea). Legumin (vetch). Conglutin-a (yellow lupine). Vicilin (pea). Glycinin (soybean). Ovovitellin. Vignin (cow-pea). Glutelin (maize).Ovalbumin (hen’s egg). Leucosin (wheat). Conalbumin(hen’s egg). Legumelin (pea). Legumelin (soy-bean). Phaseolin (kidney bean). Glutenin (wheat). Casein (cow). Gliadin (wheat). Gliadin (rye). Hordein (barley). Zein (maize).

The terms “mono-amino acids” (p. 180), “amino-acids”(p. 180), and “-amino-acids” (p. 199) are used, although sparingly, in this article. Note: This is the earliest document seen (July 2005) that mentions the term “amino-acids” (or “amino acids”) in connection with soy-beans. Address: Lab. of the Connecticut Agric. Exp. Station.

Farmers’ Bulletin (USDA). 1914. The agricultural outlook. No. 641. 40 p. Nov. 23. See p. 36, 38.

• Summary: Table 31 (p. 36) lists “Prices paid to producers of farm products, by States.” The prices paid per bushel of soy beans, during the years 1913 and 1914, are given for the following states: Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia (1914 only; $2.50), North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi. The average price for 1913 was $1.96, and for 1914 it was $2.08 (range $1.55 to $3.00).

Table 33 (p. 38) shows “Averages for the United States of prices paid to producers of farm products.” On Oct. 15 the price paid for “Beans, soy” was $1.96 in 1913 and $2.08 in 1914.

Table 1 (p. 2) is titled “Yield per acre, production, quality, and farm price of principal crops: Total for the United States.” It includes hemp but not soy beans. Hemp production in 1913 was 5.647 million lb. Note: This table seems to indicate that soybeans were cultivated in each of these states.

Nollau, E.H. 1915. The amino-acid content of certain commercial feedingstuffs and other sources of protein. J. of Biological Chemistry 21(1):611-14. May. [2 ref]

• Summary: “It is probably not too Utopian to expect that protein feeding in the future will be based rather on the amino-acid makeup than on the results of past feeding experiments.”

“The relatively large amount of lysine present in the soy bean…, hemp-seed, and sunflower seed is especially noteworthy… The high ammonia content and the low lysine content of gluten (wheat) and gluten flour is marked. Table I shows the “Distribution of nitrogen in various protein substances.” Soy bean, the first of the 22 substances listed, contains (N = Nitrogen): Ammonia N 12.97%. Melanin N 3.69. Cystine N 1.52%. Arginine N 15.52%. Histidine N 2.60%. Lysine N 7.02%. Mono-amino acidN (Amino N of filtrate) 48.76%. Proline, oxyproline, tryptophane, etc. (Non-amino N of filtrate) 7.12%. Total 99.20%. Address: Chemical Lab.,

Osborne, Thomas B.; Mendel, Lafayette B. 1915. The comparative nutritive value of certain proteins in growth, and the problem of the protein minimum. J. of Biological Chemistry 20:351-78. [24 ref]

• Summary: In earlier publications, the authors have pointed out “the dominant importance of certain amino-acids in problems relating to the function of nitrogenous food intake in both maintenance and growth.” “The inequalities of different sources of protein in meeting the nutritive needs have been recognized in recent years by various investigators.” If protein intake is low, the “law of minimum” determines the amount of protein available for constructive functions. Adding cystine to certain foods, at once renders the ration decidedly more adequate for growth. A table (p. 361) lists the major protein of animal origin and of vegetable origin, including glycinin from the soy bean. The authors compare the efficiency of these proteins for growth and maintenance. The problem of the “protein minimum” can be demonstrated by noting that “no amount of zein food, however large, will enable rats to maintain their nutritive equilibrium. A small addition of tryptophane will at once convert the inefficient food into a maintenance ration.” Many growth line graphs(growth curves) for rats on diets containing various protein sources are shown (p. 370-78). Also contains many tables(most untitled) showing results.

Edestin, the main protein in hemp-seed, is used innumerous growth trials and discussed on pages 352, 355,361, 367, 369, and 371-77.

Note 1. Edestin is a crystalline globulin that contains all the essential amino acids.

Note 2. The ideas in this paper later became the basis for the idea of protein complementarity and combining proteins to increase the quality of each one. Address: Yale Univ., Connecticut.

Fred, E.B. 1916. Relation of green manures to the failure of certain seedlings. J. of Agricultural Research 5(25):1161-76. March 20. See p. 1162, 1164-66, 1174-75. [21 ref]

• Summary: These field experiments looked at the effects of green manures (such as green clover or alfalfa) on the germination of various seeds (such as soybeans, hemp, cotton, corn, and oats). Green manures were found to seriously reduce the germination rate of certain seeds. This injury is brought about by the action of certain parasitic fungi. For example, in the first stages of decomposition of green clover, numerous fungi develop; some of these are very destructive to seedlings. Oil seeds as a class are very easily damaged by fungi. “Cotton seed and soybeans are examples of seeds extremely sensitive to green manuring…The damage to oil seeds from green manures is largely confined to the first stages of decomposition”–mainly during the first two weeks after they are turned under. The injurious factor probably does not attack seeds until after germination. “The fungus may produce a fat-splitting enzyme–for example, lipase” which damages the oil seeds. Address: Agricultural Bacteriologist, Wisconsin Agric. Exp. Station.

Hagerty, Michael J. trans. 1917. The beans: Imperial encyclopedia (T’u shu shih ch’eng. Published, 1728). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 18 p. May. 28 cm.

• Summary: This section on beans (including soy beans)appears in the encyclopedia in Category IV–Science (Po Wu Hui Pien), Section 20–Vegetable Kingdom (Ts’ao Mu Tien), Subheading–Beans (Tou Pu), Book 35. Virtually all of the translation concerns a General Chronological Survey (Hui K’ao), No. 1. p. 1-24. For many of the longer detailed sections concerning soy beans, the translator refers the reader to his 1917 translation of: Wu Ch’i-chün, ed. 1848. Chih wuming shih t’u k’ao.

“The Shih Ching, or Book of Odes, under the heading of ‘Pin Feng Seventh Month’, says: N. B.–Translated; see Chih (Chih wu ming shih t’u k’ao) translation–Pai ta tou, p. 31. “In the Hsiao ya (Lesser Eulogium–Section of Shih[…]

“The Chung shu shu (See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 1:79), a Treatise on the Art of Planting, by Kuo T’o-t’o, a work of the 7th or 8th century, describing the bean, says: ‘Plant the bean, Yu ma (2 Cc), and Ta ma (2 Cc)(Cannabis sativa). If the beans are not planted at the proper time they will be injured by weeds, and even if they bear some pods, there will not be many beans. There is a maxim which says: Ma yun ti tou yün hua, “Cultivate the Ma, or hemp earth; cultivate the Tou, or bean blossom.” This means that the Ma, or hemp, should be cultivated before it has even sprouted, while the Tou, or bean should not be cultivated until it has blossomed. The Ta tou, or Large bean [soybean],should not be planted on a Shên day.[…]

Truog, Emil. 1918. Soil acidity: I. Its relation to the growth of plants. Soil Science 5(3):169-95. March. [49 ref]

• Summary: “It has been known for a long time that certain species of plants are affected unfavorably by soil acidity or what is sometimes called a lack of lime,…” This question is first discussed generally and 49 publications on soil acidity are reviewed. Using data from various sources, the author has compiled a table showing the relation between the lime requirements and their response to the liming of acid soils, or their capacity to grow in acid soil.

In the table, the soybean is found under “Legumes” (p. 188), along with alfalfa, cowpea, blue lupin, peanut, etc. Hemp, cotton, and flax are listed under “Fibre crops.” Two analyses of soybean hay showed that the lime constituted 2.76% of the plant’s dry matter. The relative quantity of lime in soybean hay was high (4 out of 5). The relative rate of growth was high (4). The relative amount of lime required for growth was high (4). The relative feeding power of the plant for lime was high (4). The relative lime requirement of the plant was medium (3). The response to liming or reciprocal capacity to grow in acid soil was medium (3)….

Meyer, Frank N. 1918. Re: Glad to be out of Ichang. Plans for new work. In: Letters of Frank N. Meyer. 4 vols. 1902-1918. Compiled by Bureau of Plant Introduction, USDA. 2444 p. See p. 2439-44. Letter of 18 May 1918 from Ichang, Hupeh, China, to David Fairchild of USDA. “Concerning Chinese substitutes for dairy products, well, the 101 different manufactures of the soy-bean supply this protein, but I must admit that it will take some time for the white races to acquire the taste of the very large majority of these products. We are still at it, but being without an interpreter, I don’t find out as much as I would like.”

“Concerning lubricants for aeroplanes, the Chinese say that hemp oil (Cannabis sativa) does not congeal even in very cold weather. Has it been tried to your knowledge?”

Oakley, R.A. 1918. The seed supply of the nation. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture p. 497-536. For the year 1917. See p. 523-25. [2 ref]

Hemp: Although we have still only a small acreage devoted to hemp in the United States, the acreage has doubled each year for the last three years. The area planted in 1917 was estimated at 42,000 acres. Kentucky supplies practically all of the hemp seed grown in this country. It is grown in seed plats along the Kentucky River. China and Japan furnish us large quantities of hemp seed for poultry feed, but it is practically valueless for seeding purposes.” Address: Agronomist in Charge of Seed Distribution, Bureau of Plant Industry [USDA].

Hedrick, U.P. ed. 1919. Sturtevant’s notes on edible plants. Albany, New York: J.B. Lyon Co., state printers. vii+ 696 p. Index. 30 cm. Series: New York, (State) Dept. of Agriculture, 27th Annual Report, 1918/19, vol. 2, part II. [9 soy ref]

• Summary: The 2,897 plants are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. Common names and synonyms are listed alphabetically. Contains many footnotes and a huge bibliography.

Also discusses: Amaranthus paniculatus (prince’s feather, red amaranth). Apios tuberosa (groundnut). Arachishypogaea (earth nut, earth almond, goober, grass nut, groundnut, peanut, pindar). Cannabis sativa (fimble, gallow grass, hemp). Chenopodium quinoa (petty rice, quinoa). Coixlachryma-jobi (Job’s tears). Cyperus esculentus (chufa, earth almond, zulu nuts). Gracilaria lichenoides (agar agar). Laminaria digitata (red-ware, sea-girdles, sea-wand, sea-ware, tangle). Laminaria esculenta (badderlock). Linum usitatissimum (flax). Lupinus albus (field lupine, wolf-bean). Lupinus hirsitus (blue lupine). Lupinus luteus (yellow lupine). Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne). Porphyralaciniata (laver, slokam, sloke). Porphyra vulgaris (laver). Prunus amygdalus (almond). Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (goa bean, pois carrés). Sesamum indicum (sesame). Vignacatjang (cowpea, Jerusalem pea, marble pea). Voandzeia subterranea (groundnut). Edward Lewis Sturtevant lived 1842-1898. A large oval portrait photo (frontispiece) shows E.L. Sturtevant. Address: Horticulturist, New York State Agric. Exp. Station.

Westover, Harvey. 1921. Re: Arrange for various silage crops. Letter to W.J. Morse, [USDA], April 8. 1 p. Typed, without signature (carbon copy).

• Summary: “Dear Mr. Morse: I wish you would kindly make arrangements to have one-twentieth-acre plots of the following crops for silage put out at our Arlington Farm this season.

“Beggar Weed, Hemp, Russian Sunflower, Jack Beans, Velvet Beans, Corn, Sorghum, Soy Beans, Cowpeas, Buckwheat. “Very truly yours,…”

Location: National Archives, College Park, Maryland. Record group 54–Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. Subgroup–Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases. Series–General Correspondence, 1905-29. Box 92–Morgan-Morse. Sent to Soyinfo Center by Matthew Roth of Rutgers Univ., March 2012. Address: Agronomist [Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, Washington, DC].

Kephart, L.W. 1923. Quackgrass. Farmers’ Bulletin(USDA) No. 1307. 32 p. Jan. See p. 21. Undated.

• Summary: “Quackgrass or witchgrass is a creeping perennial grass, related to common wheat, and one of the most widely distributed and destructive weeds in the North Temperate Zone… Quackgrass can rarely be exterminated on large areas, but it can be brought under reasonable control.” In the section titled “Control practices” is a subsection on “cultivated crops” which states: “In some sections soybeans in rows for seed have proved very satisfactory.” The next subsection, “Smother crops,” discusses corn, buckwheat, hemp, and rape. “In sections where it can be grown commercially, hemp is an excellent smother crop. In parts of Wisconsin it is said to destroy quackgrass and Canada thistle without the aid of a cultivated crop. Hemps not an economical crop to grow unless there are local scutching facilities for preparing the fiber; however, it may be found useful anywhere on a small scale.”

Note: Webster’s Dictionary defines scutch, a verb first used in 1733, as “to separate the woody fiber from (flax or hemp) by beating.” Address: Asst. Agronomist, Office of Forage-Crop Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry.

McHargue, J.S. 1923. Iron and manganese content of certain species of seeds. J. of Agricultural Research 23(6):395-99. Feb. 10. [7 ref]

• Summary: Table 1 (p. 397) shows the percentages of iron and manganese found in different species of seeds. Mature soybeans contained (average of 10 varieties) 0.0074% iron and 0.0028% manganese on a moisture-free basis. The varieties are: Brooks, Mandarin, Manchu, Kansas No. 1430, Haberlandt, Black Eyebrow, Chestnut, Sooty, Peking, Ito San. Hemp seeds are also analyzed. Address: Research Chemist, Dep. of Chemistry, Kentucky Agric. Exp. Station.

USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Inventory. 1924. Seeds and plants imported by the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction during the period from July 1 to September 30, 1922. Nos. 55569 to 55813. No. 72. 42 p. July.

• Summary: Soy bean introductions: Soja max (L.) Piper. Fabaceæ. (Glycine hispida Maxim.)55797-55804. “From Harbin, Manchuria. Seeds presented by G.C. Hanson, American consul, Harbin. Received September 25, 1922. Quoted notes by Mr. Hanson. ‘The following collection of farm products grown in the Provinces of Heilungchiang [pinyin: Heilongjiang] and Kirin[pinyin: Jilin], Manchuria, was prepared for a world’s farm exhibit to be held in Lagrange, Ind. [Indiana] in October, 1922. The seeds are all of the 1921-22 crop.’

“55802. Soja max (L.) Piper. Fabaceæ. Soy bean.(Glycine hispida Maxim.) ‘North Manchurian soy beans; average quality from the River Sungari district.’ ”Also mentions hemp (#55797) and peanut (#55808).Address: Washington, DC.

Jones, D. Bresse; Gersdorff, C.E.F.; Moeller, O. 1924. The tryptophane and cystine content of various proteins. J. of Biological Chemistry 62(1):183-195. Nov. (Chem. Abst.19:2062). [49 ref]

• Summary: The calorimetric method has been found to give better results for these two amino acids than the older Van Slyke method. Table 2 (p. 188-90) shows the tryptophane and cystine content of various proteins including: “Soy bean(glycinin): 1.66%, 1.12%. Also includes: Chinese velvetbean (stizolobin), Georgia velvet bean, mung bean (and 5 fractions), navy bean, adsuki bean (and 6 fractions), limabean, jack bean, red kidney bean, naga uzura kidney bean,cow pea (vignin), pea, lentil, hemp seed edestin, buckwheat globulin, sunflower seed globulin, castor bean, cottonseed globulin, flax seed globulin, kafir, wheat, etc.

Table 3 (p. 191), titled “Comparison of the cystine content of some proteins as determined by the calorimetric and Van Slyke methods,” includes: Soy bean (glycinin) 1.12 vs. 1.18. Also many of the seeds mentioned above. Address: Protein Investigation Lab., Bureau of Chemistry, USDA, Washington, DC.

Osborne, Thomas B. 1924. The vegetable proteins. 2nd. ed. London and New York, NY: Longmans, Green, and Co. xiii + 154 p. Illust. Index. 25 cm. Series: Monographs on Biochemistry. 2nd ed. 1924. [820 ref]

On p. 24 is a full-page “list of the principal globulins, ”with the scientific name of each plant and 1-2 key references for each plant species: Legumin is found in the seeds of the pea, horse-bean, vetch, and lentil. Vignin in seeds of cowpea. Glycinin in seeds of soy bean, Glycine hispida (Osborne and Campbell, 1898, p. 6). Phaseolin (crystalline) and conphaseolin, in seeds of kidney-bean. Conglutin is found in seeds of lupines. Vicilin in seeds of horse-bean. Stizolobin in seeds of Chinese velvet-bean. Canavalin and concanavalinin seeds of Jack bean. Arachin and conarachin in seeds of peanut. Acerin in seeds of maple. Corylin in seeds of hazelnut. Amandin in seeds of almond, peach, plum, apricot? Juglansin in seeds of American black walnut. Excelsin (crystalline) in seeds of Brazil-nut. Edestin (crystalline) in seeds of Hemp. Avena (crystalline) in seeds of oat. Castanin in seeds of European chestnut. Maysin in seeds of maize(corn). Tuberin in seeds of potato. Cucurbitin in seeds of squash.

Jamieson, George Samuel. 1927. Production and utilization fats, fatty oils, and waxes in the United States. USDA Department Bulletin No. 1475. 36 p. Feb. See p. 16-17. [7 ref]

• Summary: Contents: Introduction. General method of production. Vegetable oils (including their preparation, grades, and uses): Cottonseed oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, colhune oil, coquito oil, babassu oil, corn oil, olive oil, peanut oil (p. 14-15), soy-bean oil (p. 16-17), castor oil, sesame oil, sunflower-seed oil, fixed oil of mustard seed, rapeseed (colza) oil, cacao butter, shea-nut oil or butter, almond oil, apricot-kernel oil, grape-seed and raisin-seed oils, Chinese vegetable tallow, Japan wax or tallow, Bayberry tallow (myrtle wax), linseed oil, China-wood or tung oil, candlenut or lumbang oil, perilla oil, hempseed oil, poppyseed oil. Animal fats and oils: Milk fat, lard, beef tallow, mutton tallow, whale oil, porpoise oils, bone fat, neat’s-foot oil. Fish oils. Fish-liver oils. Waxes: Beeswax, caranauba wax, candelilla wax, montan wax, sugar-cane wax, woolwax (grease), sperm oil (wax). Production, consumption and importation of fats and oils in the United States, 1921-25. statistics.

Dorsett, P.H.; Morse, W.J. 1930. In Dairen, Manchuria(Document part). In: P.H. Dorsett and W.J. Morse. 1928-1932. Agricultural Explorations in Japan, Chosen (Korea),Northeastern China, Taiwan (Formosa), Singapore, Java, Sumatra and Ceylon. Washington, DC: Foreign Plant Introduction and Forage Crop Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA. 8,818 p. Unpublished log.

• Summary: Page 4907 (18 June 1930). “Dairen, Manchuria. P.H. Dorsett’s notes: Dorsett will proceed to Peiping about July 15 for the purpose of exploring for legumes in the vicinity of Peiping

Page 5550. “Corn and soybeans and kaoliang and soybeans were being grown quite extensively. It was noted that the soybean fields were more general in the hill sections while the mixed plantings were on the lower lands. At the ends of the rows of the fields a few feet of hemp, castor beans, sesame or sunflowers were grown. This is said to be done to keep cattle out of the fields.

Jones, D. Bresse. 1931. Factors for converting percentages of nitrogen in foods and feeds into percentages of proteins. USDA Circular No. 183. 22 p. Aug. Slightly revised Feb. 1941. [105 ref]

• Summary: Table 1 (p. 6) titled “Nitrogen content of various proteins,” states that soybeans contain 17.5% glycinin and 16.1% legumelin.

The section titled “Proteins of oilseeds and nuts” (p. 13)states: “The predominating proteins in nearly all the oilseeds and nuts which have been studied are globulins of relatively high nitrogen content, ranging from 18.5 to 19 per cent., corresponding in general to the factor 5.3. The proteins of the following food articles belonging to this class have been studied: Almonds, hazelnut, walnut, Brazil nut, butternut, coconut, castor bean, hempseed, cottonseed, sunflower seed, flaxseed, squash seed, pumpkin seed, sesame seed, and cantaloupe seed.

“Although peanuts and soybeans are oilseeds, their predominating proteins have a somewhat lower nitrogen content than those of the oilseeds mentioned above. More than 87 per cent of the total nitrogen of peanuts is protein nitrogen (54). The proteins consist almost entirely of two globulins, arachin and conarachin, both of which contain 18.3 per cent nitrogen. This gives the conversion factor 5.46. In view of the definite knowledge of the proteins of the peanut, it is believed that the use of this factor will give quite accurately the real protein content of peanuts. “The chief protein in soybeans is glycinin, a globulin that has 17.5 per cent nitrogen. This corresponds to the factor 5.71.” Address: Principal Chemist, Protein and Nutrition Div., Chemical and Technological Research, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils [USDA].

Foreign Crops and Markets (USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics). 1934. The Manchurian soy bean situation. 29(3):60-62. June 16.

• Summary: “A 1933 Manchurian soy bean crop next to the largest crop ever produced, exports from Manchuria for the first six months of the 1933-34 crop year the smallest in the past eight years, and prices for soy beans in Manchuria the lowest in nearly twenty years, are features of the soy bean situation in Manchuria, according to a recent report from Fred J. Rossiter, Assistant Agricultural Commissioner to Shanghai.

“The 1934 area planted to soy beans in Manchuria is expected to be somewhat below that of recent years. Due to the extremely low prices and the large amount of beans left in the country, it is believed that the farmer will be interested in producing other crops. The government has been encouraging the farmers in North Manchuria to grow more wheat, and in some sections flax, while in South Manchuria the government has urged the farmers to plant cotton and hemp.

Fats and Oils Situation (USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics).. 1937. [Fats and oils in the United States, 1936, and outlook for 1937]. FOS-1. p. 1-22. March. [5 ref]

• Summary: Contents: Fig. 1. Pie chart: Consumption of fats and oils in the United States, 1936: Butter 23%. Lard 16%. Cottonseed 15%. Tallow and grease 11%. Coconut 7%. Corn, peanut, soybean 5%. Palm and palm kernel 4%. Tung, hemp, and perilla 3%. Olive, rape, sesame, sunflower and other 5%, marine animal 4%, oleo oil, oleostearine and other 2%. Fats and oils outlook for 1937. Supplies and prices of 1936: Introduction, production, consumption, imports and exports, stocks, prices, the 1936 excise tax. Prospective supplies for 1937: Butter, lard, tallow and grease, vegetable oils (incl. soybean, cottonseed, and peanut oils), drying oils (flaxseed, hemp, oiticica,  tung). New fats and oils: Introduction (the excise taxes of 1934 and 1936 caused the trade to seek new sources), babasu oil, kapok oil, oiticica oil (essentially a drying oil), teaseed oil (very like olive oil), ouricuri oil (used to make oleomargarine), tucum oil, murumuru oil, ucuhuba butter. Fats and oils used in manufacture of margarine: 335 million pounds were used in 1936, or about 3.6% of total disappearance in the USA. Prior to 1919, animal fats contributed 40-70% of the fats used in oleomargarine. Cottonseed oil and peanut oil were next in importance. Soybean oil contributed 5% and peanut oil 1% of the total oils used in 1936.

Figure 2. Bar chart: Stocks of fats and oils, including oil equivalent of raw materials, Dec. 31, 1923, and 1926-1936.

Fig. 3. Graph: Materials used in the manufacture of oleomargarine, 1919, and 1926 to date. Imported vegetable oils rose to a peak of 75% in 1933, then dropped. Animal fats decreased steadily to 8% in 1936. Domestic vegetable oils decreased slowly from 1919 to a low of 10% in 1933, then rose rapidly to 39% in 1936.

Tables: (1) Summary of production, net imports, and apparent disappearance of all fats and oils, excluding lard and butter, 1912, 1914, 1916-36. (2) Production, net trade, changes in stocks, and apparent disappearance of butter and lard, 1912, 1914, 1916-1936. (3) Apparent disappearance of fats and oils, 1929-1936: Vegetable oils: cottonseed, coconut, palm, soybean oil (increased from 13 million lb in 1929 to 26 million lb in 1936), corn, peanut, rape, olive, castor, sesame, palm-kernel, babassu, olive foots, sunflower, olive (inedible), teaseed oil, other. Drying oils: Linseed, tung, perilla, hempseed. Animal fats: Butter, lard, tallow(inedible), marine, grease, edible fat (edible tallow, oleo oil, oleostearine), inedible fat (wool grease, neatsfoot oil).(4) Production of fats and oils from domestic and imported materials, 1929-1936. Soybean oil increased from 11 million lb in 1929 to 225 million lb in 1936. (5) Imports of fats and oils, 1929-1936. The biggest imports were of palm oil and coconut oil; no soybean oil was imported. (6)Oil equivalent of oilseeds imported for crushing, 1929-1936.(7) Exports of fats and oils, 1929-1936. Some soybean oil was exported each year, ranging from a high of 8 million lb in 1929 to a low of 2 million lb in 1934 and 1935. (8)Exports of soybeans and oil equivalent, 1931-36. (9) Fats and oils and oil equivalent of raw materials: Stocks in the USA, December 31, 1933, 1925-1936. (10) Price per pound of selected fats and oils, annual, 1934-36. January 1936 and 1937. Butter, the most expensive, ranged from 25.7 to 33.0 cents per lb. Next most expensive was edible olive oil, 23.1 to 24.2 cents. Soybean oil, refined, New York, was 8.2 to 10.6 cents per lb. (11) Percentage of fats and oils used in the manufacture of oleomargarine, 1919,1926-1936. The 3 classes are animal fats, domestic vegetable oil, imported vegetable oil. The percentage of animal fats steadily decreased, while the percentage of vegetable oil(mainly imported coconut oil and domestic cottonseed oil)steadily increased. The total of “other” (domestic. incl. peanut, soybean, and corn oils) was insignificant, increasing from 2% to 6%. (12) Consumption and price per pound of butter and oleomargarine, annual, 1918-1936. During this period, the price of oleomargarine stayed at about half the price of butter. Per capita consumption of butter increased from 13.9 lb in 1918 to a peak of 18.1 lb in 1924 and 1932, then decreased to 16.4 lb in 1936. Per capita consumption of oleomargarine increased from 3.3 lb in 1918 to a peak of 3.4 lb in 1919 and 1920, decreased to a low of 1.6 lb in 1933, then rose to 3.0 lb in 1936.

3848. Harding, T. Swann. 1942. Some landmarks in the history of the [U.S.] Department of Agriculture (Continued–Document part III). Agricultural History Series (USDA) No.2. 94 p. Jan. [16 ref]

 “The South Had Its Problems: A century ago the South produced almost all the cotton, rice, sugar, and Sweet potatoes, and most of the tobacco, hemp, and corn. Cotton, rice, and tobacco were usually grown by the one crop system, cotton growing having undergone tremendous expansion during the speculative 1830’s, before the deep depression current in 1839 was under way.

3223. New York Times. 1936. Chemistry’s expanding field: Notable papers presented in Kansas City [Missouri] meeting show wide scope of research. In praise of soybeans. April 19. Section 10. p. 4.

• Summary: The soybean was the subject of one of the symposiums at the American Chemical Society meeting last week in Kansas City, Missouri. Dr. A.A. Horvath of the University of Delaware’s Agricultural Experiment Station stated: “In 1932 some 9 million pounds of soybean oil were used in soap-making.” Dr. N.F. True discussed food uses of soybeans noting that the Chinese farmer “likes his soyfoods fermented by molds, just as we like pickles and cheese fermented with the aid of bacteria. The soybean sauce that the Chinese waiter hands you with chop suey is a fermented soybean product, in case you don’t know it.”

Dr. E.F. Ware added that paint-makers use enormous quantities of soybean oil. “The buildings of Chicago’s Century of Progress Exposition [in Illinois] were coated with soybean paints.” “Soybeans can be used for everything from hay to hairpins it seems.”

Dr. H.E. Barnard, director of research of the Farm Chemurgic Council, said that “artificial wool might be made out of these same proteins.” The Italians are now trying to make wool out of the casein of milk.

“There is a boon in soybeans as a result of all this chemical activity. About 5,000,000 acres in this country are given over to their cultivation. But the world’s center for commercial [soy] beans is still in Manchuria.” Today more than 60 soybean varieties are listed in seedmen’s catalogues. “If the industrial and food uses of the soybean increase it will rank with corn as a major American crop in two decades. ”A large photo shows a coolie in Manchuria carrying a large sack of soybeans on one shoulder.

Note: This is the earliest English-language document seen (Dec. 2004) that uses the term “artificial wool” to refer to spun soy protein fiber used like a textile fiber (such as wool).

4074. Ratcliff, J.D. 1943. Microbe zoo. Collier’s. July 17. p. 18-70.

• Summary: About the culture collection at the USDA Northern Regional Research Laboratory; this “microbe zoo” contains 1,900 molds, 1,000 yeasts, and 500 varieties of bacteria. Most Americans think of microbes as bad or harmful. Some are, but there are also good microbes. In fact, we couldn’t live without them. Microorganisms help to give us many cheeses, beer, buttermilk, sauerkraut, pickles, and olives. One mold feasts on milk curds and gives us Roquefort cheese; others help in the process of tanning leather, curing tobacco, and retting hemp. Photos show three different microorganisms growing in petri dishes.

4192. Woodward, Carl R. 1943. Benjamin Franklin: Adventures in agriculture. In: 1943. Meet Dr. Franklin. The Franklin Institute, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster, PA. Roosevelt Univ. vi + 234 p. See p. 179-200. 25 cm. [33 ref]

• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Franklin the farmer: The quest of the farm, the Philadelphia pasture lot, eighteenth century farm demonstration. Franklin the agricultural leader: Agricultural missionary, agricultural economist, agricultural philosopher.

In 1743 Franklin formulated plans for an American Philosophical Society, and in 1785 for a Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture.

Franklin was an agricultural missionary. His travels about the colonies as postmaster-general gave him many opportunities to observe the farm practices in different regions. He collected new seeds and wrote to his friends about new techniques. His membership in the Royal Society of London and the London Society of Arts put him in touch with many Englishmen who were interested in agriculture and botany–men like Peter Collinson and Dr. John Fothergill. They wanted American plants and seeds, and Franklin wrote to John Bartram and Humphrey Marshall for them. He secured for John Bartram his appointment as American botanist to George III. On one occasion he sent to his friend John Bartram from England seeds of turnips, cabbage, and peas. He introduced rhubarb and Scotch kale to America. While in France his advice was sought on various agricultural matters. He secured American seeds for the Compte [Comte] de Buffon for the Jardin des Plantes.“Franklin was interested in the culture of hemp, flax, and silk, and believed that these crops had great possibilities in America.”

4199. Hammond, John C. 1944. Partial substitutes for soybean meal. Poultry Science 23(1):78. Jan. [2 ref]

• Summary: In “feeding growing chickens, as much as 15% of cottonseed meal. corn gluten meal, peanut meal, or ground hempseed may be used to replace an equal weight of soybean meal in diets such as the control diet used by the writer.” Address: Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA Beltsville Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland.

4218. Vestal, Edgar F. 1944. Diseases in stored grain and soybeans in Iowa. Plant Disease Reporter (USDA) 28(6):184-86. March 15.

In the northwestern portion of the State this indicated an increase in the hemp plantings. During this survey no attempt was made to secure [germination or microbial] data on hemp.”

Address: Emergency Plant Disease Prevention Project, Iowa.

4332. McIlroy, G.G. 1944. Where to in Cornbelt soybean production. Soybean Digest. Sept. 29-30.

• Summary: “Our soybean production is now the largest of any nation. Whether this production will drop back to one hundred million bushels annually, remain about the same, or increase another one hundred million bushels, is the question. It all depends on the price offered the American farmer. As long as he can get a per bushel price as good in comparison to prices of corn, oats and wheat as he is getting today, you can look for no decrease in our soybean acreage. It would be, in my opinion, the height of folly to venture even a guess as to what the price might be a few years after our wars are over.

“In this vegetable world we find an awful lot of what our scientists call cellulose. The wood from the trees, the stalks and leaves of all plants and crops are mainly cellulose. Today we have vast industries in lumber, cotton, rayon and plastics, all products of a certain type of mechanical manipulation of cellulose. The vegetable world will repeat itself year after year. The science of farming today is, in part, simply a method of controlled production of a very few vegetable plants. Nature really does the job. She gives us an inexhaustible supply, a definite advantage over the limited minerals.

“In the plants, the seed is the only part in which we find any quantity of fats and protein. As I said before, the stems and leaves are cellulose.

“Highest form: The animal kingdom represents nature in its highest and most complex form. In the animal kingdom protein plays the same role as cellulose in the vegetable kingdom. Protein is the essential and all important element in every moving thing and living creature on this earth. But when we look for important industries other than food based on protein to compare with the cellulose developments of the vegetable world, we find none.

“Here is where the soybean comes into the picture. This new chemurgic crop makes available to industry for the first time an almost unlimited supply of low cost protein that can be easily stored, handled and extracted in a pure form. “A few years ago, when it was first realized that such an inexhaustible supply of low cost protein could be secured from the soybean, our research laboratories, which were devoted to this type of experimentation, immediately started a program to convert the protein directly from the soybean into fiber instead of feeding it to the sheep and harvesting the wool from the sheep. These research men, after many years of tireless work, are able today to produce a useful fiber directly from the soybean. Although they feel that their present results are crude in comparison to what they will develop within a few years, their present product indicates, positively, that they are on the right track. It requires the produce from 1 acre of land to support 1 sheep for 1 year to produce 8 pounds of wool. If the acre of land is used for the production of soybeans, the scientist can produce 200 pounds of soybean fiber.

“All other fibers produced from the vegetable world, such as cotton, flax, hemp, are composed of cellulose. All fibers produced by the animal kingdom are composed of protein. In spite of the fact that many of the cellulose fibers are cheaper and sometimes stronger, man is still dependent on the protein fibers, such as wool, for all uses which require warmth, resilience and the ability to retain a desired or given shape. And so we have the protein fiber made directly from the vegetable world. It is but the start of a new industry which can be highly important and far reaching in its effects. A new use for the soybean, which at present is profitably utilizing 14 million of our American farm acres.

“We will all agree that the soybean is a desirable crop from the farmers’ standpoint, if and when the unit price is sufficient to give the farmer some money advantage over other crops. Since laws already passed provide for a floor on farm products, for 2 years after our wars are over, of 90 percent parity, it is certain, in my opinion, that we will have for each of the next 2 years an acreage planted little less than the 14 million we have in 1944.

“From 1946 on I am most optimistic. I have the greatest of confidence in the soybean and in the men behind the soybean industry. I have been intimately associated with both for many years. Difficulties have been met and overcome in the past, and difficulties will be met and overcome in the future. You, my readers, have a similar feeling.” Address: Director, National Farm Chemurgic Council; President, Farm Management, Inc., Irwin, Ohio. A former president of the American Soybean Assoc.

4718. Yessel, A.J.; Black, C.A. 1947. Soil type and soil management factors in hemp production. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Bulletin No. 352. p. 384-424. July. [4 ref]

• Summary: Hemp (Cannabis sativa) come into prominence as a strategic war crop shortly after United States’ imports of abaca and sisal were cut off from the Philippines and the Netherlands Indies. Production of hemp in the United States was expanded from about 3,000 acres annually during the period of 1939 to 1941 to 146,000 [harvested] acres in 1943.”

The yield of hemp differed considerably on various soil types and on the level of available nitrogen in the soil. The crops grown before hemp affected hemp yields by adding nitrogen to the soil with the following relative productions: clover or lucerne 100, soybeans 75, oats or maize 57, sorghum 35. Address: Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa.

4993. Horn, Millard J.; Jones, D.B.; Blum, A.E. 1950. Methods for microbiological and chemical determinations of essential amino acids in proteins and foods. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 696. 12 p. Jan. [12 soy ref]

• Summary: Table 2 shows the content of essential amino acids in some proteins and foods (percentages) including: Arachin, casein, conarachin, edestin [from hemp], glycinin, lactalbumin, peanut (total globulins), peanut flour, and soybean flour. Address: Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, Agricultural Research Administration.

5140. Parker, M.W.; Borthwick, H.A. 1951. Photoperiodic responses of soybean varieties. Soybean Digest. Sept. p. 26-28, 30.

• Summary: Flowering soybean plants depends very largely on the number of hours of darkness they receive each day. Plants of many varieties are completely incapable of forming flower buds unless they receive 10 or more hours of darkness daily and plants of all varieties flower much more quickly with daily dark periods of 14 to 16 hours than with shorter ones. This reaction of soybeans to daily duration of darkness has been known for a little over 30 years. It was discovered by W.W. Garner and H.A. Allard, two Bureau of Plant Industry scientists, who found that Biloxi soybeans could be made to flower at Arlington, Virginia, in midsummer if they were subjected daily to short days and long nights. These workers, impressed with the fact that light was acting in some peculiar way to control flowering called the phenomenon ‘photoperiodism,’ a term meant to attach special significance to the daily duration of light, i.e., the length of day. This emphasis on the importance of the length of the daily light period continued until about a decade ago, when experiments showed that the daily duration of darkness was the controlling factor.

“Since its discovery our knowledge of photoperiodism has been greatly increased by studies made in various parts of the world. Flowering of many kinds of plants was found to be photo periodically controlled. Some flowered only when days were short and nights were long. These were called ‘short-day’ plants. Others flowered best with long days and short nights and were, therefore, called ‘long-day’ plants. Still other kinds flowered equally well on all day-lengths and were designated as ‘indeterminate’ or ‘day-neutral.’ Short day plants include such well-known crop plants as soybean, strawberry, hemp, millet, sorghum, and chrysanthemum, while spinach, beet, and cereals such as wheat, oats, barley, and rye are representatives of the long-day type. Tomato and many varieties of green beans are typical examples of the indeterminate class. A fourth class contains a limited number of plants that flower only on intermediate day lengths. Sugarcane is an outstanding example of this ‘intermediate’ group.

5707. Hopper, T.H. 1958. Amino acid composition of foodstuffs. In: A.M. Altschul, ed. 1958. Processed Plant Protein Foodstuffs. New York: Academic Press. xv + 955 p. See p. 877-91. Chap. 33. [38 ref]

• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Table I: Conversion factors (incl. almonds, coconut, cottonseed, flaxseed, hempseed, peanut, sesame seed, soybean {5.71}, sunflower seed, corn {6.25–highest}, adsuki beans, jack beans, lima beans, mung beans, navy beans, velvet beans). Table II: Amino acid content of selected products (incl. soybean meal, soybean protein, soybean varieties– Akadian [sic, Acadian], Arksay [sic, Arksoy], Chief, C.N.S., Earlyana, Gibson, Lincoln, Manloxi [sic, Mamloxi], Ogland [Ogden?], Richland, Roanoke). Address: USDA, New Orleans, Louisiana.

6096. Altschul, Aaron M.; Talluto, Katherine F.; Sharer, Beatrice A. eds. 1963. Proceedings: Seed Protein Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana: USDA Agricultural Research Service. iv + 292 p. Held 21-23 Jan. 1963 at Southern Utilization Research and Development Division(USDA ARS), New Orleans, Louisiana. No index. 27 cm.[100+ ref]

• Summary: There were 4 opening speeches, 9 sessions, and 25 papers. A luncheon program was followed by speakers. An attendance list is provided. The main seed proteins discussed are those from soybeans, peanuts, cottonseeds, wheat, and hempseeds.

6308. Bonner, James C. 1964. A history of Georgia agriculture, 1732-1860. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. viii + 242 p. See p. 25, 86, 102, 216. Index. 24 cm. [1 ref]

• Summary: Page 25: Between 1763 and 1773 the total value of Georgia’s exports “increased almost fivefold, and the list had expanded to include sago powder (a starch made from sweet potatoes), beeswax, tallow, hemp. tobacco, salt beef and pork.”

7163. Lang, Alvin L. 1972. Fifty years of service: A history of seed certification in Illinois 1922-1972. Urbana, Illinois: The Illinois Crop Improvement Association. 136 p. Undated. Illust. No index. 22 cm. possible.

“In 1900, the Canadian Seed Growers’ Association organized, having for its object the encouragement of farmers to take better care of their seed grains, the production of superior quality grain and the production of a higher yield per acre. Today their organization stands as the premier association of North America–the oldest organization of like nature in the U.S.A. is the Wisconsin Agricultural Association, organized in 1901. They have been doing excellent work with hemp, alfalfa, and soybeans and of late years, with rye, wheat and potatoes. The members have come to realize the value of pure seed and the importance of knowing the origin, purity, germination and quality of the same. In like manner, Iowa, Ohio, Kansas, Michigan and others organized and began to function, having as their prime object the location of seed centers whose quality of purity of grain is emphasized more than quantity of grain and number of sales.” Address: Univ. of Illinois agronomy staff.

7507. Harlan, Jack R. 1975. Crops & man. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy. xi + 295 p. Illust. 24 cm. Foundations of Modern Crop Science Series.

• Summary: Table 2-1 (p. 57) lists “The world’s 30 leading food crops in terms of estimated edible dry matter” in descending order of annual production. For each is given: Annual production in million metric tons, annual or perennial, ecological origins (Mediterranean, savanna, woodlands, tropical forest, highlands, coastal, or prairie),self- or cross-fertilizing, ploidy level. The top ten crops are: Wheat (468), maize (429), rice (330), barley (160),soybean (88), cane sugar (67), sorghum (60), potato (54),oats (43), and cassava (41). The soybean (No. 5) originated in northeastern China; it is an annual which originated in the woodlands, is self-fertilizing, with a ploidy level of 4. A large proportion of the maize, barley, soybean, sorghum, oats, and rye are fed to animals in the “developed” countries, but serve as human food elsewhere (p. 80).

Fig. 5-1 (p. 108) shows a schematic diagram of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools. Since a hybrid has been made by crossing the soybean with its wild perennial relative, and since “embryo rescue was used, the relationship seems to be at the GP-3 level.”

Pages 152-53 show major gene banks in the international system. The two major soybean collections are in the USA (USDA), and Japan (NIAS, Tsukuba).

Page 198 discusses “Recorded history.” “The soybean is first mentioned in 664 BC in connection with tribute paid to the Chou by the Shan-Jung (Mountain Jung) tribe.” Hemp (Cannabis) is mentioned seven times in the Book of Odes (Shih Ching). “The agriculture that evolved on the north China uplands was based on the millets, soybean, and a suite of fruits and vegetables” (p. 199).

8586. Boyer, Robert A. 1985. Reminiscences: Automotive design–Oral history project. Dearborn, Michigan: Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village. 130 p. Accession #1673.

The Great Depression and the origins of his chemurgic thinking. In 1934 the first National Chemurgic Conference was held at Dearborn Inn; Boyer was in charge of the program. Mr. Irenee DuPont attended and Mr. Ford spent a lot of time with him. Before that, the DuPonts and the big banks did not trust Ford. (p. 14).

Research on purified soy protein and soy plastics with formaldehyde; Bakelite (p. 24-25). Use of soy oil for foundry core binders for casting the Ford V-8 engine block; thus, the soy experiments are now commercialized. Building a 50 ton/day extractor (p. 26-27). Spinning soy protein fiberlike rayon, based on spinning milk protein in Italy. Using the fibers to make wrinkle resistant synthetic wool, a suit of clothes for Henry Ford and others, overcoats, neckties, felt hats. “We also found that these fibers blended in very well with rabbit fur for making men’s felt hats. So the Hat Corporation of America took all the fiber we could make. It wasn’t very much and they would blend it in with rabbit fur. And they actually had them [the men’s felt hats] on the market.” Rabbit fur is very expensive (p. 29-36). Ford’s suit of clothes contained 65% wool and 35% soy fiber. Boyer leaves Ford Motor Co. in 1943. Problem with fiber was tensile strength, especially wet strength. Ford’s interest in this fiber work, and his fitness at age 75 (p. 37-38). Ford “was not a true vegetarian but he was pretty close” (p. 38). Edsel Ruddiman’s work with foods (p. 39-47). Boyer and Ruddiman attend American Soybean Assoc. soybean conference in Washington, DC [in Sept. 1932] where they saw “leather-like products that the Chinese make” [yuba]. Boyer tried unsuccessfully to use the idea to make “synthetic leather.” USDA’s experimental farm in Holgate, Ohio, where many soybeans sent back by W.J. Morse were tested (p. 40-42). Work with soybean milk (p. 43-46). The executive dining room in the Engineering Laboratory. Henry Ford invited Boyer to lunch there about 6 times (p. 45). Development of soy ice cream; lipoxidase enzyme inactivation (p. 45-46).

Visits to Battle Creek, Michigan and Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (p. 47). Boyer’s work was with industrial products; the plastic car and structural plastics with hemp, flax, and phenol formaldehyde (soya protein Bakelite resin) (p. 47-64,70).

Before Mr. Drackett died, Boyer’s division had developed commercial soy products, and Drackett was making money on the plastic (phenol formaldehyde plus hemp) and the fiber (p. 81). Use of soy protein as a paper coating (p. 83).

Henry Ford as a soybean pioneer and visionary. The soybean is now America’s No. 2 cash crop and also our second largest earner of foreign exchange. “That really started from Ford. When we first started in 1931, hardly anybody ever heard of the soybean, and Henry Ford’s penchant for publicity publicized the soybean… He certainly made it popular and made people become aware of it. Today it’s darned important.” He should be remembered as the “Father of the Soybean.” “I always thought it would be nice if they would rebuild the [Soybean] laboratory [in Greenfield Village] or restore it like it was when we were doing the soybean work and give it the real credit that it deserves…”(p. 120). After Henry Ford died in 1947 his family wanted no part of any of his pet projects. They completely eradicated the old Ford company (p. 121). Henry Ford was deeply interested in the welfare of American farmers. His tractors and Model T were of great use to them (p. 121).Origins of Ford’s interest in chemurgy; William Hale and Dow Chemical Co. in Midland, Michigan; the first three chemurgic conferences in Dearborn, Michigan, in May 1935,1936, and 1937 (p. 122-27).

8646. Dieckert, Julius W.; Dieckert, Marilyne C. 1985. The chemistry and biology of seed storage proteins. In: A.M.Altschul and H.L. Wilcke, eds. 1985. New Protein Foods. Vol. 5. Seed Storage Proteins. New York: Academic Press. xxi + 474 p. See p. 1-22. Chap. 1. [105 ref]

• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Chemistry: Albumins, prolamines, globulins. Biosynthesis and sequestration. Evolution.

“I. Introduction: The reserve proteins of seeds are a major resource for the nutrition of man and his livestock. They have been under formal investigation at least since 1747, when Becarri is credited with having isolated gluten from wheat. During early investigations of seed proteins, botanists and chemists looked at the biological aspects of these substances. Hartig (1855) isolated protein granule sfrom several oilseeds by nonaqueous techniques and later (Hartig, 1856) named the granules aleurone grains…

“II. Chemistry: Albumins, globulins, and prolamines are three classes of seed proteins that are important components of the reserve protein system of seeds. Albumins are soluble in water, globulins are soluble in dilute salt solutions but are relatively insoluble in water, and prolamines are soluble in aqueous ethanol. There seems to be general agreement that the prolamines and major seed globulins function primarily as nitrogen and carbon sources for the germinating seed, but there are different views about the function of the albumins…

“C. Globulins: Two broad groups of reserve globulins can be discerned: legumins and vicilins. Like the other seed proteins they are assigned trivial names, often reflecting their source. The legumin-type proteins include such proteins as legumin from Vicia faba [broad beans], legumin from Pisumsativum [peas], glycinin from Glycine max [soybeans], arachin from Arachis hypogaea [peanuts], edestin from Cannabis sativa [hemp], cocosin from Cocos nucifera” [coconuts]. Address: 1. Dep. of Plant Sciences, Texas Agric. Exp. Station, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843;2. Texas A&M Research Foundation, College Station, TX77843.

9737. Soyatech, Inc. 2007. Soya & Oilseed Bluebook 2008. Bar Harbor, Maine: Soyatech. 446 p. Nov. Comprehensive index. Brand name index. Advertiser index. Statistical conversions. 28 cm.

• Summary: This is the 2nd year in a row that the Bluebook(a $95 value) has been sent free of charge to qualified industry members. On the cover are color photos of seven different crops (mostly growing in fields) covered in this book. The oilseeds covered in this book are (alphabetically):Canola, coconut, corn, cottonseed, flaxseed, hempseed, jatropha, linseed, palm, peanut, rapeseed, safflower, soya, sunflowerseed. Note that hempseed, jatropha, linseed, and safflower have been added this year.

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