PubMed: Cannabidiol disrupts tryptophan metabolism in the human term placenta

PubMed: Cannabidiol disrupts tryptophan metabolism in the human term placenta

Toxicology. 2024 Apr 23:153813. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2024.153813. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The increasing use of cannabis during pregnancy raises concerns about its impact on fetal development. While cannabidiol (CBD) shows therapeutic promise, its effects during pregnancy remain uncertain. We investigated CBD’s influence on tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in the human placenta. TRP is an essential amino acid that is metabolized via the serotonin and kynurenine (KYN) pathways, which are critical for fetal neurodevelopment. We used human term villous placental explants, an advanced ex vivo model, to study CBD’s impact on key TRP metabolic enzymes. In addition, vesicles isolated from the microvillous membrane (MVM) of the human placenta were used to assess CBD’s effect on placental serotonin uptake. Explants were exposed to CBD at therapeutic (0.1, 1, 2.5μg/ml) and non-therapeutic (20 and 40μg/ml) concentrations to determine its effects on the gene and protein expression of key enzymes in TRP metabolism and metabolite release. CBD upregulated TRP hydroxylase (TPH) and downregulated monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), resulting in reduced levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA). It also downregulated serotonin transporter expression and inhibited serotonin transport across the MVM by up to 60% while simultaneously enhancing TRP metabolism via the kynurenine pathway by upregulating indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1). Among kynurenine pathway enzymes, kynurenine 3 monooxygenase (KMO) was upregulated while kynurenine aminotransferase 1 (KAT-1) was downregulated; the former is associated with neurotoxic metabolite production, while the latter is linked to reduced neuroprotective metabolite levels. Overall, these results indicate that CBD modulates TRP catabolism in the human placenta, potentially disrupting the tightly regulated homeostasis of the serotonin and KYN pathways.

PMID:38663822 | DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2024.153813

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38663822/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240426012507&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 April 25, 2024 10:00 am