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PubMed: Cannabidiol Inhibits <em>In Vitro</em> Human Liver Microsomal Metabolism of Remdesivir: A Promising Adjuvant for COVID-19 Treatment

PubMed: Cannabidiol Inhibits <em>In Vitro</em> Human Liver Microsomal Metabolism of Remdesivir: A Promising Adjuvant for COVID-19 Treatment

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Dec 16. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0109. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The year 2020 began with the world being flounced with a wave of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) disease, named COVID-19. Based on promising pre-clinical and clinical data, remdesivir (RDV) was the first drug to receive FDA approval and so far, it is the most common therapy for treatment of SARS-CoV-2/MERS-CoV. However, following intravenous administration, RDV metabolizes majorly by human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and marginally by the CYP3A4 enzyme in merely less than an hour. Its resultant active metabolite is a hydrophilic nucleoside with very limited accumulation within lung tissues. Therefore, there is a need to investigate strategies to overcome such premature metabolism issues and improve the antiviral efficacy of RDV at the target site. Objective: Considering the major CES1-mediated metabolism of RDV on systemic administration, we intend to explore the remarkable CES1 plus CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of cannabidiol (CBD) against in vitro microsomal metabolism of RDV to indicate its therapeutic potential as an adjuvant to RDV in the treatment and management of COVID-19. Methods: We investigated the in vitro human liver microsomal metabolism of RDV in the presence of two potential CES1 inhibitors-CBD and nelfinavir, and two standard CYP3A4 inhibitors-ritonavir (RITO) and cyclosporin A. The microsomal metabolism assay was further validated by using a well-characterized CYP3A4-selective substrate, midazolam (MDZ), in the presence of CBD and RITO. Results: Our findings depicted that RDV was rapidly and completely metabolized by human liver microsomes within 60 min. Coincubation with CBD substantially reduced microsomal metabolism of RDV and prolonged its in vitro half-life from 8.93 to 31.07 min. CBD showed significantly higher inhibition of RDV compared with known CES1 and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Inhibition of MDZ metabolism by CBD and RITO further validated the assay. Conclusions: The current study strongly suggests that CBD significantly inhibits human liver microsomal metabolism of RDV and extends its in vitro half-life. Thus, concomitant administration of CBD with RDV intravenous injection could be a promising strategy to prevent premature metabolism in COVID-19 patients.

PMID:34918945 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0109

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34918945/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20211218055849&v=2.16.0 December 17, 2021 11:00 am

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