PubMed: Modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor activity by cannabinoid by-products from <em>Cannabis sativa</em> and non-cannabis phytomolecules
Front Pharmacol. 2022 Aug 26;13:956030. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.956030. eCollection 2022.
Cannabis sativa contains more than 120 cannabinoids and 400 terpene compounds (i.e., phytomolecules) present in varying amounts. Cannabis is increasingly available for legal medicinal and non-medicinal use globally, and with increased access comes the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the pharmacology of phytomolecules. The main transducer of the intoxicating effects of Cannabis is the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (∆9-THCa) is often the most abundant cannabinoid present in many cultivars of Cannabis. Decarboxylation converts ∆9-THCa to ∆9-THC, which is a CB1R partial agonist. Understanding the complex interplay of phytomolecules-often referred to as “the entourage effect”-has become a recent and major line of inquiry in cannabinoid research. Additionally, this interest is extending to other non-Cannabis phytomolecules, as the diversity of available Cannabis products grows. Here, we chose to focus on whether 10 phytomolecules (∆8-THC, ∆6a,10a-THC, 11-OH-∆9-THC, cannabinol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, olivetol, palmitoylethanolamide, piperine, and quercetin) alter CB1R-dependent signaling with or without a co-treatment of ∆9-THC. Phytomolecules were screened for their binding to CB1R, inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and βarrestin2 recruitment in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human CB1R. Select compounds were assessed further for cataleptic, hypothermic, and anti-nociceptive effects on male mice. Our data revealed partial agonist activity for the cannabinoids tested, as well as modulation of ∆9-THC-dependent binding and signaling properties of phytomolecules in vitro and in vivo. These data represent a first step in understanding the complex pharmacology of Cannabis– and non-Cannabis-derived phytomolecules at CB1R and determining whether these interactions may affect the physiological outcomes, adverse effects, and abuse liabilities associated with the use of these compounds.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36091813/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220912162146&v=2.17.8 September 12, 2022 10:00 am