PubMed: Supercritical fluids in analysis of cannabinoids in various Cannabis products

PubMed: Supercritical fluids in analysis of cannabinoids in various Cannabis products

Anal Chim Acta. 2022 Nov 1;1232:340452. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2022.340452. Epub 2022 Sep 30.


We developed a fast, selective, and sensitive method for the determination of various neutral and acidic phytocannabinoids with an emphasis on the separation of structurally related compounds. Optimized ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) allowed the separation of 2 groups of structural isomers, including isomers of m/z 357: cannabidiolic and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and isomers of m/z 315: cannabichromene, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabicyclol, and cannabidiol only in mere 3.5 min followed by 1.5 min equlibration. The 2-ethylpyridine functionalized stationary phase and gradient elution using mobile phase comprising carbon dioxide and methanol: acetonitrile (25:75) + 5% water mixture were selected after the optimization. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with electrospray ionization in positive and negative modes with methanol + 5% water as a make-up solvent provided adequate selectivity and sensitivity needed for analysis of phytocannabinoids in complex matrices. The limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.5 ng/mL for most of the monitored cannabinoids. The optimized UHPSFC-MS/MS method was then used for the determination of cannabinoids in various products, such as dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Solvent extraction methods were optimized for the cosmetic and nutraceutical products with the accuracy in the range 80.4-120.6% and precision 0.5-18.9%. To extract cannabinoids from the herbal infusion matrix, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods were developed using environmentally friendly solvents water, ethanol, and carbon dioxide. The detailed optimization of extraction solvent composition, temperature, and pressure was carried out with the emphasis on avoiding the thermal degradation of cannabinoids. Optimized SFE and PLE methods were compared and applied to different herbal infusions to confirm declared cannabinoids content.

PMID:36257737 | DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2022.340452

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