PubMed: TRPV1: A Common Denominator Mediating Antinociceptive and Antiemetic Effects of Cannabinoids
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 2;23(17):10016. doi: 10.3390/ijms231710016.
The most common medicinal claims for cannabis are relief from chronic pain, stimulation of appetite, and as an antiemetic. However, the mechanisms by which cannabis reduces pain and prevents nausea and vomiting are not fully understood. Among more than 450 constituents in cannabis, the most abundant cannabinoids are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabinoids either directly or indirectly modulate ion channel function. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel responsible for mediating several modalities of pain, and it is expressed in both the peripheral and the central pain pathways. Activation of TRPV1 in sensory neurons mediates nociception in the ascending pain pathway, while activation of TRPV1 in the central descending pain pathway, which involves the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), mediates antinociception. TRPV1 channels are thought to be implicated in neuropathic/spontaneous pain perception in the setting of impaired descending antinociceptive control. Activation of TRPV1 also can cause the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and other neuropeptides/neurotransmitters from the peripheral and central nerve terminals, including the vagal nerve terminal innervating the gut that forms central synapses at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). One of the adverse effects of chronic cannabis use is the paradoxical cannabis-induced hyperemesis syndrome (HES), which is becoming more common, perhaps due to the wider availability of cannabis-containing products and the chronic use of products containing higher levels of cannabinoids. Although, the mechanism of HES is unknown, the effective treatment options include hot-water hydrotherapy and the topical application of capsaicin, both activate TRPV1 channels and may involve the vagal-NTS and area postrema (AP) nausea and vomiting pathway. In this review, we will delineate the activation of TRPV1 by cannabinoids and their role in the antinociceptive/nociceptive and antiemetic/emetic effects involving the peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36077412/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220909162635&v=2.17.8 September 9, 2022 10:00 am