List of “Frankenoids”

From Institut für Hanfanalytik of Austria, on the semi-synthetic cannabinoid byproduct “Frankenoids” created by using strong acids, chemicals or metals on “legal hemp” CBD to create forms of “legal” THC such as delta-8, -9, and -10. Those byproducts have unknown effects long-term. I suggest visiting the link for a more complete list of phytocannabinoids and neocannabinoids:

SSC – Semi-Synthetic Cannabinoids – Conversion Products

SSC refers to a group of substances converted from natural cannabinoids using simple chemical processes (mostly hydrogenation). Therefore, products containing SSC are called conversion products. SSCs usually have the typical properties of cannabinoids (e.g., psychoactivity) but were not regulated by law when they appeared on the European market (2021/2022). In the meantime, many psychoactive SSCs are subject to legal regulations in European countries (Austria, France, Poland, Finland, etc.) and may no longer be traded. Scientific studies on the mechanisms of action of SSCs are still lacking.

HHC – Hexahydrocannabinol

HHC is a psychoactive derivative of THC. It is produced by hydrogenation of THC, retaining the basic structure of THC Chemical structures d9-THC vs. HHC vs. THCP Although often presented this way, it is not biosynthesized in the cannabis plant. Those two publications that found HHC in minimal traces in heavily aged plant material also tend to suggest an aging process. Within the EU, the EMCDDA 2023 “Technical Report: HHC and related substances” is of legal relevance, which excludes biosynthesis and, thus, the natural origin of HHC.

HHC-O – Hexahydrocannabinol Acetat

HHCO is an HHC derivative. It is believed to act as a pro-drug, similar to THC-O, which is hydrolyzed to HHC in the body after consumption. Scientific studies on HHCO are still lacking.

HHCP – Hexahydrocannabiphorol

HHCP is a very strongly psychoactive substance. It is assumed that the more substantial psychotropic effect compared to HHC is mainly due to the extended alkyl side chain (7 carbon atoms instead of 5 as in HHC).

CBND – Cannabinodiol

CBND is a psychoactive cannabinoid. In American forum posts, it is heralded as one of the successors of HHC, which is why we have categorized it as SSC. Chemically, it was first found in low concentrations in hemp flowers in 1974. It is mentioned in only a few scientific publications. Its structure corresponds to a complete aromatization of CBD, analogous to the structures of CBN to THC. This would rather speak for a degradation product. Apart from its psychoactive property, there are no data on the mode of action of CBND.

CBN-O – Cannabinol-O-Acetate

CBN-O is a derivative of CBN. It is believed to act as a pro-drug, similar to THC-O, which is hydrolyzed to CBN in the body and then exerts its effects as CBN. Scientific studies still need to be included.

H4CBD – Tetrahydrocannabidiol, Hydrated CBD, Cyclohexyl-CBD

H4CBD is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of CBD. In the wake of the international price drop of CBD, starting in 2022, a CBD product with a higher price was created and offered as H4CBD under a new name. H4CBD is believed to have the same properties as CBD but to a greater degree. Scientific studies are still lacking.

THC-O – THC-O-Acetate

THC-O is the acetate ester of THC. It is a metabolic pro-drug, i.e., hydrolyzed in the body to THC, which only develops its effect as THC after hydrolysis. The strength of the psychoactive effect depends on whether it was synthesized from d9-THC or d8-THC.

THCP – Tetrahydrocannabiphorol

THCP is a potent psychoactive synthetic homolog of THC. It is believed that, like HHC, the extended alkyl side chain (7 carbon atoms instead of 5 as in THC) results in a stronger psychotropic effect than THC. Isomers with the double bond in position delta 8 and delta 9 are probably.

By-products and impurities from SSC production

SSC products may be contaminated with either extraction residues or synthetic by-products and may contain traces of heavy metals originating from the catalyst used for hydrogenation. Here are some substances involved in the production processes of semi-synthetic cannabinoids. Depending on the process and substance, they are desirable intermediates or undesirable byproducts and are sometimes still present as impurities in finished products for end users. These byproducts get the most attention as an unexpected laboratory result, both in product testing as part of quality assurance and in post-consumer drug testing.

d6a10a-THC – d6a10a-Tetrahydrocannabinol – d3-Tetrahydrocannabinol

Depending on the manufacturing process, d6a10a-THC may be an intermediate or by-product in the production of HHC. Depending on the ratio of the two enantiomers (R, S), d6a,10a-THC has little to hardly any psychoactive effect.

d8-iso-THC – trans-d8-iso-Tetrahydrocannabinol and d4(8)-iso-THC – trans-d4,8-iso-Tetrahydrocannabinol

d8-iso-THC and d4(8)-iso-THC are formed during the cyclization of CBD to THC.

d10-THC – d10-Tetrahydrocannabinol

d10-THC is a THC isomer with approximately 30-40% of the psychoactive potency of d9-THC. D10-THC has rarely been detected, and then only as a trace component, in cannabis plants. Therefore, d10-THC is presumably a degradation product similar to CBN. However, it is also frequently found as an impurity in synthetic d8-THC produced from CBD. For this reason, we have categorized d10-THC as a byproduct. From another perspective, it can also be considered a degradation product or SSC.

d11-THC – Delta-11-Tetrahydrocannabinol – exo-THC – Pentahydrocannabinol – PHC

d11-THC is a synthetic isomer of THC that is produced, among other substances, as an impurity in the production of dronabinol (d9-THC). It can be synthesized as SSC from d8-THC in several ways. In experiments with mice, d11-THC has shown a psychoactive strength of only about 25% compared to d9-THC. Chemically, d11-THC is no longer a “tetrahydro”-cannabinoid because the double bond is outside the name-giving ring between positions 9 and 11. See Figure 1 IUPAC numbering. When viewed from the ring, the double bond is on the outside (exo), and only 5 carbon atoms are hydrogenated in the ring itself. Therefore, the compound could be called pentahydrocannbinol.

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