Want to increase economic returns for hemp flowers, beyond cannabinoids? Considering extracting the terpenes first, as steam-distilled essential oil. In the late-1990s, essential oil was considered the highest return possible for hemp, with revenues at ~$10,000/acre. Yield was about 1 liter per acre.
“This study elucidated the effect of the steam distillation of four high-cannabinoids hemp strains on changes in the content and compositional profile of cannabinoids. The study demonstrated a simple method for valorization of CBD-hemp through the production of two high-value chemicals; EO and cannabinoids with improved profile through the conversion of CBD-A into CBD, CBC-A into CBC, CBDV-A into CBDV, CBG-A into CBG, and THC-A into THC. In addition, the distilled biomass contained CBN while the non-distilled did not. Distillation improved cannabinoids profile; e.g. the distilled hemp biomass had 3.4 times higher CBD in variety Red Bordeaux, 5.6 times in Cherry Wine, 9 times in variety Umpqua, and 6 times in T&H compared to the original non-distilled samples, respectively. The main 3 EO constituents were similar but in different ratio. The distillation converted most of the THC-A into THC reducing total THC in the process, which carries practical and legal importance because of the rapidly changing legal environment in the U.S. and across the world. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that most of the glandular trichomes in the distilled biomass were not disturbed (open); that suggest a possibility for terpenes evaporation through the epidermal membrane covering the glandular trichomes leaving the cannabinoids in the trichomes.”