Top hemp ‘dual-cropping’ varieties are identified, but practice involves tradeoffs

HempToday®: Top hemp ‘dual-cropping’ varieties are identified, but practice involves tradeoffs
Canadian and French hemp varieties offer the most potential yields of grain and straw from a single crop, according to ongoing trials in four Midwestern U.S. states. Researchers also found […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/top-hemp-dual-cropping-varieties-are-identified-but-practice-involves-tradeoffs/
May 27, 2024 7:15 am

PubMed: Harnessing therapeutic deep eutectic solvents in self-emulsifying systems to improve CBD delivery

PubMed: Harnessing therapeutic deep eutectic solvents in self-emulsifying systems to improve CBD delivery

Int J Pharm. 2024 May 24:124267. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2024.124267. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In this study, Cannabidiol crystals (CBD) were used as a BCS class II model drug to generate a novel therapeutic deep eutectic solvent (THEDES) with easy preparation using caprylic acid (CA). The hydrogen bonding interaction was confirmed by different techniques such as FT-IR and NMR, resulting in a hydrophobic system suitable for liquid formulations. The CBD-based THEDES, combined with a specific mixture of surfactants and co-surfactants, successfully formed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) that generated uniform nano-sized droplets once dispersed in water. Hence, the THEDES showed compatibility with the self-emulsifying approach, offering an alternative method to load drugs at their therapeutic dosage. Physical stability concerns regarding the unconventional oily phase were addressed through stress tests using multiple and dynamic light scattering, demonstrating the robustness of the system. In addition, the formulated SEDDS proved effective in protecting CBD from the harsh acidic gastric environment for up to 2 h at pH 1.2. Furthermore, in vitro studies have confirmed the safety of the formulation and the ability of CBD to permeate Caco-2 cells when formulated. This investigation highlights the potential incorporation of THEDES in lipid-based formulations like SEDDS, expanding the avenues for innovative oral drug delivery approaches.

PMID:38797251 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2024.124267

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38797251/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240527012520&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 26, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol in the dorsal hippocampus attenuates emotional and cognitive impairments related to neuropathic pain: Role of prelimbic neocortex-hippocampal connections

PubMed: Cannabidiol in the dorsal hippocampus attenuates emotional and cognitive impairments related to neuropathic pain: Role of prelimbic neocortex-hippocampal connections

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2024 May 24:111039. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111039. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain (NP) is commonly associated with cognitive and emotional impairments. Cannabidiol (CBD) presents a broad spectrum of action with a potential analgesic effect. This work investigates the CBD effect on comorbidity between chronic NP, depression, and memory impairment.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The connection between the neocortex and the hippocampus was investigated with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) deposits in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). Wistar rats were submitted to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and CA1 treatment with CBD (15, 30, 60 nmol).

KEY RESULTS: BDA-labeled were found in CA1 and dentate gyrus. CCI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia increased c-Fos protein expression in the PrL and CA1. The number of astrocytes in PrL and CA1 increased, and the number of neuroblasts decreased in CA1. The CCI animals showed increasing depressive-like behaviors, such as memory impairment. CBD (60 nmol) treatment decreased mechanical and cold allodynia, attenuated depressive-associated behaviors, and improved memory performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2: 1 nM), WAY-100635 (0.37 nmol), and AM251 (100 nmol) intra-PrL reversed the CBD (60 nmol) effect intra-CA1, both in nociceptive, cognitive, and depressive behaviors.

CONCLUSION: CBD represents a promising therapeutic perspective in the pharmacological treatment of chronic NP and associated comorbidities such as depression and memory impairments. The CBD effects possibly recruit the CA1-PrL pathway, inducing neuroplasticity. CBD acute treatment into the CA1 produces functional and molecular morphological improvements.

PMID:38797491 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111039

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38797491/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240527012520&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 26, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Opportunities, Challenges, and Scientific Progress in Hemp Crops

PubMed: Opportunities, Challenges, and Scientific Progress in Hemp Crops

Molecules. 2024 May 20;29(10):2397. doi: 10.3390/molecules29102397.

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) has been propelled by changes in the legal framework governing its cultivation and use, increased demand for hemp-derived products, and studies recognizing the industrial and health benefits of hemp. This has led to the creation of novel high-cannabidiol, low-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol varieties, enabling hemp crop expansion worldwide. This review elucidates the recent implications for hemp cultivation in Europe, with a focus on the legislative impacts on the cultivation practices, prospective breeding efforts, and dynamic scientific landscape surrounding this crop. We also review the current cultivars’ cannabinoid composition of the European hemp market and its major differences with that of the United States.

PMID:38792258 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29102397

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38792258/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240525112158&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 25, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Drug-Cannabinoid Interactions in Selected Therapeutics for Symptoms Associated with Epilepsy, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, and Pain

PubMed: Drug-Cannabinoid Interactions in Selected Therapeutics for Symptoms Associated with Epilepsy, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, and Pain

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2024 May 10;17(5):613. doi: 10.3390/ph17050613.

ABSTRACT

Clinical practice entails a translation of research that assists in the use of scientific data and therapeutic evidence for the benefit of the patient. This review critically summarizes the potential impact of cannabinoids in conjunction with other drugs when associated with treatments for epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. In these associations, potential drug interactions may occur and alter the predicted clinical results. Therefore, the potential for drug interactions must always be assessed to avoid therapeutic failures and/or increased side effects. Some effects may be additive, synergistic, or antagonistic, but changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, particularly through cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (e.g., CYP2C9 and CYP3A4), and excretion may also occur. For example, the combination of cannabis-derived compounds and the antifungal drug ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, increases the plasma concentration of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In contrast, rifampicin, a CYP3A4 inducer, stands out for reducing plasma THC levels by approximately 20-40% and 50% to 60% for CBD. Other CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers are likely to have a similar effect on plasma concentrations if co-administered. Pharmacokinetic interactions with anticonvulsant medications have also been reported, as have pharmacodynamic interactions between cannabinoids and medications with sympathomimetic effects (e.g., tachycardia, hypertension), central nervous system depressants (e.g., drowsiness, ataxia), and anticholinergics (e.g., tachycardia and somnolence). Although further studies are still pending, there is currently clinical evidence supporting drug interactions with cannabinoids, requiring doctors to evaluate the risk of drug combinations with cannabinoids and vice versa. The tables provided here were designed to facilitate the identification of biorelevant interactions that may compromise therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.

PMID:38794183 | DOI:10.3390/ph17050613

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38794183/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240525112158&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 25, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol is a behavioral modulator in BTBR mouse model of idiopathic autism

PubMed: Cannabidiol is a behavioral modulator in BTBR mouse model of idiopathic autism

Front Neurosci. 2024 May 9;18:1359810. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2024.1359810. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has drastically risen over the last two decades and is currently estimated to affect 1 in 36 children in the U.S., according to the center for disease control (CDC). This heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by impaired social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors plus restricted interest. Autistic individuals also commonly present with a myriad of comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and seizures. To date, a pharmacological intervention for the treatment of core autistic symptoms has not been identified. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, is suggested to have multiple therapeutic applications, but its effect(s) on idiopathic autism is unknown. We hypothesized that CBD will effectively attenuate the autism-like behaviors and autism-associated comorbid behaviors in BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established mouse model of idiopathic ASD.

METHODS: Male BTBR mice were injected intraperitoneally with either vehicle, 20 mg/kg CBD or 50 mg/kg CBD daily for two weeks beginning at postnatal day 21 ± 3. On the final treatment day, a battery of behavioral assays were used to evaluate the effects of CBD on the BTBR mice, as compared to age-matched, vehicle-treated C57BL/6 J mice.

RESULTS: High dose (50 mg/kg) CBD treatment attenuated the elevated repetitive self-grooming behavior and hyperlocomotion in BTBR mice. The social deficits exhibited by the control BTBR mice were rescued by the 20 mg/kg CBD treatment.

DISCUSSION: Our data indicate that different doses for CBD are needed for treating specific ASD-like behaviors. Together, our results suggest that CBD may be an effective drug to ameliorate repetitive/restricted behaviors, social deficits, and autism-associated hyperactivity.

PMID:38784096 | PMC:PMC11112039 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2024.1359810

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38784096/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240524073521&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 24, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation by Cannabidiol (CBD): Promising Targets for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

PubMed: Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation by Cannabidiol (CBD): Promising Targets for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2024 May 6;46(5):4379-4402. doi: 10.3390/cimb46050266.

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common form of dementia globally. Although the direct cause of AD remains under debate, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are critical components in its pathogenesis and progression. As a result, compounds like cannabidiol (CBD) are being increasingly investigated for their ability to provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory neuroprotection. CBD is the primary non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa. It has been found to provide beneficial outcomes in a variety of medical conditions and is gaining increasing attention for its potential therapeutic application in AD. CBD is not psychoactive and its lipophilic nature allows its rapid distribution throughout the body, including across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). CBD also possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making it a viable candidate for AD treatment. This review outlines CBD’s mechanism of action, the role of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in AD, and the effectiveness and limitations of CBD in preclinical models of AD.

PMID:38785534 | DOI:10.3390/cimb46050266

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38785534/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240524132106&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 24, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Protective Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) against Qxidative Stress, but Not Excitotoxic-Related Neuronal Cell Damage-An In Vitro Study

PubMed: Protective Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) against Qxidative Stress, but Not Excitotoxic-Related Neuronal Cell Damage-An In Vitro Study

Biomolecules. 2024 May 9;14(5):564. doi: 10.3390/biom14050564.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) appears to possess some neuroprotective properties, but experimental data are still inconsistent. Therefore, this in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of CBD in a wide range of concentrations on oxidative stress and excitotoxic-related cell damage. Results showed that low concentrations of CBD ameliorated the H2O2-evoked cell damage of primary cortical neuronal cell culture. However, higher concentrations of CBD alone (5-25 μM) decreased the viability of cortical neurons in a concentration-dependent manner and aggravated the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Neuroprotection mediated by CBD in primary neurons against H2O2 was not associated with a direct influence on ROS production nor inhibition of caspase-3, but we found protective effects of CBD at the level of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation. However, CBD had no protective effect on the glutamate-induced cell damage of cortical neurons, and in higher concentrations, it enhanced the toxic effects of this cell-damaging factor. Likewise, CBD, depending on its concentration, at least did not affect or even enhance cortical cellular damage exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Finally, we showed that CBD in submicromolar or low micromolar concentrations significantly protected human neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2– and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that CBD has a dual effect on oxidative stress-induced neuronal death-in low concentrations, it is neuroprotective, but in higher ones, it may display neurotoxic activity. On the other hand, in excitotoxic-related models, CBD was ineffective or enhanced cell damage. Our data support the notion that the neuroprotective effects of CBD strongly depend on its concentration and experimental model of neuronal death.

PMID:38785971 | DOI:10.3390/biom14050564

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38785971/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240524132106&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 24, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol and its application in the treatment of oral diseases: therapeutic potentials, routes of administration and prospects

PubMed: Cannabidiol and its application in the treatment of oral diseases: therapeutic potentials, routes of administration and prospects

Biomed Pharmacother. 2024 May 23;176:116271. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116271. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the most important active ingredients in cannabis, has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as antibacterial and analgesic effects, and to have therapeutic potential in the treatment of oral diseases such as oral cancer, gingivitis and periodontal diseases. However, there is a lack of relevant systematic research and reviews. Therefore, based on the etiology and clinical symptoms of several common oral diseases, this paper focuses on the therapeutic potential of CBD in periodontal diseases, pulp diseases, oral mucosal diseases, oral cancer and temporomandibular joint diseases. The pharmacological effects of CBD and the distribution and function of its receptors in the oral cavity are also summarized. In order to provide reference for future research and further clinical application of CBD, we also summarize several possible routes of administration and corresponding characteristics. Finally, the challenges faced while applying CBD clinically and possible solutions are discussed, and we also look to the future.

PMID:38788594 | DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116271

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38788594/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240525062209&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 24, 2024 10:00 am

Language floated for Farm Bill would wipe out delta-8, other hemp intoxicants

HempToday®: Language floated for Farm Bill would wipe out delta-8, other hemp intoxicants
Proposed new provisions for the next U.S. Farm Bill are bearing down on delta-8 THC and other intoxicating hemp-derived substances as lawmakers begin to look at serious language that would […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/language-floated-for-farm-bill-would-wipe-out-delta-8-other-hemp-intoxicants/
May 23, 2024 6:12 pm

PubMed: Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seed-derived peptides WVYY and PSLPA modulate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in human keratinocytes

PubMed: Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seed-derived peptides WVYY and PSLPA modulate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in human keratinocytes

PLoS One. 2024 May 23;19(5):e0298487. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298487. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seeds are used widely for cosmetic and therapeutic applications, and contain peptides with substantial therapeutic potential. Two key peptides, WVYY and PSLPA, extracted from hemp seed proteins were the focal points of this study. These peptides have emerged as pivotal contributors to the various biological effects of hemp seed extracts. Consistently, in the present study, the biological effects of WVYY and PSLPA were explored. We confirmed that both WVYY and PSLPA exert antioxidant and antibacterial effects and promote wound healing. We hypothesized the involvement of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in these observed effects, given that Nrf2 is reported to be a central player in the regulation of these observed effects. Molecular-level investigations unequivocally confirmed the role of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the observed effects of WVYY and PSLPA, specifically their antioxidant effects. Our study highlights the therapeutic potential of hemp seed-derived peptides WVYY and PSLPA, particularly with respect to their antioxidant effects, and provides a nuanced understanding of their effects. Further, our findings can facilitate the investigation of targeted therapeutic applications and also underscore the broader significance of hemp extracts in biological contexts.

PMID:38781174 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0298487

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38781174/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240523192314&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 23, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The Effect of Cannabidiol on Subjective Responses to Endurance Exercise: A Randomised Controlled Trial

PubMed: The Effect of Cannabidiol on Subjective Responses to Endurance Exercise: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Sports Med Open. 2024 May 23;10(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s40798-024-00727-3.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise is known to improve health. However, it can be unpleasant, often inducing negative feelings, or ‘affect’. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating constituent of the cannabis plant, has been reported to enhance the subjective experience of exercise; specifically, in trained individuals performing fixed-intensity endurance activity. Here, we investigated the effects of CBD on subjective responses to exercise under more ecologically valid conditions; namely, in recreationally active individuals performing self-paced endurance activity.

METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted at Griffith University between July 17 and August 28, 2023. Griffith University students studying sports nutrition were invited to take part, with eligible volunteers ≥ 18 years of age and able to perform endurance exercise. Participants ingested placebo or 150 mg CBD in two soft-gel capsules 90 min before completing a self-paced 25-lap (10 km) run around an outdoor athletics track (400 m, synthetic). The primary outcomes were affective valence during exercise, assessed on completion of laps 6, 12, 18 and 24 using the ‘Feelings Scale’, and positive and negative affect, assessed at baseline, pre-run and post-run using the ‘Positive and Negative Affect Schedule’. Exercise enjoyment, motivation and self-efficacy, the core features of the ‘runner’s high’ (i.e., euphoria, pain, anxiety, sedation), perceived exertion and run time were also assessed.

RESULTS: Fifty-two participants were randomised and 51 were included in the final sample (n = 22 female; 22 [21-25] years). Exercise induced negative affect (i.e., at the time of undertaking) and increased pain. CBD did not counteract either response. In fact, CBD had no significant effects on any of the outcomes measured. In contrast, exercise, once completed, increased positive affect, and decreased negative affect and anxiety.

CONCLUSIONS: CBD (150 mg, oral) does not appear to enhance the subjective experience of self-paced endurance exercise in recreationally active individuals. Nor, however, does it appear to compromise it. These findings suggest that CBD use is safe under exercise conditions and unlikely to impede physical activity participation. Our study also reaffirms the powerful mood-enhancing effects of exercise.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( www.anzctr.org.au ) on May 31, 2023 (Trial ID: ACTRN12623000593639).

PMID:38782848 | DOI:10.1186/s40798-024-00727-3

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38782848/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240524012314&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 23, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: An open-label feasibility trial of transdermal cannabidiol for hand osteoarthritis

PubMed: An open-label feasibility trial of transdermal cannabidiol for hand osteoarthritis

Sci Rep. 2024 May 23;14(1):11792. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-62428-x.

ABSTRACT

Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is an irreversible degenerative condition causing chronic pain and impaired functionality. Existing treatment options are often inadequate. Cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of arthritis. In this open-label feasibility trial, participants with symptomatically active hand OA applied a novel transdermal CBD gel (4% w/w) three times a day for four weeks to their most painful hand. Changes in daily self-reported pain scores were measured on a 0-10 Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Hand functionality was determined via daily grip strength measures using a Bluetooth equipped squeeze ball and self-report questionnaire. Quality of life (QoL) ratings around sleep, anxiety, stiffness and fatigue were also measured. All self-report measures and grip strength data were gathered via smartphone application. Urinalysis was conducted at trial end to determine systemic absorption of CBD. Eighteen participants were consented and 15 completed the trial. Pain ratings were significantly reduced over time from pre-treatment baseline including current pain (- 1.91 ± 0.35, p < 0.0001), average pain (- 1.92 ± 0.35, p < 0.0001) and maximum pain (- 1.97 ± 0.34, p < 0.0001) (data represent mean reduction on a 0-10 NPRS scale ± standard error of the mean (SEM)). A significant increase in grip strength in the treated hand (p < 0.0001) was observed although self-reported functionality did not improve. There were significant (p < 0.005) improvements in three QoL measures: fatigue, stiffness and anxiety. CBD and its metabolites were detected at low concentrations in all urine samples. Measured reductions in pain and increases in grip strength seen during treatment reverted back towards baseline during the washout phase. In summary, pain, grip strength and QoL measures, using smartphone technology, was shown to improve over time following transdermal CBD application suggesting feasibility of this intervention in relieving osteoarthritic hand pain. Proof of efficacy, however, requires further confirmation in a placebo-controlled randomised trial.Trial registration: ANZCTR public trials registry (ACTRN12621001512819, 05/11/2021).

PMID:38783008 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-62428-x

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38783008/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240524012314&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 23, 2024 10:00 am

Fiber comes on strong as Australian hemp fields double, stemming 3-year slide

HempToday®: Fiber comes on strong as Australian hemp fields double, stemming 3-year slide
While Australia’s hemp industry faces significant challenges to development, political momentum is growing in some states and healthy investment levels are projected over the next two years in the fiber […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/fiber-comes-on-strong-as-australian-hemp-fields-double-stemming-3-year-slide/
May 23, 2024 7:41 am

PubMed: Commercial Cannabidiol for Community-Based Young Adolescents: Predicting Medicinal Use

PubMed: Commercial Cannabidiol for Community-Based Young Adolescents: Predicting Medicinal Use

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2024 May 7. doi: 10.1089/can.2024.0015. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Cannabidiol (CBD) is rising in popularity, including as a potential medicinal product. Yet data on use of commercial CBD for medicinal or health reasons in adolescents are lacking. In this study we aim to detail characteristics of adolescents given commercial CBD for health reasons (health CBD [hCBD]) and to investigate predictors of use. Materials and Methods: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a population-based cohort study following U.S. healthy, community-based adolescents annually, with data from 2018 to 2022 (11- to 15-year-olds; N=11,189). Participants and caregivers completed questionnaires, including whether adolescents were given CBD with parent or doctor’s permission. Participants reported past-month pain, attention problems, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and total mental health problems. Caregivers reported youth sociodemographics, sleep problems, whether the youth had mental health treatment or sought medical treatment, and rules about recreational cannabis use. We describe youth given hCBD, and run generalized estimating equations predicting odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of adolescents given hCBD by mental health, physical health, or sociodemographics of factors. Results: Of the 11,189 participants across up to three waves of data, 48% were female. Mean age across waves was 12.8 years old (SD=1). In total, 307 (2.8%) were given hCBD. Common administration methods were oil (42%), topical (31%), and edibles (29%). Increased hCBD odds were associated with being older (OR=1.32 [1.17-1.49]), White (relative to Black, OR=05.97 [2.81-12.65] or Hispanic, OR=1.82 [1.17-2.82]), parents with some college (relative to no high school diploma, OR=3.55 [1.09-11.6]), internalizing symptoms (OR=1.81 [1.13-2.91]), mental health treatment (OR=1.76 [1.3-2.38]), pain (OR=1.38 [1.09-1.76]), medical treatment (OR=1.39 [1.08-1.79]), and sleep problems (OR=1.69 [1.27-2.25]). Rules against recreational cannabis decreased odds of hCBD (OR=1.75 [1.30-2.36]). Conclusions: Findings indicate some healthy adolescents are given hCBD, and predictors of use include mental and physical health concerns, being White, older, and parents with some college education. Providers should ask if their youth patients are being given CBD medicinally, and transparently discuss potential benefits, consequences, and unknowns of CBD.

PMID:38775636 | DOI:10.1089/can.2024.0015

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38775636/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240522132251&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 22, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Aza-BODIPY Coencapsulation for Photodynamic Therapy Enhancement in Liver Cancer Cells

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Aza-BODIPY Coencapsulation for Photodynamic Therapy Enhancement in Liver Cancer Cells

ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2024 May 22. doi: 10.1021/acsabm.4c00239. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cannabidiol (CBD) have been explored for their potential in synergistic cancer treatment. In this study, we employed CBD oil as a lipid phase, encapsulated within AZB-I@Lec-T to create lipid-based nanoparticles. Here, CBD oil does two tasks: it acts as a pyroptosis agent to destroy liver cancer cells and as a lipid phase to dissolve the photosensitizer. It was expected that this system would offer synergistic therapy between CBD and PDT better than a single use of each treatment. With a series of in vitro experiments, the nanoparticles exhibited induced apoptosis in 68% of HepG2 cells treated with AZB-I@Lec-T@CBD and near-infrared (NIR)-light irradiation, reducing expression levels of antioxidant defense system genes. Furthermore, both components worked well in a submicromolar range when combined in our formulation. These results highlight the potential for amplifying primary cellular damage with the combination of PDT and CBD encapsulation, providing a promising therapeutic approach for liver cancer treatment guidelines.

PMID:38776245 | DOI:10.1021/acsabm.4c00239

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38776245/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240522193331&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 22, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Selected cannabis cultivars modulate glial activation: in vitro and in vivo studies

PubMed: Selected cannabis cultivars modulate glial activation: in vitro and in vivo studies

J Cannabis Res. 2024 May 22;6(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s42238-024-00232-0.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by neuroinflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. Cannabis, an immunomodulating agent, is known for its ability to treat MS effectively. However, due to variations in the profile of secondary metabolites, especially cannabinoids, among cannabis cultivars, the effectiveness of cannabis treatment can vary, with significant variability in the effects on different biological parameters. For screening available cultivars, cellular in vitro as well as pre-clinical in vivo assays, are required to evaluate the effectiveness of the wide range of chemical variability that exists in cannabis cultivars. This study evaluated comparatively three chemically diverse cannabis cultivars, CN2, CN4 and CN6, containing different ratios of phytocannabinoids, for their neuroinflammatory activity in MS model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro experiments were performed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglia and primary glial cells to evaluate the effect of different cannabis cultivars on nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. An in vivo experiment using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) MS model was conducted using Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) as the activating peptide. The cannabis extracts of the cultivars CN2, CN4, CN6 or vehicle, were intraperitoneally injected with clinical scores given based on observed symptoms over the course of study. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed, and splenocyte cytokine secretion was measured using ELISA. Lumbar sections from the spinal cord of treated MS mice were evaluated for microglia, astrocytes and CD4+ cells.

RESULTS: Extracts of the CN2 cultivar contained tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) without cannabidiol (CBD), and a number of monoterpenes. CN4 contained cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and tetrahydrocannabidiolic acid (THCA), with significant amounts of THC: CBD in a 1:1 ratio, as well as sesquiterpenes and some monoterpenes; and CN6 contained primarily CBDA and THCA, as well as THC and CBD in a 2:1 ratio, with some sesquiterpenes and no monoterpenes. All extracts were not cytotoxic in glial cells up to 50 µg/ml. Dose dependent inhibition of LPS-induced BV2 as well as primary microglial NO secretion confirmed the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity of the three cannabis cultivars. CN2 but not CN4 reduced both astrocytosis and microglial activation in lumbar sections of EAE mice. In contrast, CN4 but not CN2 significantly decreased the secretion of TNFα and Interferon γ (IFNγ) in primary splenocytes extracted from EAE mice.

CONCLUSIONS: While both cannabis cultivars, CN2 and CN4, significantly reduced the severity of the clinical signs throughout the course of the study, they modulated different inflammatory mediators and pathways, probably due to differences in their phytocannabinoid composition. This demonstrates the differential potential of cannabis cultivars differing in chemotype to regulate neuroinflammation and their potential to treat MS.

PMID:38778343 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-024-00232-0

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38778343/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240523012639&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 22, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The Potential of Cannabichromene (CBC) as a Therapeutic Agent

PubMed: The Potential of Cannabichromene (CBC) as a Therapeutic Agent

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2024 May 22:JPET-MR-2024-002166. doi: 10.1124/jpet.124.002166. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

There is a growing interest in the use of medicinal plants to treat a variety of diseases, and one of the most commonly used medicinal plants globally is Cannabis sativa The two most abundant cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) have been governmentally approved to treat selected medical conditions; however, the plant produces over 100 cannabinoids, including cannabichromene (CBC). While the cannabinoids share a common precursor molecule, cannabigerol, they are structurally and pharmacologically unique. These differences may engender differing therapeutic potentials. In this review, we will examine what is currently known about CBC with regards to pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and receptor profile. We will also discuss the therapeutic areas that have been examined for this cannabinoid, notably antinociceptive, antibacterial, and anti-seizure activities. Finally, we will discuss areas where new research is needed and potential novel medicinal applications for CBC. Significance Statement Cannabichromene (CBC) has been suggested to have disparate therapeutic benefits such as anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, and antinociceptive effects. Most of the focus on the medical benefits of cannabinoids has been focused on THC and CBD. The preliminary studies on CBC indicate that this phytocannabinoid may have unique therapeutic potential that warrants further investigation. Following easier access to hemp, CBC products are commercially available over-the-counter and are being widely utilized with little or no evidence of their safety or efficacy.

PMID:38777605 | DOI:10.1124/jpet.124.002166

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38777605/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240523012639&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 22, 2024 10:00 am

SEC lawsuit claims CBD exec spent most of investor funds on gambling, luxury goods

HempToday®: SEC lawsuit claims CBD exec spent most of investor funds on gambling, luxury goods
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has filed suit against a Texas man the agency said collected $1.2 million from investors for a hemp business and then spent more than $755,000 […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/sec-suit-claims-cbd-exec-spent-most-of-investor-funds-on-gambling-luxury-goods/
May 22, 2024 9:23 am

Germany nixes troublesome hemp ‘intoxication clause’ and revises other rules

HempToday®: Germany nixes troublesome hemp ‘intoxication clause’ and revises other rules
A controversial clause on THC will be removed from German regulations on industrial hemp, and other rules are being adjusted to ease the path for producers, according to the country’s […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/germany-nixes-troublesome-hemp-intoxication-clause-and-revises-other-rules/
May 21, 2024 10:50 am

PubMed: Key Transdermal Patch Using Cannabidiol-Loaded Nanocarriers with Better Pharmacokinetics in vivo

PubMed: Key Transdermal Patch Using Cannabidiol-Loaded Nanocarriers with Better Pharmacokinetics in vivo

Int J Nanomedicine. 2024 May 16;19:4321-4337. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S455032. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a promising therapeutic drug with low addictive potential and a favorable safety profile. However, CBD did face certain challenges, including poor solubility in water and low oral bioavailability. To harness the potential of CBD by combining it with a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). This innovative approach sought to develop a transdermal patch dosage form with micellar vesicular nanocarriers to enhance the bioavailability of CBD, leading to improved therapeutic outcomes.

METHODS: A skin-penetrating micellar vesicular nanocarriers, prepared using nano emulsion method, cannabidiol loaded transdermal nanocarriers-12 (CTD-12) was presented with a small particle size, high encapsulation efficiency, and a drug-loaded ratio for CBD. The skin permeation ability used Strat-M™ membrane with a transdermal diffusion system to evaluate the CTD and patch of CTD-12 (PCTD-12) within 24 hrs. PCTD-12 was used in a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats to demonstrate the potential of the developed transdermal nanocarrier drug patch for future applications.

RESULTS: In the transdermal application of CTD-12, the relative bioavailability of the formulation was 3.68 ± 0.17-fold greater than in the free CBD application. Moreover, PCTD-12 indicated 2.46 ± 0.18-fold higher relative bioavailability comparing with free CBD patch in the ex vivo evaluation. Most importantly, in the pharmacokinetics of PCTD-12, the relative bioavailability of PCTD-12 was 9.47 ± 0.88-fold higher than in the oral application.

CONCLUSION: CTD-12, a transdermal nanocarrier, represents a promising approach for CBD delivery, suggesting its potential as an effective transdermal dosage form.

PMID:38770103 | PMC:PMC11104392 | DOI:10.2147/IJN.S455032

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38770103/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240521072315&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol improves nonmotor symptoms, attenuates neuroinflammation and favors hippocampal newborn neuronal maturation in a rat model of Parkinsonism

PubMed: Cannabidiol improves nonmotor symptoms, attenuates neuroinflammation and favors hippocampal newborn neuronal maturation in a rat model of Parkinsonism

Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2024 May 21:1-30. doi: 10.1017/neu.2024.15. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on emotional and cognitive symptoms in rats with intra-nigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions.

METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA infusions and were tested in a battery of behavioral paradigms to evaluate nonmotor symptoms. The brains were obtained to evaluate the effects of CBD on hippocampal neurogenesis.

RESULTS: 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats exhibited memory impairments and despair-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and forced swim test, respectively. The animals also exhibited dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), striatum, and ventral tegmental area and a reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Cannabidiol decreased dopaminergic neuronal loss in the SNpc, reduced the mortality rate and decreased neuroinflammation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In parallel, CBD prevented memory impairments and attenuated despair-like behavior that were induced by bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesions. Repeated treatment with CBD favored the neuronal maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus in Parkinsonian rats.

CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of CBD on nonmotor symptoms induced by intra-nigral 6-OHDA infusion in rats.

PMID:38770713 | DOI:10.1017/neu.2024.15

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38770713/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240521072315&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Absence of Evidence for Sustained Effects of Daily Cannabidiol Administration on Anandamide Plasma Concentration in Individuals with Cocaine Use Disorder: Exploratory Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

PubMed: Absence of Evidence for Sustained Effects of Daily Cannabidiol Administration on Anandamide Plasma Concentration in Individuals with Cocaine Use Disorder: Exploratory Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2024 May 21. doi: 10.1089/can.2023.0273. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that CBD can increase anandamide (AEA) plasma concentration, possibly mediating some of its therapeutic properties. Whether CBD exerts such an effect on AEA in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains unknown. Aims: To explore the sustained effects of daily CBD administration on AEA plasma concentrations compared with placebo in CUD. Methods: We used data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating CBD’s efficacy in CUD. Seventy-eight individuals were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of 800 mg CBD (n = 40) or a placebo (n = 38). Participants stayed in an inpatient detoxification setting for 10 days, after which they were followed in an outpatient setting for 12 weeks. AEA plasma concentration was measured at baseline and at 23-h post CBD ingestion on day 8 and week 4. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess CBD’s effects on AEA, and sensitivity analyses were computed using Bayesian linear regressions. Results: Sixty-four participants were included in the analysis. Similar mean AEA plasma concentrations in both treatment groups (p = 0.357) were observed. At day 8, mean AEA plasma concentrations (± standard deviation) were 0.26 (± 0.07) ng/mL in the CBD group and 0.29 (± 0.08) ng/mL in the placebo group (p = 0.832; Bayes factor [BF] = 0.190). At week 4, they were 0.27 (± 0.09) ng/mL in the CBD group and 0.30 (± 0.09) ng/mL in the placebo group (p = 0.181; BF = 0.194). Conclusion: While not excluding any potential acute and short-term effect, daily CBD administration did not exert a sustained impact on AEA plasma concentrations in individuals with CUD compared with placebo. Registration: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02559167).

PMID:38770686 | DOI:10.1089/can.2023.0273

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38770686/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240521072315&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Applying machine learning to international drug monitoring: classifying cannabis resin collected in Europe using cannabinoid concentrations

PubMed: Applying machine learning to international drug monitoring: classifying cannabis resin collected in Europe using cannabinoid concentrations

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2024 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s00406-024-01816-w. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In Europe, concentrations of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis resin (also known as hash) have risen markedly in the past decade, potentially increasing risks of mental health disorders. Current approaches to international drug monitoring cannot distinguish between different types of cannabis resin which may have contrasting health effects due to THC and cannabidiol (CBD) content. Here, we compared concentrations of THC and CBD in different types of cannabis resin collected in Europe (either Moroccan-type, or Dutch-type). We then tested the ability of machine learning algorithms to classify the type of cannabis resin (either Moroccan-type, or Dutch-type) using routinely collected monitoring data on THC and CBD. Finally, we applied the optimal algorithm to new samples collected in countries where the type of cannabis resin was unknown, the UK and Denmark. Results showed that overall, Dutch-type samples had higher THC (Hedges’ g = 2.39) and lower CBD (Hedges’ g = 0.81) than Moroccan-type samples. A Support Vector Machine algorithm achieved classification accuracy exceeding 95%, with little variation in this estimate, good interpretability, and plausibility. It made contrasting predictions about the type of cannabis resin collected in the UK (94% Moroccan-type; 6% Dutch-type) and Denmark (36% Moroccan-type; 64% Dutch-type). In conclusion, we provide proof-of-concept evidence for the potential of machine learning to inform international drug monitoring. Our findings should not be interpreted as objective confirmatory evidence but suggest that Dutch-type cannabis resin has higher THC concentrations than Moroccan-type cannabis resin, which may contribute to variation in drug markets and health outcomes for people who use cannabis in Europe.

PMID:38771330 | DOI:10.1007/s00406-024-01816-w

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38771330/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240521132305&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 21, 2024 10:00 am

New law in Iowa bans intoxicating hemp, restricts CBD to those 21 or older

HempToday®: New law in Iowa bans intoxicating hemp, restricts CBD to those 21 or older
Iowa Gov. Kim Reynolds has signed into law a bill that bans synthetically produced delta-8 THC and similar lab-made intoxicating hemp compounds that have grown in popularity as substitutes for marijuana products. The measure, […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/new-law-in-iowa-bans-intoxicating-hemp-restricts-cbd-to-those-21-or-older/
May 21, 2024 9:49 am

PubMed: The Use of Cannabidiol in Treating Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

PubMed: The Use of Cannabidiol in Treating Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Jun 1;31(2):226-232. doi: 10.5152/pcp.2021.21743. eCollection 2021 Jun.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been used as a pharmacological treatment for psychiatric disorders in many studies, but few of good quality at the moment. Our objective was to assess the effect of CBD in mono/add-on therapy on symptom severity in psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of clinical trials and randomized controlled trials that used CBD as treatment for psychiatric disorders. PRISMA criteria have been used for methodological purposes. Two assessors individually examined the results based on title and abstract, and decided which papers warranted full read. We included studies in English that measured disease severity as primary outcome. Out of 226 studies returned from the search, 9 warranted full read. There were 4 studies using CBD in schizophrenia, 3 studies of substance use disorder and 2 studies of social anxiety. CBD has a good safety profile even in higher doses, but results are inconclusive regarding improvements in disease severity.

PMID:38765233 | PMC:PMC11079705 | DOI:10.5152/pcp.2021.21743

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38765233/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240520072538&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 20, 2024 10:00 am

Hemp bill in Victoria would reduce ‘onerous, confusing’ barriers, farm group says

HempToday®: Hemp bill in Victoria would reduce ‘onerous, confusing’ barriers, farm group says
A farming group in the Australian state of Victoria said it is backing proposed legislation that would loosen regulations for hemp growers and unlock the potential for production of sustainable […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/hemp-bill-in-victoria-would-reduce-onerous-confusing-barriers-farm-group-says/
May 20, 2024 8:32 am

PubMed: Anticancer effect of minor phytocannabinoids in preclinical models of multiple myeloma

PubMed: Anticancer effect of minor phytocannabinoids in preclinical models of multiple myeloma

Biofactors. 2024 May 17. doi: 10.1002/biof.2078. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a blood cancer caused by uncontrolled growth of clonal plasmacells. Bone disease is responsible for the severe complications of MM and is caused by myeloma cells infiltrating the bone marrow and inducing osteoclast activation. To date, no treatment for MM is truly curative since patients relapse and become refractory to all drug classes. Cannabinoids are already used as palliative in cancer patients. Furthermore, their proper anticancer effect was demonstrated in many cancer models in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical trials. Anyway, few information was reported on the effect of cannabinoids on MM and no data has been provided on minor phytocannabinoids such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidivarin (CBDV). Scientific literature also reported cannabinoids beneficial effect against bone disease. Here, we examined the cytotoxic activity of CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBDV in vitro in MM cell lines, their effect in modulating MM cells invasion toward bone cells and the bone resorption. Subsequently, according to the in vitro results, we selected CBN for in vivo study in a MM xenograft mice model. Results showed that the phytocannabinoids inhibited MM cell growth and induced necrotic cell death. Moreover, the phytocannabinoids reduced the invasion of MM cells toward osteoblast cells and bone resorption in vitro. Lastly, CBN reduced in vivo tumor mass. Together, our results suggest that CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBDV can be promising anticancer agents for MM.

PMID:38760945 | DOI:10.1002/biof.2078

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38760945/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240518202449&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Advanced fabrication of complex biopolymer microcapsules via RSM-optimized supercritical carbon dioxide solution-enhanced dispersion: A comparative analysis of various microencapsulation techniques

PubMed: Advanced fabrication of complex biopolymer microcapsules via RSM-optimized supercritical carbon dioxide solution-enhanced dispersion: A comparative analysis of various microencapsulation techniques

Food Chem. 2024 May 8;452:139591. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139591. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to enhance hemp seed oil encapsulation within a hemp seed protein-alginate complex by optimizing parameters in the solution-enhanced dispersion process, employing supercritical carbon dioxide (SEDS) without reliance on organic solvents or elevated temperatures. By response surface methodology (RSM), the microencapsulation efficacy (MEE), particle size (PS) and peroxide value (PV) was determined with respect to three parameters; temperature (°C), pressure (bar) and feed flow rate (mL/min). The optimum conditions were predicted at temperature (40 °C), pressure (150 bar) and feed flow rate (2 mL/min) to offer an MEE of 89.47%, PS of 7.81 μm and PV of 2.91 (meq/kg oil). In addition, the SEDS method was compared with spray- and freeze-drying for encapsulating hemp seed oil. The findings demonstrated SEDS’ superiority, exhibiting exceptional attributes such as the highest MEE, smallest PS and the production of spherical, smooth microcapsules. This highlights its effectiveness in comparison to spray- and freeze-drying methods.

PMID:38761631 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139591

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38761631/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240519012647&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: New insights into the involvement of serotonin and BDNF-TrkB signalling in cannabidiol's antidepressant effect

PubMed: New insights into the involvement of serotonin and BDNF-TrkB signalling in cannabidiol's antidepressant effect

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2024 May 16:111029. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111029. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid devoid of psychostimulant properties and is currently under investigation as a potential antidepressant drug. However, the mechanisms underlying CBD’s antidepressant effects are not yet well understood. CBD targets include a variety of receptors, enzymes, and transporters, with different binding-affinities. Neurochemical and pharmacological evidence indicates that both serotonin and BDNF-TrkB signalling in the prefrontal cortex are necessary for the antidepressant effects induced by CBD in animal models. Herein, we reviewed the current literature to dissect if these are independent mechanisms or if CBD-induced modulation of the serotonergic neurotransmission could mediate its neuroplastic effects through subsequent regulation of BDNF-TrkB signalling, thus culminating in rapid neuroplastic changes. It is hypothesized that: a) CBD interaction with serotonin receptors on neurons of the dorsal raphe nuclei and the resulting disinhibition of serotonergic neurons would promote rapid serotonin release in the PFC and hence its neuroplastic and antidepressant effects; b) CBD facilitates BDNF-TRKB signalling, especially in the PFC, which rapidly triggers neurochemical and neuroplastic effects. These hypotheses are discussed with perspectives for new drug development and clinical applications.

PMID:38762160 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111029

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38762160/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240519012647&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced inflammation by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome and iNOS activity in BV2 microglia cells via CB2 receptors and PPARgamma

PubMed: Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced inflammation by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome and iNOS activity in BV2 microglia cells via CB2 receptors and PPARgamma

Neurochem Int. 2024 May 16:105769. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2024.105769. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation stands as a critical player in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders, with microglial cells playing a central role in orchestrating the inflammatory landscape within the central nervous system. Cannabidiol (CBD) has gained attention for its potential to elicit anti-inflammatory responses in microglia, offering promising perspectives for conditions associated with neuroinflammation. Here we investigated whether the NLRP3 inflammasome and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are involved in the protective effects of CBD, and if their modulation is dependent on cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and PPARγ signalling pathways. We found that treatment with CBD attenuated pro-inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged BV2 microglia in a CB2- and PPARγ-dependent manner. At a molecular level, CBD inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by suppressing iNOS and NLRP3/Caspase-1-dependent signalling cascades, resulting in reduced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentrations. Notably, the protective effects of CBD on NLRP3 expression, Caspase-1 activity, and IL-1β concentration were partially hindered by the antagonism of both CB2 receptors and PPARγ, while iNOS expression and NO secretion were dependent exclusively on PPARγ activation, with no CB2 involvement. Interestingly, CBD exhibited a protective effect against TNF-α increase, regardless of CB2 or PPARγ activation. Altogether, these findings indicate that CB2 receptors and PPARγ mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD on the NLRP3 inflammasome complex, iNOS activity and, ultimately, on microglial phenotype. Our results highlight the specific components responsible for the potential therapeutic applications of CBD on neuroinflammatory conditions.

PMID:38761855 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2024.105769

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38761855/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240519012647&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Evaluating possible 'next day' impairment in insomnia patients administered an oral medicinal cannabis product by night: a pilot randomized controlled trial

PubMed: Evaluating possible 'next day' impairment in insomnia patients administered an oral medicinal cannabis product by night: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2024 May 17. doi: 10.1007/s00213-024-06595-9. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis and its major constituents, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are being widely used to treat sleep disturbances. However, THC can cause acute cognitive and psychomotor impairment and there are concerns that driving and workplace safety might be compromised the day after evening use. Here, we examined possible ‘next day’ impairment following evening administration of a typical medicinal cannabis oil in adults with insomnia disorder, compared to matched placebo. This paper describes the secondary outcomes of a larger study investigating the effects of THC/CBD on insomnia disorder. Twenty adults [16 female; mean (SD) age, 46.1 (8.6) y] with physician-diagnosed insomnia who infrequently use cannabis completed two 24 h in-laboratory visits involving acute oral administration of combined 10 mg THC and 200 mg CBD (‘THC/CBD’) or placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial design. Outcome measures included ‘next day’ (≥9 h post-treatment) performance on cognitive and psychomotor function tasks, simulated driving performance, subjective drug effects, and mood. We found no differences in ‘next day’ performance on 27 out of 28 tests of cognitive and psychomotor function and simulated driving performance relative to placebo. THC/CBD produced a small decrease (-1.4%, p=.016, d=-0.6) in accuracy on the Stroop-Colour Task (easy/congruent) but not the Stroop-Word Task (hard/incongruent). THC/CBD also produced a small increase (+8.6, p=.042, d=0.3) in self-ratings of Sedated at 10 h post-treatment, but with no accompanying changes in subjective ratings of Alert or Sleepy (p’s>0.05). In conclusion, we found a lack of notable ‘next day’ impairment to cognitive and psychomotor function and simulated driving performance following evening use of 10 mg oral THC, in combination with 200 mg CBD, in an insomnia population who infrequently use cannabis.

PMID:38758300 | DOI:10.1007/s00213-024-06595-9

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38758300/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240517132141&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 17, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The Impact of Cannabinoids on Methemoglobin Formation and Hemoglobin Oxygen Affinity: An ex-vivo study

PubMed: The Impact of Cannabinoids on Methemoglobin Formation and Hemoglobin Oxygen Affinity: An ex-vivo study

Toxicology. 2024 May 15:153832. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2024.153832. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) to oxygen (O2) influences processes of oxygen delivery and extraction at the tissue level. Despite cannabinoids being utilized or ingested in various ways, their possible impact on Hb-O2 affinity has barely been studied. This is an experimental ex-vivo trial. Venous blood samples were drawn from 5 male and 6 female healthy volunteers and subsequently exposed to different cannabinoid types: (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Δ9-THC], delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol [Δ8-THC], cannabidiol [CBD]) at different concentrations. Oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) were measured and blood gas analyses were performed for methemoglobin (MetHb) determination. The results revealed no MetHb formation. Besides two statistically significant changes (+1.4mmHg and -0.9mmHg) in the female cohort, following Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC exposure, no further P50 changes could be observed. The study demonstrated an in-vitro effect of selected cannabinoids and dosages on P50 values in female participants, with variations not observed at other dosages, leaving the underlying mechanisms open for debate. MetHb formation, as potential mechanism, was not detected in this study. The precise reasons why changes only occurred at specific dosages remain unclear, indicating a need for further in-vivo research to understand the interaction between cannabinoids and Hb-O2 affinity completely.

PMID:38759720 | DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2024.153832

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38759720/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240518042628&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 17, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol ameliorates PTSD-like symptoms by inhibiting neuroinflammation through its action on CB2 receptors in the brain of male mice

PubMed: Cannabidiol ameliorates PTSD-like symptoms by inhibiting neuroinflammation through its action on CB2 receptors in the brain of male mice

Brain Behav Immun. 2024 May 15:S0889-1591(24)00404-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2024.05.016. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health disease related to traumatic experience, and its treatment outcomes are unsatisfactory. Accumulating research has indicated that cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-PTSD effects, however, the underlying mechanism of CBD remains inadequately investigated. Although many studies pertaining to PTSD have primarily focused on aberrations in neuronal functioning, the present study aimed to elucidate the involvement and functionality of microglia/macrophages in PTSD while also investigated the modulatory effects of CBD on neuroinflammation associated with this condition. We constructed a modified single-prolonged stress (SPS) mice PTSD model and verified the PTSD-related behaviors by various behavioral tests (contextual freezing test, elevated plus maze test, tail suspension test and novel object recognition test). We observed a significant upregulation of Iba-1 and alteration of microglial/macrophage morphology within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the amygdala, two weeks after the PTSD-related stress, suggesting a persistent neuroinflammatory phenotype in the PTSD-modeled group. CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited all PTSD-related behaviors and reversed the alterations in both microglial/macrophage quantity and morphology when administered prior to behavioral assessments. We further found increased pro-inflammatory factors, decreased PSD95 expression, and impaired synaptic density in the hippocampus of the modeled group, all of which were also restored by CBD treatment. CBD dramatically increased the level of anandamide, one of the endocannabinoids, and cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) transcripts in the hippocampus compared with PTSD-modeled group. Importantly, we discovered the expression of CB2Rs mRNA in Arg-1-positive cells in vivo and found that the behavioral effects of CBD were diminished by CB2Rs antagonist AM630 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and both the behavioral and molecular effects of CBD were abolished in CB2Rs knockout mice. These findings suggest that CBD would alleviate PTSD-like behaviors in mice by suppressing PTSD-related neuroinflammation and upregulation and activation of CB2Rs may serve as one of the underlying mechanisms for this therapeutic effect. The present study offers innovative experimental evidence supporting the utilization of CBD in PTSD treatment from the perspective of its regulation of neuroinflammation, and paves the way for leveraging the endocannabinoid system to regulate neuroinflammation as a potential therapeutic approach for psychiatric disorders.

PMID:38759736 | DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2024.05.016

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38759736/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240518042628&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 17, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis and cancer: unveiling the potential of a green ally in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer

PubMed: Cannabis and cancer: unveiling the potential of a green ally in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer

J Cannabis Res. 2024 May 16;6(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s42238-024-00233-z.

ABSTRACT

Cancer comes in second place on the list of causes of death worldwide. In 2018, the 5-year prevalence of breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC), and colorectal cancer (CRC) were 30%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. Cannabinoids are chemicals derived from the Cannabis sativa plant; the most investigated cannabinoids are cannabinol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), and cannabidiol. In humans, the endogenous endocannabinoid system consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoids receptors (CBs), and enzymes that degrade the endocannabinoids. In this review, we will review the most recent literature for evidence that discusses the role of cannabis in the treatment of the three types of neoplasms mentioned. Studies have proved that BC cells express CB receptors; many in-vivo studies showed that cannabinoids cause apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and migration. Also, researchers found that treating BC mice with THC and JWH-133 (CB2 receptor agonist) slowed the tumor growth. Regarding CRC, cannabidiol was found to decrease the viability of chemotherapy-resistant CRC cells and inhibit metastasis by antagonizing the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55; a novel cannabinoid receptor) necessary for metastasis. Moreover, cannabidiol had anti-angiogenetic effects by reducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in addition to anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, studies demonstrated that PC cells highly express CB1 and CB2 receptors and that cannabinoids are capable of inhibiting the release of exosomes and microvesicles related to cancer progression. Cannabinoids also have antiproliferative, anti-invasive, anti-fibroblastic, cell cycle arrest, and proapoptotic effects on PC cells.

PMID:38755733 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-024-00233-z

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38755733/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240517012223&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 16, 2024 10:00 am

U.S. researchers developing hemp cellulose for diapers, other absorbent products

HempToday®: U.S. researchers developing hemp cellulose for diapers, other absorbent products
Purdue University researchers say they are using cellulose extracted from industrial hemp to develop biodegradable superabsorbent materials that will be less polluting than those now used in disposable diapers, feminine […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/u-s-researchers-developing-hemp-cellulose-for-diapers-other-absorbent-products/
May 16, 2024 8:41 am

PubMed: Sustainable cannabinoids purification through twin-column recycling chromatography and green solvents

PubMed: Sustainable cannabinoids purification through twin-column recycling chromatography and green solvents

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2024 May 15. doi: 10.1007/s00216-024-05332-7. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In the present study, twin-column recycling chromatography has been employed for the purification of a Cannabis extract by using a green solvent, ethanol, as the mobile phase. In particular, the complete removal of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from a Cannabis extract rich in cannabidiol (CBD) was achieved under continuous conditions. The performance of the method, in terms of compound purity, recovery, productivity and solvent consumption, was compared to that of traditional batch operations showing the potential of the twin-column recycling approach. The employment of a theoretical model to predict the band profiles of the two compounds during the recycling process has facilitated method development, thus further contributing to process sustainability by avoiding trial and error attempts or at least decreasing the number of steps significantly.

PMID:38748248 | DOI:10.1007/s00216-024-05332-7

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38748248/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240515132259&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 15, 2024 10:00 am

Intoxicating hemp targeted for bans or tight restrictions in six more states

HempToday®: Intoxicating hemp targeted for bans or tight restrictions in six more states
Developments in six states this month reflect the growing national movement to crack down on hemp-derived delta-8 THC and other intoxicating hemp compounds that have flourished due to a loophole […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/intoxicating-hemp-targeted-for-bans-or-tight-restrictions-in-six-more-states/
May 15, 2024 8:09 am

Belgian village exploring hemp to overcome pollution of land from ‘forever chemicals’

HempToday®: Belgian village exploring hemp to overcome pollution of land from ‘forever chemicals’
University researchers and a village in Belgium are testing the potential of hemp growing for remediation of soil contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) – “forever chemicals” that have […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/belgian-village-exploring-hemp-to-overcome-pollution-of-land-from-forever-chemicals/
May 14, 2024 9:16 am

PubMed: Nanosuspension-Loaded Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of a Highly Lipophilic Cannabidiol

PubMed: Nanosuspension-Loaded Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of a Highly Lipophilic Cannabidiol

Int J Nanomedicine. 2024 May 7;19:4061-4079. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S452207. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) offers a promising alternative for delivering poorly soluble drugs, challenged by the stratum corneum’s barrier effect, which restricts the pool of drug candidates suitable for TDDS. This study aims to establish a delivery platform specifically for highly lipophilic drugs requiring high doses (log P > 5, dose > 10 mg/kg/d), to improve their intradermal delivery and enhance solubility.

METHODS: Cannabidiol (CBD, log P = 5.91) served as the model drug. A CBD nanosuspension (CBD-NS) was prepared using a bottom-up method. The particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and concentration of the CBD-NS were characterized. Subsequently, CBD-NS was incorporated into dissolving microneedles (DMNs) through a one-step manufacturing process. The intradermal dissolution abilities, physicochemical properties, mechanical strength, insertion depth, and release behavior of the DMNs were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were utilized to assess the efficacy of the DMN patch in treating knee synovitis and to analyze its skin permeation kinetics and pharmacokinetic performance.

RESULTS: The CBD-NS, stabilized with Tween 80, exhibited a particle size of 166.83 ± 3.33 nm, a PDI of 0.21 ± 0.07, and a concentration of 46.11 ± 0.52 mg/mL. The DMN loaded with CBD-NS demonstrated favorable intradermal dissolution and mechanical properties. It effectively increased the delivery of CBD into the skin, extended the action’s duration in vivo, and enhanced bioavailability. CBD-NS DMN exhibited superior therapeutic efficacy and safety in a rat model of knee synovitis, significantly inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β compared with the methotrexate subcutaneous injection method.

CONCLUSION: NS technology effectively enhances the solubility of the poorly soluble drug CBD, while DMN facilitates penetration, extends the duration of action in vivo, and improves bioavailability. Furthermore, CBD has shown promising therapeutic outcomes in treating knee synovitis. This innovative drug delivery system is expected to offer a more efficient solution for the administration of highly lipophilic drugs akin to CBD, thereby facilitating high-dose administration.

PMID:38736651 | PMC:PMC11088408 | DOI:10.2147/IJN.S452207

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38736651/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240513072131&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 13, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Non-destructive assessment of cannabis quality during drying process using hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

PubMed: Non-destructive assessment of cannabis quality during drying process using hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

Front Plant Sci. 2024 Apr 26;15:1365298. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2024.1365298. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. is an industrially valuable plant known for its cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), renowned for its therapeutic and psychoactive properties. Despite its significance, the cannabis industry has encountered difficulties in guaranteeing consistent product quality throughout the drying process. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), combined with advanced machine learning technology, has been used to predict phytochemicals that presents a promising solution for maintaining cannabis quality control. We examined the dynamic changes in cannabinoid compositions under diverse drying conditions and developed a non-destructive method to appraise the quality of cannabis flowers using HSI and machine learning. Even when the relative weight and water content remained constant throughout the drying process, drying conditions significantly influenced the levels of CBD, THC, and their precursors. These results emphasize the importance of determining the exact drying endpoint. To develop HSI-based models for predicting cannabis quality indicators, including dryness, precursor conversion of CBD and THC, and CBD : THC ratio, we employed various spectral preprocessing methods and machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), random forest (RF), and Gaussian naïve Bayes (GNB). The LR model demonstrated the highest accuracy at 94.7-99.7% when used in conjunction with spectral pre-processing techniques such as multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or Savitzky-Golay filter. We propose that the HSI-based model holds the potential to serve as a valuable tool for monitoring cannabinoid composition and determining optimal drying endpoint. This tool offers the means to achieve uniform cannabis quality and optimize the drying process in the industry.

PMID:38736441 | PMC:PMC11082398 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2024.1365298

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38736441/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240513072131&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 13, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Correction: Cannabidiol – an effective analgesic for toothache?

PubMed: Correction: Cannabidiol – an effective analgesic for toothache?

Evid Based Dent. 2024 May 13. doi: 10.1038/s41432-024-01012-8. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:38740975 | DOI:10.1038/s41432-024-01012-8

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38740975/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240514012123&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 13, 2024 10:00 am

Aligning benchmarks with best practices is key to elevating hemp’s image

HempToday®: Aligning benchmarks with best practices is key to elevating hemp’s image
INTERVIEW: Emad Rahim has worked as a management consultant for over a decade, supporting organizations and universities in project management, strategic planning, change management, leadership development, and diversity/DEI education and […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/aligning-benchmarks-with-best-practices-is-key-to-elevating-hemps-image/
May 13, 2024 6:45 am

PubMed: Investigation of the intrinsic cannabinoid activity of hemp-derived and semisynthetic cannabinoids with beta-arrestin2 recruitment assays-and how this matters for the harm potential of seized drugs

PubMed: Investigation of the intrinsic cannabinoid activity of hemp-derived and semisynthetic cannabinoids with beta-arrestin2 recruitment assays-and how this matters for the harm potential of seized drugs

Arch Toxicol. 2024 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s00204-024-03769-4. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cultivation of industrial low-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) hemp has created an oversupply of cannabidiol (CBD)-rich products. The fact that phytocannabinoids, including CBD, can be used as precursors to synthetically produce a range of THC variants-potentially located in a legal loophole-has led to a diversification of cannabis recreational drug markets. ‘Hemp-compliant’, ‘hemp-derived’ and ‘semisynthetic’ cannabinoid products are emerging and being advertised as (legal) alternatives for Δ9-THC. This study included a large panel (n = 30) of THC isomers, homologs, and analogs that might be derived via semisynthetic procedures. As a proxy for the abuse potential of these compounds, we assessed their potential to activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor with a β-arrestin2 recruitment bioassay (picomolar-micromolar concentrations). Multiple THC homologs (tetrahydrocannabihexol, THCH; tetrahydrocannabiphorol, THCP; tetrahydrocannabinol-C8, THC-C8) and THC analogs (hexahydrocannabinol, HHC; hexahydrocannabiphorol, HHCP) were identified that showed higher potential for CB1 activation than Δ9-THC, based on either higher efficacy (Emax) or higher potency (EC50). Structure-activity relationships were assessed for Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC homologs encompassing elongated alkyl chains. Additionally, stereoisomer-specific differences in CB1 activity were established for various THC isomers (Δ7-THC, Δ10-THC) and analogs (HHC, HHCP). Evaluation of the relative abundance of 9(S)-HHC and 9(R)-HHC epimers in seized drug material revealed varying epimeric compositions between batches. Increased abundance of the less active 9(S)-HHC epimer empirically resulted in decreased potency, but sustained efficacy for the resulting diastereomeric mixture. In conclusion, monitoring of semisynthetic cannabinoids is encouraged as the dosing and the relative composition of stereoisomers can impact the harm potential of these drugs, relative to Δ9-THC products.

PMID:38735004 | DOI:10.1007/s00204-024-03769-4

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38735004/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240512132137&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 12, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Research Progress on the Mechanism of the Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol

PubMed: Research Progress on the Mechanism of the Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol

Molecules. 2024 Apr 24;29(9):1943. doi: 10.3390/molecules29091943.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive ingredient extracted from the hemp plant, has shown therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, including anxiety, nervous system disorders, inflammation, and tumors. CBD can exert its antitumor effect by regulating the cell cycle, inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibiting tumor cell invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. This article reviews the proposed antitumor mechanisms of CBD, aiming to provide references for the clinical treatment of tumor diseases and the rational use of CBD.

PMID:38731434 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29091943

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38731434/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240511202711&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The Potential Antinociceptive Effect and Mechanism of Cannabis sativa L. Extract on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats Uncovered by Multi-Omics Analysis

PubMed: The Potential Antinociceptive Effect and Mechanism of Cannabis sativa L. Extract on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats Uncovered by Multi-Omics Analysis

Molecules. 2024 Apr 25;29(9):1958. doi: 10.3390/molecules29091958.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) is a herbaceous plant rich in cannabinoids with a long history of use in pain treatment. The most well-characterized cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), garnered much attention in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) treatment. However, few studies have investigated the biological benefits and mechanism of hemp extract on CIPN. In the present study, hemp extract (JG) rich in cannabinoids was extracted by supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction (SFCE). The antinociceptive efficacy was evaluated using a paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) rat model based on behavioral tests. Further omics-based approaches were applied to explore the potential mechanisms. The results showed that JG decreased mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and inflammatory cytokines in PIPN rats significantly. Transcriptome analysis identified seven key genes significantly regulated by JG in PIPN model rats, mainly related to the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, and cAMP signaling pathway. In metabolomic analysis, a total of 39 significantly altered metabolites were identified, mainly correlated with pentose and glucuronate interconversions and the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway. Gut microbiota analysis suggested that increased community Lachnoclostridium and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006 in PIPN rats can be reversed significantly by JG. In conclusion, hemp extract exhibited antinociceptive effects on PIPN. The analgesic mechanism was probably related to the regulation of inflammation, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, sphingolipid metabolism, etc. This study provides novel insights into the functional interactions of Cannabis sativa L. extract on PIPN.

PMID:38731449 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29091958

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38731449/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240511202711&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.) as a Valuable Source of Natural Ingredients for Functional Foods-A Review

PubMed: Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.) as a Valuable Source of Natural Ingredients for Functional Foods-A Review

Molecules. 2024 May 1;29(9):2097. doi: 10.3390/molecules29092097.

ABSTRACT

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has experienced a significant resurgence in popularity, and global interest in diversifying its use in various industries, including the food industry, is growing. Therefore, due to their exceptional nutritional value, hemp seeds have recently gained increasing interest as a valuable ingredient for obtaining high-quality foods and dietary supplements. Hemp seeds stand out for their remarkable content of quality proteins, including edestin and albumin, two distinct types of proteins that contribute to exceptional nutritional value. Hemp seeds are also rich in healthy lipids with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (omega-6), alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3), and some vitamins (vitamins E, D, and A). Polyphenols and terpenoids, in particular, present in hemp seeds, provide antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review examines the scientific literature regarding hemp seeds’ physicochemical and nutritional characteristics. The focus is on those characteristics that allow for their use in the food industry, aiming to transform ordinary food products into functional foods, offering additional benefits for the body’s health. Innovating opportunities to develop healthy, nutritionally superior food products are explored by integrating hemp seeds into food processes, promoting a balanced and sustainable diet.

PMID:38731588 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29092097

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38731588/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240511202711&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Ameliorate the Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Free Radicals in an In Vitro Inflammation-Induced Cell Model

PubMed: Cannabidiol-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Ameliorate the Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Free Radicals in an In Vitro Inflammation-Induced Cell Model

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 26;25(9):4744. doi: 10.3390/ijms25094744.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound derived from Cannabis sativa. It has demonstrated promising effects in combating inflammation and holds potential as a treatment for the progression of chronic inflammation. However, the clinical application of CBD is limited due to its poor solubility and bioavailability. This study introduces an effective method for preparing CBD-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (CBD-SLNs) using a combination of low-energy hot homogenization and ultrasonication. We enhanced this process by employing statistical optimization with response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized CBD-SLN formulation utilizes glyceryl monostearate as the primary lipid component of the nanocarrier. The CBD-SLN formulation is screened as a potential tool for managing chronic inflammation. Stable, uniformly dispersed spherical nanoparticles with a size of 123 nm, a surface charge of -32.1 mV, an encapsulation efficiency of 95.16%, and a drug loading of 2.36% were obtained. The CBD-SLNs exhibited sustained release properties, ensuring prolonged and controlled CBD delivery, which could potentially amplify its therapeutic effects. Additionally, we observed that CBD-SLNs significantly reduced both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and proinflammatory cytokines in chondrocyte and macrophage cell lines, with these inhibitory effects being more pronounced than those of free CBD. In conclusion, CBD-SLNs demonstrated superiority over free CBD, highlighting its potential as an effective delivery system for CBD.

PMID:38731964 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25094744

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38731964/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240511202711&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Pharmacokinetics behavior of four cannabidiol preparations following single oral administration in dogs

PubMed: Pharmacokinetics behavior of four cannabidiol preparations following single oral administration in dogs

Front Vet Sci. 2024 Apr 25;11:1389810. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2024.1389810. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural phytochemical agent and one of the most abundant found in Cannabis sativa. It is known to exhibit pharmacological properties on various condition such as relieving-inflammation, pain, epilepsy, and anxiety effect. There has been an increasing trend globally in the use of CBD as a supplement in pets. Consequently, there are various CBD products being marketed that are specifically available for pets. Veterinarians and pet owners are concerned that following ingestion, different CBD formulations may result in a CBD level circulating in the blood that may affect the safe use and efficacy of CBD in pets. Several pharmacokinetics studies in animals have been mainly conducted with an oily form of CBD. To date, there is a lack of data regarding direct comparisons in animals among the CBD plasma kinetic profiles from an oral administration of the various preparation forms. Therefore, the current study evaluated and compared the plasma CBD levels from a single oral administration using four different CBD preparations-liquid (an oil-based form, a nanoemulsion form, or a water-soluble form) or a semi-solid form (as CBD mixed in a treat) in dogs. In total, 32 healthy, crossbreed dogs were randomly assigned into 4 groups and treated according to a 1-period, 4-treatment parallel-design. The three liquid forms were dosed at 5 mg/kg body weight, while the single semi-solid form was given at 50 mg/treat/dog. The results showed that the CBD plasma profile from the administration of a water-soluble form was comparable to that of the oil-based group. The nanoemulsion-based form tended to be rapidly absorbed and reached its peak sooner than the others. However, the CBD in all preparations reached the maximum plasma concentration within 3 h post-dose, with an average range of 92-314 μg/L. There were significant differences among certain parameters between the liquid and semi-solid forms. This was the first study to provide pharmacokinetics data regarding CBD in water soluble, nanoemulsion-based, and semi-solid forms for dogs as companion animals. The current data should facilitate the scrutiny of CBD plasma profiles based on different formulations via an oral route in dogs.

PMID:38725584 | PMC:PMC11080651 | DOI:10.3389/fvets.2024.1389810

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38725584/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240510072518&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 10, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Trends in prescription and cost of Sativex, a cannabinoid-based medicine, in treating patients with multiple sclerosis in England

PubMed: Trends in prescription and cost of Sativex, a cannabinoid-based medicine, in treating patients with multiple sclerosis in England

J Pharm Policy Pract. 2024 May 8;17(1):2342318. doi: 10.1080/20523211.2024.2342318. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

AIM: Cannabis-based medication has recently been made available in the NHS for reducing pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The currently available preparation of Sativex (nabiximols) contains a combination of botanical cannabis extracts with cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with almost equal amounts in addition to minor cannabinoids and terpenoids and is delivered via an oro-mucosal spray. The present study aims to examine the use and trends in prescribing cannabinoid-based Sativex to control pain in patients diagnosed with MS.

METHODS: Primary care prescribing data for cannabinoid-based Sativex (2013-2022) from the Prescription Cost Analysis were extracted and analysed. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine prescription trends and prescription costs (average change per year).

RESULTS: There was a general increasing trend in the number of prescriptions each year, from 4.42 items dispensed per 100,000 people in 2013 to 5.15 in 2022. Overall, prescription items for cannabinoid-based Sativex increased by 0.34% per year (95% CI:-3.98, 4.67, p = 0.860) on average between 2013 and 2022. On average, a 2.43% (95% CI: -5.78, 0.92, p = 0.133) increase per year was observed for the costs of cannabinoid-based Sativex from 2013 to 2022.

CONCLUSION: The results suggested that cannabinoid-based Sativex should be considered an option due to its effectiveness, acceptable tolerance, and safety profile in the prescribing of Sativex.

PMID:38726319 | PMC:PMC11080669 | DOI:10.1080/20523211.2024.2342318

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38726319/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240510072518&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 10, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: OILVEQ: an Italian external quality control scheme for cannabinoids analysis in galenic preparations of cannabis oil

PubMed: OILVEQ: an Italian external quality control scheme for cannabinoids analysis in galenic preparations of cannabis oil

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2024 May 13. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2024-0311. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Italy legalized cannabis oil for specific medical conditions (neuropathic pain, refractory epilepsy and other established pathologies) in 2015, but mandates titration of principal cannabinoids before marketing each batch using iphenated techniques coupled with mass spectrometry. To assess reliability of laboratories from the Italian National Health Service in charge of titrating the batches, the Italian National Institute of Health set up an quality control program on determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol l (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in cannabis oil preparations.

METHODS: Two rounds of exercises have been carried out since 2019, involving sixteen Italian laboratories. Five different cannabis oil samples (19-1A and 19-1B for the first round and 22-1A, 22-1B and 22-1C for the second one were prepared and 1 mL amount of each sample was sent to the laboratories. The quantitative performance of each laboratory was assessed calculating the z-score value, a statistical measurement for value’s relationship to the mean of a group of values.

RESULTS: In the first round, eight out of fourteen laboratories employed an LC-MS while the remaining six used GC-MS. Differently, in the second round, six out of eleven laboratories employed a GC-MS while the remaining five used LC-MS. In the first round, only 28.6 % laboratories achieved an acceptable performance (z-score±2), and all of them used LC-MS as analytical method. In the second round, none of the laboratories achieved an acceptable performance. Satisfactory results, based on z-scores, were generally low (0.0-75.0 %), with only one exception of 100 % for THCA-A determination in sample 22-1B. In the second round, three false negatives (two THC and one CBD by GC-MS determination) were reported while no false positives were described in the blank sample. The two rounds yielded a mean ERR% of 42 % approximately and a mean CV% around 70 % in GC-MS determination. When applying LC-MS determination, the two rounds yielded a mean ERR% of 36 % approximately and a mean CV% around 33 %.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results underline the need for a clear and consistent protocol to be adopted by all laboratories intending to include the titration of oily cannabis-based products into their routinely analytical techniques. This emphasis on methodology standardization and participation to quality control schemes is essential for ensuring reliable and accurate measurements, ultimately enhancing the overall effectiveness and reliability of medical cannabis treatments.

PMID:38727000 | DOI:10.1515/cclm-2024-0311

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38727000/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240510132338&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 10, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Hippocampal D1-like dopamine receptor as a novel target for the effect of cannabidiol on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced CPP

PubMed: Hippocampal D1-like dopamine receptor as a novel target for the effect of cannabidiol on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced CPP

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2024 May 8:111025. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111025. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine (METH) is a major health problem without effective pharmacological treatment. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the Cannabis sativa plant, is believed to have the potential to inhibit drug-related behavior. However, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the effects of CBD remain unclear. Several studies have proposed that the suppressing effects of CBD on drug-seeking behaviors could be through the modulation of the dopamine system. The hippocampus (HIP) D1-like dopamine receptor (D1R) is essential for forming and retrieving drug-associated memory. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of D1R in the hippocampal CA1 region on the effects of CBD on the extinction and reinstatement of METH-conditioned place preference (CPP). For this purpose, different groups of rats over a 10-day extinction period were administered different doses of intra-CA1 SCH23390 (0.25, 1, or 4 μg/0.5 μl, Saline) as a D1R antagonist before ICV injection of CBD (10 μg/5 μl, DMSO12%). In addition, a different set of animals received intra-CA1 SCH23390 (0.25, 1, or 4 μg/0.5 μl) before CBD injection (50 μg/5 μl) on the reinstatement day. The results revealed that the highest dose of SCH23390 (4 μg) significantly reduced the accelerating effects of CBD on the extinction of METH-CPP (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SCH23390 (1 and 4 μg) in the reinstatement phase notably reversed the preventive effects of CBD on the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the current study revealed that CBD made a shorter extinction period and suppressed METH reinstatement in part by interacting with D1-like dopamine receptors in the CA1 area of HIP.

PMID:38729234 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2024.111025

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38729234/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240511092229&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 10, 2024 10:00 am

Hemp is emphasized in drive for diversification of cannabis in Colombia

HempToday®: Hemp is emphasized in drive for diversification of cannabis in Colombia
The Colombian government said it will invest five billion Colombian pesos ($1.3 million) to promote the production of marijuana and hemp, according to an announcement this week. The Ministry of […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/hemp-is-emphasized-in-drive-for-diversification-of-cannabis-in-colombia/
May 10, 2024 7:31 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol's cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer is induced via an upregulation of ceramide synthase 1 and ER stress

PubMed: Cannabidiol's cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer is induced via an upregulation of ceramide synthase 1 and ER stress

J Cannabis Res. 2024 May 8;6(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s42238-024-00227-x.

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most aggressive malignancies with a median 5 year-survival rate of 12%. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been found to exhibit antineoplastic potential and may potentiate the anticancer effects of cytotoxic’s such as gemcitabine. CBD therapy has been linked to de novo synthesis of ceramide. The sphingolipid ceramide is a potent tumour suppressor lipid with roles in apoptosis and autophagy. One of the key players involved is ceramide synthase, an enzyme with six isoforms (CerS1-CerS6), reported to have disease prognostic value. Quantitative real time PCR was used to determine mRNA expression levels of ceramide synthase isoforms, GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP. Western blotting was used to analyze protein expression of these markers and knockdown of CerS1 and GRP78 were applied via an siRNA and confirmed by the two mentioned methods. Mice with PDAC xenografts were injected via intraperitoneal method with drugs and tumours were analysed with flow cytometry and processed using H&E and IHC staining. siRNA knockdown of ceramide synthase 1 (CerS1) and analysis point to evidence of a putative CerS1 dependent pathway driven by CBD in activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress target; GRP78. Upon CBD treatment, CerS1 was upregulated and downstream this led to the GRP78/ATF4/CHOP arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway being activated. In an in vivo model of PDAC in which CerS1 was not upregulated on IHC, there was no observed improvement in survival of animals, however a reduction in tumour growth was observed in combination chemotherapy and CBD group, indicating further investigations in vivo. These findings provide evidence of a potential ceramide induced cytotoxic mechanism of action of CBD in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

PMID:38720356 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-024-00227-x

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38720356/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240509072237&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 9, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Analysis of phytocannabinoids in hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens

PubMed: Analysis of phytocannabinoids in hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2024 Apr 26;245:116181. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116181. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp-sprouts are emerging as a new class of attractive functional food due to their numerous health benefits when compared to other sprout species. Indeed, the high content of beneficial components including polyphenols and flavonoids makes this type of food a promising and successful market. However, the available literature on this topic is limited and often conflicting as regards to the content of phytocannabinoids. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) was applied in an untargeted metabolomics fashion to extracts of hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens of nine different genotypes. Both unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical analysis was performed to reveal variety-specific profiles of phytocannabinoids with surprisingly remarkable levels of phytocannabinoids even in chemotype V samples. Furthermore, a targeted HPLC-HRMS analysis was carried out for the quantitative determination of the major phytocannabinoids including CBDA, CBD, CBGA, CBG, CBCA, CBC, THCA, and trans-Δ9-THC. The last part of the study was focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of CBCA in hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens in the different varieties by HPLC-CD (HPLC with online circular dichroism). Chiral analysis of CBCA showed a wide variability of its enantiomeric composition in the different varieties, thus contributing to the understanding of the intriguing stereochemical behavior of this compound in an early growth stage. However, further investigation is needed to determine the genetic factors responsible for the low enantiopurity of this compound.

PMID:38723555 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116181

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38723555/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240510012704&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 9, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol-Only Product Use in Pregnancy in the United States and Canada: Findings From the International Cannabis Policy Study

PubMed: Cannabidiol-Only Product Use in Pregnancy in the United States and Canada: Findings From the International Cannabis Policy Study

Obstet Gynecol. 2024 May 9. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005603. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize pregnant individuals’ use of cannabidiol (CBD). Data are from the International Cannabis Policy Study (2019-2021), a repeated cross-sectional survey of individuals aged 16-65 years in the United States and Canada (N=66,457 women, including 1,096 pregnant women). The primary analysis compared pregnant and nonpregnant women’s CBD-only product use patterns and reasons for use. The prevalence of CBD-only use in pregnant women was 20.4% compared with 11.3% among nonpregnant women, P<.001. Reasons for CBD use among pregnant women included anxiety (58.4%), depression (40.3%), posttraumatic stress disorder (32.1%); pain (52.3%), headache (35.6%), and nausea or vomiting (31.9%). Thus, CBD-only product use was prevalent in this large sample, with one in five pregnant women reporting use. Characterization of prenatal CBD use is an important first step to exploring potential risks to exposed offspring.

PMID:38723262 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000005603

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38723262/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240510042256&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 May 9, 2024 10:00 am