PubMed: Unintentional ingestion of putative delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol by two youth requiring critical care: a case report
J Cannabis Res. 2023 Mar 21;5(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s42238-023-00176-x.
BACKGROUND: Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a psychoactive cannabinoid from the cannabis plant that can be synthetically converted from cannabidiol (CBD). Most states permit the full or restricted sale of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products, and therefore, delta-8 THC products are on the rise. Delta-8 THC consumption can cause intoxication. Products are often sold in edible form and occasionally in packaging that appears similar to candy. Clinical presentations for delta-8 THC ingestions are understudied and may differ from those described for delta-9 THC ingestions.
CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes unintentional ingestions of putative delta-8 THC by two pediatric patients that results in admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The ingestions were of putative delta-8 THC infused product that resembled popular candies. Both patients developed periods of bradypnea with continued intermittent periods of agitation. Medical intervention included observation, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation via high flow nasal cannula, and intubation-but was not needed for both patients. Although family noted ongoing irritability for the patients, both were discharged approximately 45 h after ingestion. Delta-8 THC ingestion is reliant on self-report.
CONCLUSIONS: As the availability of delta-8 THC increases, along with associated pediatric exposures, it is imperative for health care providers to quickly recognize and provide adequate treatment. While there is no specific antidote for THC intoxication beyond supportive care, providers can play an important role in prevention by educating parents and guardians on safe cannabis storage and by documenting cases for adverse event monitoring.
PMID:36941718 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-023-00176-x
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36941718/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230321190717&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 21, 2023 10:00 am
France sets temporary rules to keep $300 million market for CBD open
French authorities have approved temporary guidelines which allow CBD products to be declared as food supplements and remain on the market pending authorization under the EU’s food safety program. The …
France sets temporary rules to keep $300 million market for CBD open Read More »
March 21, 2023 5:56 am
U.S. lawmakers re-introduce bills that would set framework for CBD
U.S. lawmakers re-introduced two bills that would establish a legal framework for hemp-derived cannabinoids, hoping to revive a rulemaking process that has been slow to unfold. The measures would mandate …
U.S. lawmakers re-introduce bills that would set framework for CBD Read More »
March 20, 2023 3:44 pm
PubMed: The minor cannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG) is a highly specific blood biomarker of recent cannabis smoking
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2023 Mar 20:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2023.2173076. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: The determination of recent cannabis use is of forensic interest in the investigation of automotive crashes, workplace incidents and other mishaps. Because Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol may persist in blood after psychoactive effects of intoxication resolve, particularly in regular users, short-lived minor cannabinoids such as cannabigerol have merited examination as adjunct indicators of recent cannabis inhalation.
METHODS: As part of an observational cohort study, whole blood cannabinoids including cannabigerol were measured in whole blood by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry at baseline, and 30 minutes after initiation of a 15-minute supervised interval of ad libitum cannabis smoking in occasional (1-2 days/week over the past 30 days) (n = 24) and daily cannabis smokers (n = 32). Per protocol, subjects self-reported abstention from inhaling cannabis (>8 h) or ingesting cannabis (>12 h) prior to baseline measurement.
RESULTS: At baseline, none of the occasional users had detectable cannabigerol (limit of detection = 0.2 µg/L), whereas cannabigerol was detectable post-smoking in 7 of 24 (29%). Among daily cannabis users, 2 of 32 (6%) had detectable cannabigerol at baseline, increasing to 21 of 32 (66%) post-smoking. The odds ratio for recent cannabis smoking associated with a detectable cannabigerol was 27 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 110.3). In this mixed cohort of occasional and daily cannabis users, receiver operator characteristic curve analysis indicated that whole blood cannabigerol concentration of ≥ 0.2 µg/L had 96% specificity, 50% sensitivity, and 73% accuracy for identifying a 15-minute interval of ad libitum cannabis smoking initiated 30 minutes earlier. Post smoking blood Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (median = 5.6 µg/L in occasional users, 21.3 µg/L in daily users) was significantly correlated with post-smoking cannabigerol (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Whole blood cannabigerol may have forensic utility as a highly specific albeit insensitive biomarker of recent cannabis smoking.
PMID:36939145 | DOI:10.1080/15563650.2023.2173076
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36939145/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230320190616&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 20, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Consuming oral cannabidiol prior to a standard alcohol dose has minimal effect on breath alcohol level and subjective effects of alcohol
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2023 Mar 20. doi: 10.1007/s00213-023-06349-z. Online ahead of print.
RATIONALE: Cannabidiol (CBD) is found in the cannabis plant and has garnered attention as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). CBD reduces alcohol consumption and other markers of alcohol dependence in rodents, but human research on CBD and alcohol is limited. It is unknown whether CBD reduces drinking in humans, and mechanisms through which CBD could impact behavioral AUD phenotypes are unknown.
OBJECTIVES: This study explores effects of oral CBD on breath alcohol level (BrAC), and subjective effects of alcohol in human participants who report heavy drinking.
METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, crossover study, participants consumed 30 mg CBD, 200 mg CBD, or placebo CBD before receiving a standardized alcohol dose. Participants were blind to which CBD dose they received at each session and completed sessions in random order. Thirty-six individuals completed at least one session and were included in analyses.
RESULTS: Differences in outcomes across the three conditions and by sex were explored using multilevel structural equation models. BrAC fell fastest in the placebo condition, followed by 30 mg and 200 mg CBD. Stimulation decreased more slowly in the 200 mg CBD condition than in placebo (b = – 2.38, BCI [- 4.46, – .03]). Sedation decreased more slowly in the 30 mg CBD condition than in placebo (b = – 2.41, BCI [- 4.61, – .09]). However, the magnitude of condition differences in BrAC and subjective effects was trivial.
CONCLUSIONS: CBD has minimal influence on BrAC and subjective effects of alcohol. Further research is needed to test whether CBD impacts alcohol consumption in humans, and if so, what mechanism(s) may explain this effect.
PMID:36939855 | DOI:10.1007/s00213-023-06349-z
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36939855/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230320190616&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 20, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabinoids in traumatic brain injury and related neuropathologies: preclinical and clinical research on endogenous, plant-derived, and synthetic compounds
J Neuroinflammation. 2023 Mar 19;20(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12974-023-02734-9.
Traumatic brain injury is common, and often results in debilitating consequences. Even mild traumatic brain injury leaves approximately 20% of patients with symptoms that persist for months. Despite great clinical need there are currently no approved pharmaceutical interventions that improve outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Increased understanding of the endocannabinoid system in health and disease has accompanied growing evidence for therapeutic benefits of Cannabis sativa. This has driven research of Cannabis’ active chemical constituents (phytocannabinoids), alongside endogenous and synthetic counterparts, collectively known as cannabinoids. Also of therapeutic interest are other Cannabis constituents, such as terpenes. Cannabinoids interact with neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects which are highly desirable for the management of traumatic brain injury. In this review, we comprehensively appraised the relevant scientific literature, where major and minor phytocannabinoids, terpenes, synthetic cannabinoids, and endogenous cannabinoids were assessed in TBI, or other neurological conditions with pathology and symptomology relevant to TBI, as well as recent studies in preclinical TBI models and clinical TBI populations.
PMID:36935484 | DOI:10.1186/s12974-023-02734-9
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36935484/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230320190616&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 20, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol enhances cerebral glucose utilization and ameliorates psychopathology and cognition: A case report in a clinically high-risk mental state
Front Psychiatry. 2023 Mar 3;14:1088459. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1088459. eCollection 2023.
Adolescent individuals often present with subtle, sub-threshold psychiatric syndromes that fluctuate or persist for years. These symptoms have been classified as Clinically High-Risk mental states (CHR), negatively affecting these individuals’ psychosocial development and integration by reducing performance and affecting interpersonal relations. The pathophysiological underpinnings have not been studied in detail, contributing to the current lack of appropriate intervention strategies. This case report sheds new light on potential pathophysiological mechanisms of this condition, which may be addressed by novel treatment approaches such as cannabidiol. A 19-year-old student presented to our early intervention center with a marked cognitive decline within 6 months, anhedonia, ambivalence, social withdrawal, poverty of speech, and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). He was diagnosed with CHR state, and we decided to treat him with the non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a promising compound carrying an orphan drug approval for rare certain childhood epilepsy types and is under investigation as an antipsychotic compound with a new mechanism of action compared to existing antipsychotics. We investigated the effect of oral cannabidiol (600 mg per day) over 4 weeks on psychopathology and cerebral glucose utilization. We observed no relevant side effects but a significant clinical improvement. In addition, positron emission tomography (PET) showed a considerable increase in cerebral [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in various brain regions. This finding suggests that cannabidiol may enhance cerebral glucose utilization, possibly via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) by its endogenous ligand anandamide or related N-acylethanolamines. This mechanism may represent a new innovative treatment approach for CHR, especially given that many individuals with CHR and early psychosis do not substantially benefit from current psychopharmacological interventions.
PMID:36937734 | PMC:PMC10020206 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1088459
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36937734/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230320190616&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 20, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabis use among patients presenting to the emergency department for psychosis: Associations with restraint use, medication administration, psychiatric hospitalization, and repeat visits
Psychiatry Res. 2023 Mar 17;323:115151. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2023.115151. Online ahead of print.
Cannabis use is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms and the risk of acute agitation and aggressive behavior in inpatient (IP) and outpatient settings. Whether or not cannabis use is associated with increased acuity of psychosis-related ED presentations and risk of repeat ED visits for psychosis is unclear. In this retrospective study of 2,134 ED visits for acute psychosis, we investigated the risk of physical restraint, parenteral medication administration, psychiatric hospitalization, and recurrent ED visits. We examined ED visits between March 1, 2019 and February 28, 2021 based on urinary Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) screen status (positive vs negative vs no screen). The risk of physical restraint, parenteral antipsychotic, and benzodiazepine administration was significantly greater in ED visits with a positive THC screen compared to those with a negative or no THC screen. We did not find an association between a positive urinary THC screen and IP hospitalization or the risk of recurrent ED presentation for psychosis within 90 days. These findings suggest that positive urinary THC may predict acute agitation or acuity of symptoms in ED settings and underscores the importance of screening for THC during ED presentations for psychosis.
PMID:36934468 | DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2023.115151
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36934468/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230320190616&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 19, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Neighborhood Characteristics and the Burden of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury: An Ecological Comparison Study
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2023 Mar;36(1):16-22. doi: 10.1089/ped.2022.0133.
Purpose: E-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a severe consequence of vaping first described in 2019. Investigating associations between neighborhood-level characteristics and EVALI cases is an important step in identifying at-risk communities to implement future targeted prevention programs. Methods: We retrospectively identified 41 adolescents <19 years hospitalized for treatment for EVALI at Children’s Medical Center Dallas from December 2018 to June 2021. Patient ZIP codes were extracted from the electronic medical record and were compared with Dallas area ZIP codes containing no EVALI cases. Socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics were obtained from the 2019 American Community Survey, and they were mapped for ZIP codes using ESRI ArcMap geospatial processing software. A parallel analysis was conducted utilizing data of adolescents hospitalized with appendicitis. Results: Ninety-five percent of our cohort used tetrahydrocannabinol-containing products, and 66% obtained their vaping products from informal sources. EVALI cases were less likely to reside in higher SES ZIP codes as measured by the proportion of the population with at least a high school education (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.99), access to broadband access (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), and private health insurance (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Alternatively, they were more likely to reside in lower SES ZIP codes as measured by proportion of the population without any health insurance (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12). No neighborhood level low SES characteristics were associated with appendicitis hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although small in magnitude, EVALI cases were associated with lower SES ZIP codes but not with vape shop density.
PMID:36930825 | DOI:10.1089/ped.2022.0133
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36930825/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230317190805&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 17, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Direct Effects of Cannabis Intoxication on Motivations for Softer and Harder Drug Use: An Experimental Approach to the Gateway Hypothesis
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2023 Mar 16. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0157. Online ahead of print.
Aims: This study experimentally tested whether there is a gateway-type effect of cannabis administration on tobacco and cocaine motivation and whether motivational responses predicted use 6 months later. Methods: A 2 (condition: active cannabis vs. placebo joint)×3 (substance stimulus type: tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine) factor within-subjects design for both implicit and explicit motivation. Both experimental sessions were conducted in a cannabis dispensary (“coffeeshop”) in Amsterdam and were separated by ∼1 week, followed by a 6-month online follow-up. Eighty-five participants between 18 and 27 years of age (57% male), who used cannabis, tobacco, and cocaine <15 times per month, participated in session 1 (session 2: N=79 and follow-up: N=81). Counterbalanced over sessions, participants smoked an active and a placebo joint following a paced puffing procedure. Before and after smoking, craving and avoidance (explicit motivation) were assessed using visual analog scales, and after smoking, the stimulus response compatibility test was completed to assess approach biases (implicit motivation). Self-reported intoxication and similarity to their usual smoking experience were assessed at the end of both sessions. Self-reported frequency/quantity and dependence symptoms for tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine were assessed at all time points. A linear mixed model approach was used to assess the effects of condition, substance stimulus type, and their interactions on explicit and implicit motivation. Results: In the active condition, participants reported higher levels of intoxication and an experience more similar to their usual smoking experience than in the placebo condition. There was no significant effect of condition, substance type, or their interaction on approach bias. Participants exhibited increased cannabis craving during the placebo condition only and increased explicit cannabis avoidance during the active condition only. Explicit tobacco avoidance decreased during both conditions. Baseline measures did not predict use at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: In light users, cannabis intoxication did not affect implicit and explicit tobacco or cocaine motivations. Tobacco avoidance decreased regardless of condition, indicating that the cannabis cue-rich setting-rather than tetrahydrocannabinol itself-may momentarily increase the likelihood to smoke tobacco. However, motivation at baseline did not predict use 6 months later, deeming any gateway-like function unlikely.
PMID:36927091 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0157
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36927091/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230317190805&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 17, 2023 10:00 am
CBD applications from 7 companies advanced by UK food safety authorities
A batch of applications for CBD products submitted by a UK trade group has been advanced by food safety authorities. The Association for the Cannabinoid Industry (ACI), which formed a …
CBD applications from 7 companies advanced by UK food safety authorities Read More »
March 16, 2023 10:33 am
PubMed: Specific cannabinoids revive adaptive immunity by reversing immune evasion mechanisms in metastatic tumours
Front Immunol. 2023 Feb 22;13:982082. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.982082. eCollection 2022.
Emerging cancers are sculpted by neo-Darwinian selection for superior growth and survival but minimal immunogenicity; consequently, metastatic cancers often evolve common genetic and epigenetic signatures to elude immune surveillance. Immune subversion by metastatic tumours can be achieved through several mechanisms; one of the most frequently observed involves the loss of expression or mutation of genes composing the MHC-I antigen presentation machinery (APM) that yields tumours invisible to Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the key component of the adaptive cellular immune response. Fascinating ethnographic and experimental findings indicate that cannabinoids inhibit the growth and progression of several categories of cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying these observations remain clouded in uncertainty. Here, we screened a library of cannabinoid compounds and found molecular selectivity amongst specific cannabinoids, where related molecules such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabigerol can reverse the metastatic immune escape phenotype in vitro by inducing MHC-I cell surface expression in a wide variety of metastatic tumours that subsequently sensitizing tumours to T lymphocyte recognition. Remarkably, H3K27Ac ChIPseq analysis established that cannabigerol and gamma interferon induce overlapping epigenetic signatures and key gene pathways in metastatic tumours related to cellular senescence, as well as APM genes involved in revealing metastatic tumours to the adaptive immune response. Overall, the data suggest that specific cannabinoids may have utility in cancer immunotherapy regimens by overcoming immune escape and augmenting cancer immune surveillance in metastatic disease. Finally, the fundamental discovery of the ability of cannabinoids to alter epigenetic programs may help elucidate many of the pleiotropic medicinal effects of cannabinoids on human physiology.
PMID:36923728 | PMC:PMC10010394 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2022.982082
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36923728/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230316190842&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 16, 2023 10:00 am
Mechoulam on the Future of Cannabinoid Research
Raphael Mechoulam, the father of cannabis science, emphasized three key research areas to prioritize.
#CBD #Hemp https://www.projectcbd.org/mechoulam-future-cannabinoid-research March 15, 2023 4:59 pm
Failure to set legal framework in Indiana means ‘hemp program is dying’
Indiana farmers appear to have all but given up on industrial hemp, and stakeholders say the state government is to blame. Now down to just 40 licensees after hitting a …
Failure to set legal framework in Indiana means ‘hemp program is dying’ Read More »
March 15, 2023 12:59 pm
PubMed: The antinociceptive activity and mechanism of action of cannabigerol
Biomed Pharmacother. 2023 Feb;158:114163. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.114163. Epub 2023 Jan 4.
Cannabis has been used for centuries to treat pain. The antinociceptive activity of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) has been widely studied. However, the antinociceptive effects of other cannabis components, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), have rarely been revealed. The antinociceptive mechanism of CBG is not yet clear, so we investigated the antinociceptive effect of CBG on different pain models, and explored the mechanism of action of CBG to exert antinociceptive effects. In the current study, we compared the antinociceptive effects of CBC, CBD, and CBG on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain model in mice, and the results showed that CBG had a better antinociceptive effects through intraplantar administration. On this basis, we further investigated the antinociceptive effect of CBG on CIA-induced arthritis pain model and nerve pain model in mice, and found that CBG also relieved on both types of pain. Then, we explored the antinociceptive mechanism of CBG, which revealed that CBG can activate TRPV1 and desensitize it to block the transmission of pain signals. In addition, CBG can further activate CB2R, but not CB1R, to stimulate the release of β-endorphin, which greatly promotes the antinociceptive effect. Finally, the safety test results showed that CBG had no irritating effect on the rabbits’ skin, and it did not induce significant biochemical and hematological changes in mice. Transdermal delivery results also indicated that CBG has certain transdermal properties. Overall, this study indicates that CBG is promising for developing a transdermal dosage for pain management.
PMID:36916438 | DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.114163
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36916438/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230314190741&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 14, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Development of a gold nanoparticle-based lateral-flow strip for the detection of cannabidiol in functional beverages
Analyst. 2023 Mar 14. doi: 10.1039/d3an00084b. Online ahead of print.
Cannabidiol (CBD), the most predominant cannabinoid, may cause addiction and liver damage. In this study, we synthesized a CBD hapten containing the carboxyl group of the spacer arm by derivatizing CBD. A highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) was prepared with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 2.03 ng mL-1 and a limit of detection of 0.32 ng mL-1. MAb was highly specific for CBD. We developed an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CBD in functional beverages with a visible limit of detection of 100 ng mL-1 and a cut-off of 1000 ng mL-1. Compared with HPLC, ICA is more efficient and accurate and can be used for the rapid on-site detection of CBD in samples.
PMID:36916524 | DOI:10.1039/d3an00084b
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36916524/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230314190741&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 14, 2023 10:00 am
U.S. lawmakers float bill that would give ‘second chance’ to drug felons
A bill introduced in the U.S. Congress would allow convicted drug felons to own or serve in principal roles in hemp companies, striking down restrictions in the 2018 Farm Bill. …
U.S. lawmakers float bill that would give ‘second chance’ to drug felons Read More »
March 14, 2023 8:32 am
Thirty-two crossbred heifers were fed either a control diet or 20% (dry matter basis) hempseed cake in a complete ration for 111 days; of the cattle fed hempseed cake, four each were harvested with 0, 1, 4, and 8-day withdrawal periods. Urine and plasma were collected during the feeding and withdrawal periods and liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue were collected at harvest. Total cannabinoid (n = 10) concentration of hempseed cake averaged 11.3 ± 11.7 mg kg−1 across the feeding period with total cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD/THC) concentrations of 1.3 ± 0.8 mg kg−1. Neutral cannabinoids (cannabinol [CBN], CBD/THC, and cannabidivarin [CBDV]) were not detected in plasma or urine, but CBD/THC was measured in adipose tissue at all withdrawal periods (6.3 ± 2.1 to 10.1 ± 2.5 ng g−1). In contrast, cannabinoid acids (cannabinolic acid [CBNA], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA]/tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA], cannabichromenic acid [CBCA], and cannabidivarinic acid [CBDVA]) were sporadically detected (<15 ng mL−1) in plasma and urine of cattle fed hempseed cake. Cannabinoid acids were depleted from liver by withdrawal day 4, but could still be measured (<1 ng g−1) in kidney of some animals harvested on withdrawal day 8. Assessment of human exposures to CBD/THC residues through the consumption of beef fat from animals fed hempseed cake suggests that the probability of consuming the equivalent of an acute reference dose (ARfD) is remote, even with the use of a conservative reference dose ARfD (1 μg kg−1 body weight) [60 micrograms consumed per day for a 60 kg person; 2,500 micrograms is the minimum psychoactive dose. “Hempseed cake” typically means the de-fatted presscake from oil pressing, ~40-50% protein but lower in fatty acids than the seed. THC would tend to accumulate in the oil, not so much the presscake. RR].”
See the study at: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2023.2187645
Mechoulam’s studies in cannabis started with police, and a smelly bus trip
It started with a meeting at the police station followed by a smelly bus trip, as the late Dr. Raphael Mechoulam recalled years later. The future “father of cannabis research” …
Mechoulam’s studies in cannabis started with police, and a smelly bus trip Read More »
March 13, 2023 1:29 pm
PubMed: A single dose of cannabidiol (CBD) positively influences measures of stress in dogs during separation and car travel
Front Vet Sci. 2023 Feb 22;10:1112604. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1112604. eCollection 2023.
Many dogs experience stress when separated from their caregivers, as well as when traveling in vehicles. Pet owners employ various approaches to managing these issues, from training, to giving medications and supplements, often with mixed results. Cannabidiol (CBD) can alleviate stress and anxiety in humans but the effect it has on canine stress is less well-documented. The present study aimed to understand the impact of being left alone and traveling in a car on measures of canine stress, and establish whether a single dose of a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-free CBD distillate could positively influence any measures of stress. In a blinded, parallel design study, a population of dogs were either left alone in a familiar room (n = 21) or underwent a short car journey (n = 19). A range of physiological and behavioral measures were collected pre, during and post-test. Significant changes in several stress-related measures (serum cortisol, mean ear temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, whining and a stressed/anxious behavioral factor) were observed from baseline to test, with the car journey test paradigm eliciting a more pronounced stress response overall. The mitigating effect of CBD treatment varied by measure and test, with some indicating a significant reduction in canine stress compared to the placebo group. Additional research is required to fully understand the complex effect of CBD on canine wellbeing.
PMID:36908527 | PMC:PMC9992179 | DOI:10.3389/fvets.2023.1112604
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36908527/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313180115&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 13, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Combined non-psychoactive Cannabis components cannabidiol and β-caryophyllene reduce chronic pain via CB1 interaction in a rat spinal cord injury model
PLoS One. 2023 Mar 13;18(3):e0282920. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0282920. eCollection 2023.
The most frequently reported use of medical marijuana is for pain relief. However, its psychoactive component Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes significant side effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) and β-caryophyllene (BCP), two other cannabis constituents, possess more benign side effect profiles and are also reported to reduce neuropathic and inflammatory pain. We evaluated the analgesic potential of CBD and BCP individually and in combination in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) clip compression chronic pain model. Individually, both phytocannabinoids produced dose-dependent reduction in tactile and cold hypersensitivity in male and female rats with SCI. When co-administered at fixed ratios based on individual A50s, CBD and BCP produced enhanced dose-dependent reduction in allodynic responses with synergistic effects observed for cold hypersensitivity in both sexes and additive effects for tactile hypersensitivity in males. Antinociceptive effects of both individual and combined treatment were generally less robust in females than males. CBD:BCP co-administration also partially reduced morphine-seeking behavior in a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Minimal cannabinoidergic side effects were observed with high doses of the combination. The antinociceptive effects of the CBD:BCP co-administration were not altered by either CB2 or μ-opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment but, were nearly completely blocked by CB1 antagonist AM251. Since neither CBD or BCP are thought to mediate antinociception via CB1 activity, these findings suggest a novel CB1 interactive mechanism between these two phytocannabinoids in the SCI pain state. Together, these findings suggest that CBD:BCP co-administration may provide a safe and effective treatment option for the management of chronic SCI pain.
PMID:36913400 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0282920
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36913400/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313192026&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 13, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Editorial: Cannabidiol treatment in neurotherapeutic interventions, volume II
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36909164/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313180115&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 13, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Adolescent exposure to low-dose Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) depletes the ovarian reserve in female mice
Toxicol Sci. 2023 Mar 13:kfad027. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfad027. Online ahead of print.
Cannabis use by adolescents is widespread, but its effects on the ovaries remain largely unknown. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exerts its pharmacological effects by activating, and in some conditions hijacking, cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). We hypothesized that adolescent exposure to THC affects ovarian function in adulthood. Peripubertal female C57BL/6N mice were given THC (5 mg/kg) or its vehicle, once daily by intraperitoneal injection. Mice either received THC from postnatal day (PND) 30-33 and ovaries were harvested PND34 or mice received THC from PND30-43, and ovaries were harvested PND70. Adolescent treatment with THC depleted ovarian primordial follicle numbers by 50% at PND70, 4 weeks after the last dose. The treatment produced primordial follicle activation which persisted until PND70. THC administration also caused DNA damage in primary follicles and increased PUMA protein expression in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles. Both CB1R and CB2R were expressed in oocytes and theca cells of ovarian follicles. Enzymes involved in the formation (N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D) or deactivation (fatty acid amide hydrolase) of the endocannabinoid anandamide were expressed in granulosa cells of ovarian follicles and interstitial cells. Levels of mRNA for CBR1 were significantly increased in ovaries after adolescent THC exposure, and upregulation persisted for at least 4 weeks. Our results support that adolescent exposure to THC may cause aberrant activation of the ovarian endocannabinoid system in female mice, resulting in substantial loss of ovarian reserve in adulthood. Relevance of these findings to women who frequently used cannabis during adolescence warrants investigation.
PMID:36912754 | DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfad027
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36912754/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313180115&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 13, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol-associated hepatotoxicity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
J Intern Med. 2023 Mar 13. doi: 10.1111/joim.13627. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Findings of liver enzyme elevations in recent cannabidiol studies have raised concerns over liver safety. This study aimed to determine the association between cannabidiol use, liver enzyme elevation, and drug-induced liver injury (DILI).
METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a search of EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinicaltrials.gov, Medline, medRxiv, and Web of Science of records up to February 2022 was conducted. Clinical trials initiating daily cannabidiol treatment with serial liver enzyme measures were included. The proportion of liver enzyme elevations and DILI were independently extracted from published reports. Pooled proportions and probability meta-analyses were conducted.
RESULTS: Cannabidiol use was associated with an increased probability of liver enzyme elevation (N = 12 trials, n = 1229; OR = 5.85 95% CI = 3.84-8.92, p < 0.001) and DILI (N = 12 trials, n = 1229; OR = 4.82 95% CI = 2.46-9.45, p < 0.001) compared to placebo controls. In participants taking cannabidiol (N = 28 trials, n = 1533), the pooled proportion of liver enzyme elevations was 0.074 (95% CI 0.0448-0.1212), and DILI was 0.0296 (95% CI 0.0136-0.0631). High-dose CBD (≥1000 mg/day or ≥20 mg/kg/day) and concomitant antiepileptic drug use were identified as risk factors. No cases were reported in adults using cannabidiol doses <300 mg/day. No cases of severe DILI were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Cannabidiol-associated liver enzyme elevations and DILI meet the criteria of common adverse drug events. Clinicians are encouraged to screen for cannabidiol use and monitor liver function in patients at increased risk.
PMID:36912195 | DOI:10.1111/joim.13627
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36912195/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313180115&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 13, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: LC-MS/MS quantitation of non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol in aqueous humor
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2023 Mar 5;228:115324. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2023.115324. Online ahead of print.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa. To support preclinical studies of ocular pharmacology of CBD, a bioanalytical method was developed and validated for quantification of CBD in aqueous humor using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Aqueous humor samples were subjected to protein precipitation by acetonitrile, followed by chromatographic separation using reversed phase LC on a Raptor ARC-18 column with mobile phase A: 0.1 % (v/v) formic acid in water (B) 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile (B) as eluents. Detection was carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization operated in positive ion mode. Stable-isotope labeled CBD (CBD-d3) was used as internal standard. The total run time was 8 min. Quantification was accomplished within the validated concentration range of 0.5-500 ng/mL for CBD using a 5 µL sample. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL. Inter- and intra-day precision is 4.737-7.620 % and 3.426-5.830 %, respectively. Inter- and intra-day accuracy ranged between 99.01 % and 100.2 % and 99.85-101.4 % respectively. The extraction recoveries were found to be 66.06 ± 5.146 %. The established method was successfully applied to investigate ocular pharmacokinetics of CBD in mice. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 50 mg/kg CBD, its concentration reaches a Cmax of 71.55 ± 36.64 ng/mL in aqueous humor, with a Tmax of 2 h and a half-life of 1.046 h. The AUC was 183.4 ± 49.17 ng * h/mL. The development and validation of this LC-MS/MS method is an important step toward the goal of assessing the aqueous humor concentrations of CBD and correlating the concentrations of this phytocannabinoid with its ocular pharmacologic effects.
PMID:36907022 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2023.115324
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36907022/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230313180115&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 12, 2023 10:00 am
PubMed: Moving Away from 12:12; the Effect of Different Photoperiods on Biomass Yield and Cannabinoids in Medicinal Cannabis
Plants (Basel). 2023 Feb 27;12(5):1061. doi: 10.3390/plants12051061.
The standard practice to initiate flowering in medicinal cannabis involves reducing the photoperiod from a long-day period to an equal duration cycle of 12 h light (12L)/12 h dark (12D). This method reflects the short-day flowering dependence of many cannabis varieties but may not be optimal for all. We sought to identify the effect of nine different flowering photoperiod treatments on the biomass yield and cannabinoid concentration of three medicinal cannabis varieties. The first, “Cannatonic”, was a high cannabidiol (CBD)-accumulating line, whereas the other two, “Northern Lights” and “Hindu Kush”, were high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) accumulators. The nine treatments tested, following 18 days under 18 h light/6 h dark following cloning and propagation included a standard 12L:12D period, a shortened period of 10L:14D, and a lengthened period of 14L:10D. The other six treatments started in one of the aforementioned and then 28 days later (mid-way through flowering) were switched to one of the other treatments, thus causing either an increase of 2 or 4 h, or a decrease of 2 or 4 h. Measured parameters included the timing of reproductive development; the dry weight flower yield; and the % dry weight of the main target cannabinoids, CBD and THC, from which the total g cannabinoid per plant was calculated. Flower biomass yields were highest for all lines when treatments started with 14L:10D; however, in the two THC lines, a static 14L:10D photoperiod caused a significant decline in THC concentration. Conversely, in Cannatonic, all treatments starting with 14L:10D led to a significant increase in the CBD concentration, which led to a 50-100% increase in total CBD yield. The results show that the assumption that a 12L:12D photoperiod is optimal for all lines is incorrect as, in some lines, yields can be greatly increased by a lengthened light period during flowering.
PMID:36903921 | DOI:10.3390/plants12051061
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36903921/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230311152319&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 11, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: The Influence of the Addition of Hemp Press Cake Flour on the Properties of Bovine and Ovine Yoghurts
Foods. 2023 Feb 24;12(5):958. doi: 10.3390/foods12050958.
Hemp press cake flour (HPCF) is a by-product of hemp oil production rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, oleochemicals, and phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of HPCF to bovine and ovine plain yoghurts at concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% could change the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of the yoghurts, focusing on the improvement of quality and antioxidant activity, and the issue of food by-products and their utilisation. The results showed that the addition of HPCF to yoghurts significantly affected their properties, including an increase in pH and decrease in titratable acidity, change in colour to darker, reddish or yellowish hue, and a rise in total polyphenols and antioxidant activity during storage. Yoghurts fortified with 4% and 6% HPCF exhibited the best sensory properties, thus maintaining viable starter counts in the yoghurts during the study period. There were no statistically significant differences between the control yoghurts and the samples with 4% added HPCF in terms of overall sensory score while maintaining viable starter counts during the seven-day storage. These results suggest that the addition of HPCF to yoghurts can improve product quality and create functional products and may have potential in sustainable food waste management.
PMID:36900475 | DOI:10.3390/foods12050958
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36900475/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230311152319&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 11, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Evidence from Human Studies for Utilising Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Substance-Use Disorders: A Scoping Review with a Systematic Approach
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Feb 24;20(5):4087. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20054087.
Substance-use disorders are pervasive, comorbid with a plethora of disease and possess limited treatment options. Medicinal cannabinoids have been proposed as a novel potential treatment based on preclinical/animal trials. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of potential therapeutics targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of substance-use disorders. We performed a scoping review using a systematic approach of systematic reviews, narrative reviews, and randomised control trials that utilised cannabinoids as treatment for substance-use disorders. For this scoping review we used the PRISMA guidelines, a framework for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to inform our methodology. We conducted a manual search of Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases in July 2022. Of the 253 results returned by the databases, 25 studies including reviews were identified as relevant, from which 29 randomised controlled trials were derived and analysed via a primary study decomposition. This review captured a small volume of highly heterogenous primary literature investing the therapeutic effect of cannabinoids for substance-use disorders. The most promising findings appeared to be for cannabis-use disorder. Cannabidiol appeared to be the cannabinoid showing the most promise for the treatment of multiple-substance-use disorders.
PMID:36901098 | DOI:10.3390/ijerph20054087
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36901098/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230311152319&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 11, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol as a Promising Therapeutic Option in IC/BPS: In Vitro Evaluation of Its Protective Effects against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 6;24(5):5055. doi: 10.3390/ijms24055055.
Several animal studies have described the potential effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in alleviating the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the urinary bladder. However, the effects of CBD, its mechanism of action, and modulation of downstream signaling pathways in urothelial cells, the main effector cells in IC/BPS, have not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we investigated the effect of CBD against inflammation and oxidative stress in an in vitro model of IC/BPS comprised of TNFα-stimulated human urothelial cells SV-HUC1. Our results show that CBD treatment of urothelial cells significantly decreased TNFα-upregulated mRNA and protein expression of IL1α, IL8, CXCL1, and CXCL10, as well as attenuated NFκB phosphorylation. In addition, CBD treatment also diminished TNFα-driven cellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), by increasing the expression of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and hem oxygenase 1. CBD-mediated effects in urothelial cells may occur by the activation of the PPARγ receptor since inhibition of PPARγ resulted in significantly diminished anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of CBD. Our observations provide new insights into the therapeutic potential of CBD through modulation of PPARγ/Nrf2/NFκB signaling pathways, which could be further exploited in the treatment of IC/BPS.
PMID:36902479 | DOI:10.3390/ijms24055055
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36902479/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230311152319&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 11, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Excretion and residue depletion of cannabinoids in beef cattle fed hempseed cake for 111 days
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2023 Mar 10:1-14. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2187645. Online ahead of print.
Thirty-two crossbred heifers were fed either a control diet or 20% (dry matter basis) hempseed cake in a complete ration for 111 days; of the cattle fed hempseed cake, four each were harvested with 0, 1, 4, and 8-day withdrawal periods. Urine and plasma were collected during the feeding and withdrawal periods and liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue were collected at harvest. Total cannabinoid (n = 10) concentration of hempseed cake averaged 11.3 ± 11.7 mg kg-1 across the feeding period with total cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD/THC) concentrations of 1.3 ± 0.8 mg kg-1. Neutral cannabinoids (cannabinol [CBN], CBD/THC, and cannabidivarin [CBDV]) were not detected in plasma or urine, but CBD/THC was measured in adipose tissue at all withdrawal periods (6.3 ± 2.1 to 10.1 ± 2.5 ng g-1). In contrast, cannabinoid acids (cannabinolic acid [CBNA], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA]/tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA], cannabichromenic acid [CBCA], and cannabidivarinic acid [CBDVA]) were sporadically detected (<15 ng mL-1) in plasma and urine of cattle fed hempseed cake. Cannabinoid acids were depleted from liver by withdrawal day 4, but could still be measured (<1 ng g-1) in kidney of some animals harvested on withdrawal day 8. Assessment of human exposures to CBD/THC residues through the consumption of beef fat from animals fed hempseed cake suggests that the probability of consuming the equivalent of an acute reference dose (ARfD) is remote, even with the use of a conservative reference dose ARfD (1 μg kg-1 body weight).
PMID:36897320 | DOI:10.1080/19440049.2023.2187645
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36897320/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230310152142&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 10, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Medical Cannabis for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain Management
Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2023 Mar 10. doi: 10.1007/s11916-023-01101-w. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis has been used since ancient times for medical and recreational research. This review article will document the validity of how medical cannabis can be utilized for chronic nonmalignant pain management.
RECENT FINDINGS: Current cannabis research has shown that medical cannabis is indicated for symptom management for many conditions not limited to cancer, chronic pain, headaches, migraines, and psychological disorders (anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder). Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are active ingredients in cannabis that modulate a patient’s symptoms. These compounds work to decrease nociception and symptom frequency via the endocannabinoid system. Research regarding pain management is limited within the USA as the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies it as a schedule one drug. Few studies have found a limited relationship between chronic pain and medical cannabis use. A total of 77 articles were selected after a thorough screening process using PubMed and Google Scholar. This paper demonstrates that medical cannabis use provides adequate pain management. Patients suffering from chronic nonmalignant pain may benefit from medical cannabis due to its convenience and efficacy.
PMID:36897501 | DOI:10.1007/s11916-023-01101-w
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36897501/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230310152142&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 10, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: High 'N' Dry? A Comparison of Cannabis and Alcohol Use in Drivers Presenting to Hospital after a Vehicular Collision
Addiction. 2023 Mar 10. doi: 10.1111/add.16186. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The characteristics of cannabis-involved motor vehicle collisions are poorly understood. This study of injured drivers identifies demographic and collision characteristics associated with high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
SETTING: Fifteen Canadian trauma centres between January 2018 and December 2021. Cases Injured drivers (n=6956) who required blood testing as part of routine trauma care.
MEASUREMENTS: We quantified whole blood THC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and recorded driver sex, age and postal code, time of crash, crash type and injury severity. We defined three driver groups: High THC (THC≥5ng/mL & BAC=0); High Alcohol (BAC≥0.08% & THC=0) and THC/BAC negative (THC = 0 = BAC). We used logistic regression techniques to identify factors associated with group membership.
FINDINGS: Most injured drivers (70.2%) were THC/BAC negative; 1,274 (18.3%) had THC>0 including 186 (2.7%) in the High THC group; 1161 (16.7%) had BAC>0 including 606 (8.7%) in the high BAC group. Males and drivers <45 years had higher adjusted odds of being in the High THC group (v.s., THC/BAC negative group). Importantly, 4.6% of drivers <19 years old had THC≥5ng/mL and drivers <19 years had higher unadjusted odds of being in the High THC group than drivers aged 45-54 years old. Males, drivers aged 19-44 years, rural drivers, seriously injured drivers, and drivers injured in single-vehicle, nighttime or weekend collisions had higher adjusted odds ratios [aORs] for being in the High Alcohol group (v.s., THC/BAC negative). Drivers aged <35 or ≥ 65 years and drivers involved in multi-vehicle, daytime or weekday collisions had higher adjusted odds for being in the High THC group (v.s., High BAC group).
CONCLUSIONS: In Canada, risk factors for cannabis-related motor vehicle collisions appear to differ from those for alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions. The collision factors associated with alcohol (single vehicle, nighttime, weekend, rural, serious injury) are not associated with cannabis-related collisions. Demographic factors (young drivers, male drivers) are associated with both alcohol and cannabis-related collisions but are more strongly associated with cannabis-related collisions.
FUNDING: This study received funding from Health Canada, CIHR, Ministries of Transportation of Alberta and Ontario and Saskatchewan Government Insurance.
PMID:36898848 | DOI:10.1111/add.16186
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36898848/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230311152319&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 10, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Effect of Cannabidiol Oil on Post-ureteroscopy Pain for Urinary Calculi: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
J Urol. 2023 Apr;209(4):726-733. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000003139. Epub 2023 Mar 9.
PURPOSE: Post-ureteroscopy stent placement carries significant morbidity which can interfere with daily life. This discomfort unfortunately leads to high utilization of opioid pain medications, which have a known risk of addiction. Cannabidiol oil represents an alternative analgesic that has proven anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of a Food and Drug Administration-approved cannabidiol oil (Epidiolex) on pain control and opioid usage in the post-ureteroscopy setting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary care center. Ninety patients undergoing ureteroscopy with stent placement for urinary stone disease were randomized 1:1 to placebo or 20 mg cannabidiol oil daily for 3 days postoperatively. Both groups were prescribed a rescue narcotic, tamsulosin, oxybutynin, and phenazopyridine. Daily pain scores, medication usage, and ureteral stent symptoms using the validated Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire were recorded postoperatively.
RESULTS: Both the placebo and cannabidiol oil groups were not different in pre- and perioperative characteristics. There was no difference in pain scores or opioid usage between groups postoperatively. The level of discomfort with ureteral stents was also not different between groups when comparing physical activity, sleep, urination, and activities of daily life.
CONCLUSIONS: This randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial showed that cannabidiol oil is safe but ineffective when compared to placebo in reducing post-ureteroscopic stent discomfort or opioid usage. Despite the availability of numerous analgesic agents, stent symptoms continue to be a dissatisfier for most patients, suggesting additional work needs to focus on novel interventions and pain control.
PMID:36891837 | DOI:10.1097/JU.0000000000003139
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36891837/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230309152052&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 9, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Beyond CBD: Inhibitory effects of lesser studied phytocannabinoids on human voltage-gated sodium channels
Front Physiol. 2023 Feb 20;14:1081186. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1081186. eCollection 2023.
Introduction: Cannabis contains cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, but also many other phytocannabinoids that have therapeutic potential in the treatment of epilepsy. Indeed, the phytocannabinoids cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA), cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and cannabichromene (CBC) have recently been shown to have anti-convulsant effects in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome (DS), an intractable form of epilepsy. Recent studies demonstrate that CBD inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel function, however, whether these other anti-convulsant phytocannabinoids affect these classic epilepsy drug-targets is unknown. Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels play a pivotal role in initiation and propagation of the neuronal action potential and NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.6 and NaV1.7 are associated with the intractable epilepsies and pain conditions. Methods: In this study, using automated-planar patch-clamp technology, we assessed the profile of the phytocannabinoids CBGA, CBDVA, cannabigerol (CBG), CBCA and CBC against these human voltage-gated sodium channels subtypes expressed in mammalian cells and compared the effects to CBD. Results: CBD and CBGA inhibited peak current amplitude in the low micromolar range in a concentration-dependent manner, while CBG, CBCA and CBC revealed only modest inhibition for this subset of sodium channels. CBDVA inhibited NaV1.6 peak currents in the low micromolar range in a concentration-dependent fashion, while only exhibiting modest inhibitory effects on NaV1.1, NaV1.2, and NaV1.7 channels. CBD and CBGA non-selectively inhibited all channel subtypes examined, whereas CBDVA was selective for NaV1.6. In addition, to better understand the mechanism of this inhibition, we examined the biophysical properties of these channels in the presence of each cannabinoid. CBD reduced NaV1.1 and NaV1.7 channel availability by modulating the voltage-dependence of steady-state fast inactivation (SSFI, V0.5 inact), and for NaV1.7 channel conductance was reduced. CBGA also reduced NaV1.1 and NaV1.7 channel availability by shifting the voltage-dependence of activation (V0.5 act) to a more depolarized potential, and for NaV1.7 SSFI was shifted to a more hyperpolarized potential. CBDVA reduced channel availability by modifying conductance, SSFI and recovery from SSFI for all four channels, except for NaV1.2, where V0.5 inact was unaffected. Discussion: Collectively, these data advance our understanding of the molecular actions of lesser studied phytocannabinoids on voltage-gated sodium channel proteins.
PMID:36891145 | PMC:PMC9986306 | DOI:10.3389/fphys.2023.1081186
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36891145/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230309152052&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 9, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Delta-8-THC association with psychosis: A case report with literature review
Front Psychiatry. 2023 Feb 20;14:1103123. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1103123. eCollection 2023.
BACKGROUND: Cannabis (Δ9-THC) is the most commonly consumed illicit drug. The Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 removed hemp, a strain of Cannabis sativa, as a controlled substance. This law allowed the plant to be processed into its components, which contain <0.3% Δ9-THC. As a result, delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), a federally unregulated substance, grew in popularity in 2020. Δ8-THC is readily available in most gas stations or head shops and may be considered harmless by patients. However, an increasing number of patients admitted for psychiatric hospitalization report use, with limited literature on the effects.
CASE PRESENTATIONS: This case report describes three individual cases of patients who required admission to a university psychiatric hospital after the regular use solely of Δ8-THC. All three patients developed psychotic and paranoid symptoms concurrently with the use of Δ8-THC, with a severity exceeding their previous historical presentations. The presenting psychotic symptoms were also atypical for all three patients. New-onset violence and visual hallucinations were noted in two of the patients, one patient with no previous psychiatric history and one patient while on a therapeutic dose of his antipsychotic. In the third case, a new onset of bizarre, fixed delusions of puppies dissolving in the bathtub developed.
CONCLUSION: This report adds to the limited body of evidence on Δ8-THC documenting a temporal association between Δ8-THC use and the development of psychotic symptoms. A strong body of research already correlates the continued use of Δ9-THC with psychosis, and Δ8-THC acts at the same CB1 and CB2 receptors as Δ9-THC. Therefore, it is hypothesized that Δ8-THC may have similar adverse psychiatric effects as Δ9-THC. These conclusions are not without speculation, due to the need for self or collateral-reporting of Δ8-THC use as urine drug screening cannot distinguish Δ8-THC from Δ9-THC, and the patients’ symptoms could be explained by medication non-adherence and primary psychotic disorders. However, physicians should be encouraged to gather a specific history of Δ8-THC use and treat patients with Δ8-THC-related intoxication and symptoms.
PMID:36890985 | PMC:PMC9986552 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1103123
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36890985/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230309152052&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 9, 2023 11:00 am
Clouds darken over CBD as more states consider banning delta-8
More state governments are joining the growing chorus that would ban synthetic, hemp-derived delta-8 THC, with Arkansas, West Virginia and Texas the most recent to take such measures under consideration. …
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March 9, 2023 5:57 am
PubMed: Acute effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on neuromuscular transmission and locomotive behaviours in larval zebrafish
J Neurophysiol. 2023 Mar 8. doi: 10.1152/jn.00438.2022. Online ahead of print.
Given the increasing trend of cannabis use for recreational and therapeutic purposes, a comprehensive examination of cannabis effects is warranted. The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is a potent disrupter of neurodevelopment. Nevertheless, the impact of acute exposure to THC on developing motor systems is not well-investigated. In this study, using a neurophysiological whole-cell patch clamp approach we demonstrated that a 30 min exposure to THC can alter spontaneous synaptic activities at neuromuscular junctions of 5-day post-fertilized zebrafish. An increased frequency of synaptic activity and altered decay kinetic properties were documented in the THC-treated larvae. Locomotive behaviours, including swimming activity rate and C-start escape response to sound were also affected by THC. While the THC-treated larvae displayed hyperactivity of their basal swimming levels, their escape response rate to sound stimuli was reduced. These findings suggest that the acute exposure to THC can disrupt neuromuscular transmission and locomotor-driven responses in developing zebrafish.
PMID:36883767 | DOI:10.1152/jn.00438.2022
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36883767/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230308152146&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 8, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Stakeholders' Decisions and Preferences for the Provision and Use of Medicinal Cannabis: A Scoping Review
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2023 Mar 8. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0115. Online ahead of print.
Background: The aim of this scoping review was to examine the extent that stakeholder’s decisions about and preferences for the provision and use of medicinal cannabis (MC) had been investigated. We sought to identify which populations were examined, the methods used for eliciting preferences and exploring decisions, and the reported outcomes of studies. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, BSC and PsycINFO) and the reference lists of relevant articles were searched for studies published up to March 2022. Studies were included if stakeholder preferences for MC were (1) the primary focus of the research, or (2) an aspect of a larger preference focus. Studies that (3) described the decisions to use MC were also included. Results: Thirteen studies were reviewed. The population focus of these was primarily patient, with seven studies focused on general patient populations and five studies targeting specific patient populations such as cancer survivors, and people experiencing depression. Methods included health economics preference methods, qualitative interviews, and a single multicriteria decision-making study. Four categories of outcomes were defined and included comparisons of MC with a therapeutic alternative (n=5), preferences for MC attributes (n=5), administration preferences (n=4), and the decision process of users (n=2). Motivation differences in preference were found. Purely medicinal users and novice users place more importance on cannabidiol (CBD) than tetrahydrocannabinol. Overall, inhalation methods of administration were preferred due to quick onset of symptom relief. Price was the greatest influence on choice for recreational/medicinal users, whereas purely medicinal users were less price sensitive for products with higher CBD content. Conclusion: Studies examining public preferences for the provision and use of MC were absent. Revealed preference methods are a useful technique for understanding preferences for characteristics that are difficult to visibly assess such as cannabinoid or strain. The outcomes of symptom-specific multicriteria decision method studies that compare the benefit-safety profiles of commonly used treatments and MC may be a useful decision support tool for health practitioners. Studies with representative samples are needed to understand the impact of age, gender, and race on preferences for MC.
PMID:36888538 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0115
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36888538/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230309152052&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 8, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Incidence of Newborn Drug Testing and Variations by Birthing Parent Race and Ethnicity Before and After Recreational Cannabis Legalization
JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Mar 1;6(3):e232058. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.2058.
IMPORTANCE: Thirty-seven US states and the District of Columbia mandate reporting newborns with suspected prenatal substance exposure to the state, and punitive policies that link prenatal substance exposure to newborn drug testing (NDT) may lead to disproportionate reporting of Black parents to Child Protective Services. The impact of recreational cannabis legalization on racial disproportionality in NDT is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To examine variations in the incidence and results of NDT by birthing parent race and ethnicity, variables associated with variation, and changes after statewide legalization of recreational cannabis.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2014 to 2020 with 26 366 live births to 21 648 birthing people who received prenatal care at an academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Data were analyzed from June 2021 to August 2022.
EXPOSURES: Variables included birthing parent age, race, ethnicity, marital status, zip code, insurance type, prenatal and newborn diagnoses codes, and prenatal urine drug test orders and results.
MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was an NDT order. Secondary outcomes were substances detected.
RESULTS: Among 26 366 newborns of 21 648 birthing people (mean [SD] age at delivery, 30.5 [5.2] years), most birthing parents were White (15 338 [71.6%]), were non-Hispanic (20 125 [93.1%]), and had private insurance coverage (16 159 [74.8%]). The incidence of NDT ordering was 4.7% overall (1237 newborns). Clinicians ordered more NDTs for Black compared with White newborns (207 of 2870 [7.3%] vs 335 of 17 564 [1.9%]; P < .001) when the birthing parent had no prenatal urine drug test, a presumably low-risk group. Overall, 471 of 1090 NDTs (43.3%) were positive for only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). NDTs were more likely to be positive for opioids in White compared with Black newborns (153 of 693 [22.2%] vs 29 of 308 [9.4%]; P < .001) and more likely to be positive for THC in Black compared with White newborns (207 of 308 [67.2%] vs 359 of 693 [51.8%]; P < .001). Differences remained consistent after state recreational cannabis legalization in 2018. Newborn drug tests were more likely to be positive for THC after legalization vs before legalization (248 of 360 [68.9%] vs 366 of 728 [50.3%]; P < .001) with no significant interaction with race and ethnicity groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, clinicians ordered NDTs more frequently for Black newborns when no drug testing was done during pregnancy. These findings call for further exploration of how structural and institutional racism contribute to disproportionate testing and subsequent Child Protective Services investigation, surveillance, and criminalization of Black parents.
PMID:36884249 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.2058
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36884249/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230308152146&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 8, 2023 11:00 am
Hemp companies should ‘sharpen pencils’ to shape industry debate
Sandy Templeton is the owner of Digital Oil LLC, Backus, Minnesota, and a partner in HempStrategist, a hemp-focused marketing communications specialist. Templeton has worked in digital marketing for more than …
Hemp companies should ‘sharpen pencils’ to shape industry debate Read More »
March 8, 2023 3:51 am
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory Effect of a Combination of Cannabidiol and <em>Morinda citrifolia</em> Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 Macrophages
In Vivo. 2023 Mar-Apr;37(2):591-595. doi: 10.21873/invivo.13117.
BACKGROUND/AIM: The inflammatory response plays an important role in the activation and progression of many inflammation-related diseases. Cannabis sativa and Morinda citrifolia have long been used in folk medicine to treat inflammation. Cannabidiol is the most abundant non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in C. sativa and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in combination with M. citrifolia and compare its effects with those of cannabidiol alone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (200 ng/ml) were treated with cannabidiol (0-10 μM), M. citrifolia seed extract (0-100 μg/ml), or a combination of both for 8 or 24 h. Following the treatments, nitric oxide production in the activated RAW264 cells and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were assessed.
RESULTS: Our results showed that combination of cannabidiol (2.5 μM) and M. citrifolia seed extract (100 μg/ml) exhibited more efficient inhibition of nitric oxide production than cannabidiol treatment alone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 cells. The combination treatment also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of combined treatment with cannabidiol and M. citrifolia seed extract causes a reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators.
PMID:36881078 | DOI:10.21873/invivo.13117
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36881078/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230307152125&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 7, 2023 11:00 am
Ode to a Vanishing Handcraft
A review of Cannabis Textiles in Hemp Garden Cultures by Git Skoglund.
#CBD #Hemp https://www.projectcbd.org/ode-vanishing-handcraft March 7, 2023 10:21 am
Scholars document how cannabis came to Ireland.
#CBD #Hemp https://www.projectcbd.org/celtic-hemp March 7, 2023 9:50 am
Publicly traded CBD companies continue to shed millions in Europe
A drastic imbalance between revenues and expenses shows publicly traded companies are overstretched in the European CBD market and continue to rack up massive losses, a UK cannabis analyst says …
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March 7, 2023 5:35 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol improves muscular lipid profile by affecting the expression of fatty acid transporters and inhibiting de novo lipogenesis
Sci Rep. 2023 Mar 6;13(1):3694. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-30872-w.
Obesity is one of the principal public health concerns leading to disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism, which is a risk factor for several chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, it turned out that cannabidiol (CBD) is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of obesity and its complications. Therefore, in the present study, we used CBD therapy (intraperitoneal injections in a dose of 10 mg/kg of body mass for 14 days) in a rat model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Gas-liquid chromatography and Western blotting were applied in order to determine the intramuscular lipid content and total expression of selected proteins in the white and red gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Based on fatty acid composition, we calculated de novo lipogenesis ratio (16:0/18:2n-6), desaturation ratio (18:1n-9/18:0), and elongation ratios (18:0/16:0, 20:0/18:0, 22:0/20:0 and 24:0/22:0), in the selected lipid fractions. Two-week CBD administration significantly reduced the intramuscular fatty acids (FAs) accumulation and inhibited de novo lipogenesis in different lipid pools (in the free fatty acid, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol fractions) in both muscle types, which coincided with a decrease in the expression of membrane fatty acid transporters (fatty acid translocase, membrane-associated fatty acid binding protein, and fatty acid transport proteins 1 and 4). Moreover, CBD application profoundly improved the elongation and desaturation ratios, which was in line with downregulated expression of enzymes from the family of elongases and desaturases regardless of the metabolism presented by the muscle type. To our knowledge, this study is the first that outlines the novel effects of CBD action on skeletal muscle with different types of metabolism (oxidative vs. glycolytic).
PMID:36879113 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-30872-w
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36879113/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230307152125&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 6, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Safety and efficacy comparison of polyethylene glycol, hemp seed oil, and 5% sugar brine for bowel preparation in older patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Trials. 2023 Mar 6;24(1):168. doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-07059-1.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer among the middle-aged and elderly is gradually increasing in China. Colonoscopy is an effective method for the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and bowel preparation is one of many important factors affecting colonoscopy. Although there are many studies on intestinal cleansers, the results are not ideal. There is evidence that hemp seed oil has certain potential effects in intestinal cleansing, but prospective studies on this topic are still lacking.
METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, single-center clinical study. We randomly assigned 690 participants to groups each administered 3 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG), 30 mL of hemp seed oil and 2 L of PEG, or 30 mL of hempseed oil, 2 L of PEG, and 1000 mL of 5% sugar brine. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was considered the primary outcome measure. We evaluated the interval between consumption of bowel preparation and first bowel movement. Secondary indicators included the time of cecal intubation, detection rate of polyps and adenomas, willingness to repeat the same bowel preparation, whether the protocol was tolerated, and whether there were adverse reactions during bowel preparation and were evaluated after counting the total number of bowel movements.
DISCUSSION: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that hemp seed oil (30 mL) increases the quality of bowel preparation and reduces the amount of PEG. Previously, we found that its combination with 5% sugar brine can reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2200057626. Prospectively registered on March 15, 2022.
PMID:36879331 | DOI:10.1186/s13063-022-07059-1
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36879331/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230307152125&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 6, 2023 11:00 am
Researchers in Argentina testing 15 hemp grain, fiber varieties
Argentina is moving beyond the hemp flower, with 15 grain and fiber varieties now undergoing evaluation for inclusion in the country’s official seed catalog. Buenos Aires-based Industrial Hemp Solutions (IHS) said …
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March 6, 2023 5:15 am
PubMed: Oral Cannabidiol does not alter Alcohol Seeking and Self-Administration in Baboons
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2023 Mar 1;245:109829. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.109829. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is currently under investigation as a pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine whether acute and chronic treatment with pure CBD would decrease alcohol seeking and consumption behaviors or alter drinking patterns in male baboons with extensive histories of daily alcohol intake (1 g/kg/day).
METHODS: Seven male baboons self-administered oral alcohol (4% w/v) in a validated chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR) procedure that modeled periods of anticipation, seeking, and consumption. In Experiment 1, CBD (5-40 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, USP) was administered orally 15- or 90-minutes prior to the start of the session. In Experiment 2, oral doses of CBD (10-40 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered for 5 consecutive days during ongoing alcohol access under the CSR. In addition, behavioral observations were conducted to assess potential drug side effects (e.g., sedation, motor incoordination) following chronic CBD treatment immediately after the session and 24-hours after drug administration.
RESULTS: Across both experiments, baboons self-administered an average of 1 g/kg/day of alcohol under baseline conditions. Administration of acute or chronic CBD (150-1200 mg total CBD dose/day) that encompassed the purported therapeutic dose range did not significantly reduce alcohol seeking, self-administration or intake (g/kg). Drinking patterns (i.e., number of drinks/bouts, bout duration, nor interdrink interval) also were not altered. There were no observable behavioral disruptions following CBD treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the current data do not support use of pure CBD as an effective pharmacotherapy to reduce ongoing excessive drinking.
PMID:36871377 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.109829
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36871377/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230306152011&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 5, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Absence of Age Verification for Online Purchases of Cannabidiol and Delta-8: Implications for Youth Access
J Adolesc Health. 2023 Mar 2:S1054-139X(23)00067-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.01.020. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: This study assessed the age verification process for purchasing and shipping cannabidiol (CBD) and Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol products from online retailers.
METHODS: We purchased CBD and Delta-8 products online from 20 brick-and-mortar shops located in the United States that sold products online and shipped products to consumers. We documented online age verifications at the time of purchase and whether identification or a signature was required at delivery.
RESULTS: 37.5% of the CBD and 70.0% of the Delta-8 websites required the customer to confirm their age (18 + or 21+ years). Age verification or contact with the customer was not requested at the point of home delivery for all products.
DISCUSSION: Methods for age verification at time of purchase are self-reported and easily circumvented. Policies and policy enforcement are needed to prevent youth access to CBD and Delta-8 products from online sources.
PMID:36870900 | DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.01.020
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36870900/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230305152011&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 4, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Anticancer properties of cannabidiol and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol and synergistic effects with gemcitabine and cisplatin in bladder cancer cell lines
J Cannabis Res. 2023 Mar 4;5(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s42238-023-00174-z.
INTRODUCTION: With the legalization of cannabis in multiple jurisdictions throughout the world, a larger proportion of the population consumes cannabis. Several studies have demonstrated anti-tumor effects of components present in cannabis in different models. Unfortunately, little is known about the potential anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids in bladder cancer and how cannabinoids could potentially synergize with chemotherapeutic agents. Our study aims to identify whether a combination of cannabinoids, like cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, with agents commonly used to treat bladder cancer, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin, can produce desirable synergistic effects. We also evaluated if co-treatment with different cannabinoids resulted in synergistic effects.
METHODS: We generated concentration curves with several drugs, including several cannabinoids, to identify the range at which they could exert anti-tumor effects in bladder cancer cell lines. We tested the cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine (up to 100 nM), cisplatin (up to 100 μM), and cannabinoids (up to 10 μM) in T24 and TCCSUP cells. We also evaluated the activation of the apoptotic cascade and whether cannabinoids have the ability to reduce invasion in T24 cells.
RESULTS: Cannabidiol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabichromene, and cannabivarin reduce cell viability of bladder cancer cell lines, and their combination with gemcitabine or cisplatin may induce differential responses, from antagonistic to additive and synergistic effects, depending on the concentrations used. Cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol were also shown to induce apoptosis via caspase-3 cleavage and reduce invasion in a Matrigel assay. Cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol also display synergistic properties with other cannabinoids like cannabichromene or cannabivarin, although individual cannabinoids may be sufficient to reduce cell viability of bladder cancer cell lines.
DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that cannabinoids can reduce human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell viability, and that they can potentially exert synergistic effects when combined with other agents. Our in vitro results will form the basis for future studies in vivo and in clinical trials for the development of new therapies that could be beneficial for the treatment of bladder cancer in the future.
PMID:36870996 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-023-00174-z
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36870996/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230305152011&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 4, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol improves haloperidol-induced motor dysfunction in zebrafish: a comparative study with a dopamine activating drug
J Cannabis Res. 2023 Mar 4;5(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s42238-023-00177-w.
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) extracted from the cannabis plant is believed to have a medicinal value due to its neuroprotective effect via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. Recent behavioral studies in rats have reported that CBD mediates serotonin (5-HT1A) receptor action to improve motor dysfunction induced by dopamine (D2) receptor blockade. In particular, its effect on D2 receptor blockade in the striatum is an important function associated with neurological disorders resulting from various extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated with this site is known for inducing Parkinson’s disease (PD), which often affects the elderly. It is also known to cause drug-induced Parkinsonism. This study examines the ameliorating effect of CBD, which does not act directly on D2 receptors, against drug-induced motor dysfunction induced by the antipsychotic drug (haloperidol).
METHODS: We created a drug-induced Parkinsonism model in zebrafish larvae using an antipsychotic drug (haloperidol). We evaluated the distance traveled and repetitive light-stimulation response. Furthermore, we examined whether administration of several concentrations of CBD ameliorates symptoms of the Parkinsonism model and compared its effects with those of antiparkinsonian drug ropinirole.
RESULTS: CBD concentrations equal to half of haloperidol’s resulted in an almost complete reversal of haloperidol-induced motor dysfunction, as measured by the distance traveled by the zebrafish and their response to light-stimulus. While ropinirole also significantly reversed haloperidol’s effects at the same concentration as CBD, CBD was more effective than ropinirole.
CONCLUSIONS: CBD-induced motor dysfunction improvement via D2 receptor blockade is a potential novel mechanism for the treatment of haloperidol-induced motor dysfunction.
PMID:36871008 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-023-00177-w
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36871008/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230305152011&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 4, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol interacts with the FXR/Nrf2 pathway and changes the CB1/CB2 receptors ratio in gentamicin-induced kidney injury in rats
Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2023 Mar;26(3):343-350. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2023.67998.14867.
OBJECTIVES: Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was used as an experimental model of kidney disease. The present study was performed to assess the therapeutic role of cannabidiol (CBD) against gentamicin-induced renal damage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty two male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n=7), including: (1) Control, (2) Vehicle, (3) Gentamicin-treated group (100 mg/kg/day) for 10 days (GM), (4-6) 3 Gentamicin-CBD-treated groups (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day) for 10 days (GM+CBD2.5, GM+CBD5, GM+CBD10). Serum levels of BUN and Cr, renal histology as well as real-time qRT-PCR were used to investigate the pattern of changes at different levels.
RESULTS: Gentamicin increased serum BUN and Cr (P<0.001), down-regulation of FXR (P<0.001), SOD (P<0.05) and up-regulation of CB1 receptor mRNA (P<0.01). Compared to the control group, CBD at 5 decreased (P<0.05) and at 10 mg/kg/day increased the expression of FXR (P<0.05). Nrf2 expression in CBD groups was increased (P<0.001 vs. GM). The expression of TNF-α compared to the control and GM groups, was significantly increased in CBD2.5 (P<0.01) and CBD10 (P<0.05). Compared to the control, CBD at 2.5 (P<0.01), 5 (P<0.001) and 10 (P<0.001) mg/kg/day significantly increased the expression of CB1R. Up-regulation of CB1R in the GM+CBD5, was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the GM group. Compared to the control group, the most significant increase in CB2 receptor expression was observed at CBD10 (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: CBD particularly at 10 mg/kg/day might be of significant therapeutic benefit against such renal complications. Activating the FXR/Nrf2 pathway and counteracting the deleterious effects of CB1 receptors via CB2 receptors scale-up could be part of the protective mechanisms of CBD.
PMID:36865046 | PMC:PMC9922371 | DOI:10.22038/IJBMS.2023.67998.14867
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36865046/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230303152154&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 3, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol (CBD): Analytical and toxicological aspects
Therapie. 2023 Feb 20:S0040-5957(23)00034-3. doi: 10.1016/j.therap.2023.02.006. Online ahead of print.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid present in cannabis, obtained either by extraction from the plant or by synthesis. The latter has the advantage of being pure and contains few impurities, unlike CBD of plant origin. It is used by inhalation, ingestion or skin application. In France, the law stipulates that specialties containing CBD may contain up to 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive principle of cannabis. From an analytical point of view, it is therefore important to be able to quantify the two compounds as well as their metabolites in the various matrices that can be used clinically or forensically, in particular saliva and blood. The transformation of CBD into THC, which has long been suggested, appears to be an analytical artifact under certain conditions. CBD is not without toxicity, whether acute or chronic, as seems to attest to the serious adverse effects recorded by pharmacovigilance during the experiment currently being conducted in France by the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé. Although CBD does not seem to modify driving abilities, driving a vehicle after consuming CBD containing up to 0.3% THC, and sometimes much more in products bought on the internet, can lead to a positive result in screening and confirmation tests by law enforcement agencies, whether salivary or blood tests, and therefore lead to a legal sanction.
PMID:36868996 | DOI:10.1016/j.therap.2023.02.006
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36868996/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230304152334&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 3, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol Add-On in Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Related Drug-Resistant Epilepsy
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2023 Mar 1. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0255. Online ahead of print.
Background: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein deficiencies (GPI-ADs) are commonly associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Cannabidiol (CBD) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of seizures in Dravet/Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. We report on the efficacy and safety of CBD for the treatment of DRE in patients with genetically proven GPI-AD. Patients and Methods: Patients received add-on treatment with purified GW-pharma CBD (Epidyolex®). Efficacy endpoints were the percentage of patients with ≥50% (responders) or >25<50% (partial responders) reduction in monthly seizures from baseline and at 12 (M12) months of follow-up. Safety was evaluated through adverse events (AEs) monitoring. Results: Six patients (5 males) were enrolled. The median age at seizures onset was 5 months and the syndromic diagnosis was early infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy in 4 patients and focal non-lesional epilepsy or GEFS+ in one patient each. Five out of six (83%) patients were responders at M12, while one was a partial responder. No severe AEs were reported. Mean prescribed CBD dose was 17.85 mg/kg/day and median treatment duration is currently 27 months. Conclusions: In summary, off-label treatment with CBD was effective and safe in patients with DRE due to GPI-ADs.
PMID:36862522 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0255
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36862522/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230303152154&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 2, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Low-Dose Δ9-THC Produces Antinociception in Female, But Not Male Rats
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2023 Mar 1. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0256. Online ahead of print.
Introduction: The analgesic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, have been widely promoted. Unfortunately, animal research is limited by the use of high doses and pain-evoked tests. Motor and psychoactive effects of THC may suppress evoked responses in the absence of antinociceptive effects. Materials and Methods: This study overcomes these problems by assessing the antinociceptive effect of low doses of subcutaneous THC on depression of home cage wheel running caused by hindpaw inflammation. Female and male Long-Evans rats were individually housed in a cage with a running wheel. Results: Female rats ran significantly more than male rats. Administration of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant into the right hindpaw produced inflammatory pain that significantly depressed wheel running in female and male rats. Administration of a low dose of THC (0.32, but not 0.56 or 1.0 mg/kg) restored wheel running in the hour after administration in female rats. Administration of these doses had no effect on pain-depressed wheel running in male rats. Conclusions: These data are consistent with previous studies showing greater antinociceptive effects of THC in female compared with male rats. These data extend previous findings by showing that low doses of THC can restore pain-depressed behaviors.
PMID:36862519 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0256
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36862519/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230303152154&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac March 2, 2023 11:00 am
UK stakeholders scoff at report of CBD deaths, criticize Jazz
UK hemp stakeholders fear CBD could be relegated to medical-only status after the release of a controversial report from a government regulator claimed 10 people have died after ingesting the …
UK stakeholders scoff at report of CBD deaths, criticize Jazz Read More »
March 2, 2023 11:01 am
Zimbabwe Takes Hemp Cultivation to the Next Level
CANNABIS CULTURE – Zimbabwe raises THC limit in industrial hemp to 1%. This is praiseworthy. It’s a bold move for such a small country like Zimbabwe. Not even the US whose various state have bewildering laws on cannabis has done it,” Rex Matonga, a private adviser to Chinese companies looking to enter Zimbabwe’s promising cannabis sector, said to Cannabis Culture during a recent interview. Zimbabwe’s new peers like Malawi allow up 1% THC in legal hemp;…
Zimbabwe Takes Hemp Cultivation to the Next Level
March 1, 2023 11:26 pm
Tiny Pacific island nation of Vanuatu hopes to draw hemp investors
The government of the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu is looking to attract foreign investors and operators to develop medical cannabis and industrial hemp production for export-only after recently finalizing …
Tiny Pacific island nation of Vanuatu hopes to draw hemp investors Read More »
March 1, 2023 7:15 am
PubMed: A Robust Process to Produce Lignocellulosic Nanofibers from Corn Stover, Reed Canary Grass, and Industrial Hemp
Polymers (Basel). 2023 Feb 14;15(4):937. doi: 10.3390/polym15040937.
The use of agricultural waste biomass for nanocellulose production has gained interest due to its environmental and economic benefits compared to conventional bleached pulp feedstock. However, there is still a need to establish robust process technologies that can accommodate the variability of waste feedstocks and to understand the effects of feedstock characteristics on the final nanofiber properties. Here, lignocellulosic nanofibers with unique properties are produced from various waste biomass based on a simple and low-cost process using mild operating conditions. The process robustness is demonstrated by diversifying the feedstock, ranging from food crop waste (corn stover) to invasive grass species (reed canary grass) and industrial lignocellulosic residues (industrial hemp). This comprehensive study provides a thorough examination of the influence of the feedstocks’ physico-chemical characteristics on the conversion treatment, including process yield, degree of delignification, effectiveness of nanofibrillation, fiber morphology, surface charge, and density. Results show that nanofibers have been successfully produced from all feedstocks, with minor to no adjustments to process conditions. This work provides a framework for future studies to engineer nanocellulose with specific properties by taking advantage of biomass feedstocks’ intrinsic characteristics to enable versatile applications.
PMID:36850221 | DOI:10.3390/polym15040937
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36850221/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230228152707&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac February 28, 2023 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol and Cannabis Sativa as a potential treatment in vitro prostate cancer cells silenced with RBBp6 and PC3 xenograft
Mol Biol Rep. 2023 Feb 28. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-08197-0. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most frequently occurring carcinoma in males worldwide and one of the leading causes of death in men around the world. Recent studies estimate that over 1.4 million males are diagnosed with prostate cancer on an annual basis, with approximately 375,000 succumbing to the disease annually. With current treatments continuing to show severe side effects, there is a need for new treatments. In this study we looked at the effect of cannabis sativa extract, cannabidiol and cisplatin on prostate cancer cells, PC3.
METHODS: In addressing the above questions, we employed the MTT assay to measure the antiproliferative effect on PC3 cells following treatment with varying concentrations of Cannabis sativa extract, cisplatin and cannabidiol. xCELLigence was also used to confirm the IC50 activity in which cells were grown in a 16 well plate coated with gold and monitor cell attachment. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured using 96 well-plate following treatment. Western-blot and qRT-PCR was also used to measure the gene expression of tumour suppressor genes, p53, Bax and Bcl2. Animal studies were employed to measure the growth of PC3-mouse derived cancer to evaluate the effect of compounds in vivo.
RESULTS: From the treatment with varying concentrations of Cannabis sativa extract, cannabidiol and cisplatin, we have observed that the three compounds induced antiproliferation of PC3 cancer cell lines through the activation of caspase 3/7 activity. We also observed induction of apoptosis in these cells following silencing of retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6), with upregulation of p53 and bax mRNA expression, and a reduction in Bcl2 gene expression. The growth of tumours in the mouse models were reduced following treatment with cisplatin and cannabidiol.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that cannabidiol is a viable therapy to treat prostate cancer cells, in combination with silencing of RBBP6. This suggests that cannabidiol rather Cannabis sativa extract may play an important role in reducing cancer progression.
PMID:36853473 | DOI:10.1007/s11033-022-08197-0
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36853473/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230228152707&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac February 28, 2023 11:00 am