PubMed: The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: failures and potentials

PubMed: The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: failures and potentials

Neurosci Lett. 2021 Jun 16:136064. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136064. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Owing to its psychotropic effects, Cannabis has been stigmatized by its recreational use leading to a dramatic decline in the experimentations about its medical use in the twentieth century. The medical properties of the plant – known since ancient times – has received increased attention over recent years; yet, the research on its potential application in the field of psychiatry is still nascent. In this connection, the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a phytocannabinoid compound with promising antipsychotic effects. In addition, advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, along with accumulating evidence implicating this system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, have stimulated research by the pharmaceutical industry to explore whether alteration of this system can be of medical benefit. This review examines the current state of evidence regarding the clinical potential of cannabinoid-based drugs as a treatment for schizophrenia, while discussing various limitations with the therapeutic approaches considered so far. In the second part, the author highlights the most promising strategies, as well as the most interesting directions one could follow, in the emerging field of cannabinoid therapies for schizophrenia.

PMID:34146641 | DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136064

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34146641/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210620065906&v=2.14.4 June 19, 2021 10:00 am

Quick Hits: More States Legalize Cannabis

Quick Hits: More States Legalize Cannabis

Connecticut Legalizes Cannabis

Members of the state House and Senate approved S.B. 1201 on Thursday, legalizing the adult-use marijuana market.

Next, they submitted the measure to Democratic Gov. Ned Lamont, who is expected to sign the bill into law.

The Nutmeg State will be the fifth after New York, New Mexico, Virginia, and technically New Jersey that approved legalization this year. 

Rhode Island Senate Approves Adult-Use Cannabis 

The Senate Judiciary Committee approved a bill on Monday that would legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana for adult use, marking the first time such a bill has moved to the floor of either chamber of the General Assembly in Rhode Island.

The bill would create an independent cannabis control commission to oversee the program and issue licenses for cannabis retailers passed 6 to 2.

It’s expected to go to the full Senate next Tuesday.

Legalization in Virginia

Cannabis becomes legal in Virginia on July 1.

According to Virginia’s chapter of NORML, the legalization law allows for possession by adults 21+ of up to one ounce and personal, home cultivation of up to 4 plants per household by adults 21+ at their primary residence, if the plants have labels, are out of public view, and kept away from children. 

Additionally, adult-sharing of up to one ounce in private without remuneration; and continued participation in the medical cannabis program, which allows buying marijuana. It delivers at Virginia dispensaries. 

However, the selling of marijuana seeds will still be illegal, and so will transporting seeds across state lines. 

Full story here. 

Product Launches

Photo courtesy of Gem + Jane.

CannaCraft launched its new brand Gem + Jane: A sparkling botanical beverage that blends simple ingredients with microdoses of cannabinoids, including THCV, Delta-8 THC, and CBD.

The drink will be available exclusively at Sweet Flower dispensary locations throughout greater Los Angeles beginning June 17th. 

The original, pioneering edibles editor for High Times magazine and author of cannabis cookbook Bong Appetit, Chef Elise McDonough, serves as Brand Manager for Gem + Jane.  

Emphasizing the natural tastes and aroma of citrus, berries, herbs, and flowers (Think Petal with cannabis added), the Gem + Jane beverage line blends complex layers of playful flavors on the palate.

It delivers a light, manageable dose of cannabis for most consumers.

It comes in four sophisticated flavors, as well as an unflavored, pure Simply Seltzer for mixing up mocktails or enjoying on its own.

The Elderflower Pear, Lemon Blueberry Lavender, and Strawberry Hibiscus varieties contain a blend of 4mg Delta-8 THC and 2mg CBD for more mellow moments like relaxing with friends. 

The Simply Seltzer and Yuzu Rose Raspberry flavor each contain 4mg THCV and <2mg THC. 

Drop 2.0

Drop Delivery, an all-in-one delivery technology suite for cannabis retail businesses, announced Wednesday the launch of a new white-labeled consumer e-commerce web-based app, Drop 2.0.

The app includes a more customizable homepage, improved product search capabilities, highly detailed product filtering, and a more engaging way for consumers to take advantage of retailers’ deals.

Drop Delivery CEO and Co-founder Vanessa Gabriel cite wanting to emulate and elevate the best mainstream e-commerce experiences with the development of Drop 2.0. 

Expanding upon ordering ahead, Drop 2.0 offers retailers an app-based e-commerce shopping experience akin to Sephora or Instacart.

The new app provides more freedom to customize the web-based app based on their specific hyperlocal preferences and provides customers with fresh, powerful shopping tools. 

“While cannabis e-commerce is relatively new, e-commerce is not, and consumers expect certain features to be a part of that shopping experience,” said Gabriel. “That includes being able to search for products based on current and past searches, highly categorized product filters, and being able to take advantage of discounts and deals all in the same place. 

Mendi CBD

Because the world needs yet another celebrity-endorsed CBD brand, Mendi Founder and CEO Rachael Rapinoe, sister to 2x World Cup Champion Olympic gold medalist Megan Rapinoe, and co-founder Brett Schwager have created Mendi.

The Portland, Oregon-based brand is “championing their cause to level the playing field by innovating natural alternatives to sports medicine.”

Their “proprietary blends of all-natural hemp CBD products target pain relief, inflammation, and mood to improve sleep and recovery.” 

Like Carli Lloyd using CBD Medic before it, Mendi aims to soothe the shin splints for the athlete or gym rat in all of us. 


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/quick-hits-more-states-legalize-cannabis/
June 18, 2021 6:22 pm

PubMed: Health Claims About Cannabidiol Products: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters from 2015 to 2019

PubMed: Health Claims About Cannabidiol Products: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters from 2015 to 2019

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 17. doi: 10.1089/can.2020.0166. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) products are increasingly available to consumers in the United States and are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CBD products cannot be marketed as unapproved new drugs with claims of therapeutic benefit. In addition, because CBD is the active ingredient in a FDA-approved CBD product, Epidiolex, CBD cannot be marketed as, or in, food products or dietary supplements. The FDA has issued Warning Letters to promote voluntary regulatory compliance. These letters provide insights as to the types of violations for CBD products detected in the U.S. market. Objective: The goal of this retrospective study was to content analyze Warning Letters issued by the FDA to identify illicit marketing of CBD products. Design: Warning Letters issued by the FDA between 2015 and 2019 were content analyzed using a deductive approach. We extracted year of issuance, issuing office, and claim types that are currently prohibited by the FDA, including (i) unapproved new drug, (ii) misbranded drug, (iii) false and/or misleading, (iv) FDA-approved/endorsed, (v) dietary supplement, and (vi) adulterated food product. In addition, we documented the disease or conditions the product claimed to affect, pharmacological effects, and location of violation. Results: Of the 39 Warning Letters issued, 97% were for violations made on company websites and 56% were for social media accounts. Almost all letters (97%) cited violations of marketing CBD as an unapproved new drug. These illicit therapeutic claims were made for >125 unique health problems, including cancer (87.2%), diabetes (71.8%), inflammation (66.7%), pain (66.7%), and arthritis (66.7%). The majority of letters (79.5%) also cited illicit marketing of CBD as a dietary supplement or food product. CBD was promoted as having 16 unique pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory (53.8%), anticancer (43.6%), and antipsychotic (30.8%). Conclusions: CBD products have been unlawfully advertised online as unauthorized drugs with health claims that promote therapeutic benefits and as dietary supplements. Efforts are needed to regulate and monitor illicit advertising so consumers are not misled about the risks and benefits of CBD use.

PMID:34142863 | DOI:10.1089/can.2020.0166

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34142863/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210619070005&v=2.14.4 June 18, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: A method and its application to determine the amount of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and biosolids

PubMed: A method and its application to determine the amount of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and biosolids

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jun 18. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-14921-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Xenobiotic cannabinoids (phyto and synthetic) are highly lipophilic compounds and have been shown to accumulate within the particulate fraction of wastewater. Limited research has been conducted to investigate the occurrence of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and/or biosolids. The analysis of excreted cannabinoids from sewage sludge or biosolids can provide information about community health, as well as potentially long-term environmental impacts. In this study, a liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for the extraction and detection method for 50 cannabinoids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including the cannabis urinary biomarker 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and a variety of different generation synthetic cannabinoids and their respective metabolites. Method validation assessed criteria including linearity, selectivity, recovery, and matrix effects. The method was applied to samples collected from a conventional activated sludge reactor treatment facility from various stages of the treatment process. Three cannabinoids were abundant in primary sludge including THC, THC-COOH, and CBD, where THC was the most ubiquitous with concentrations up to 3200 μg kg-1. Only THC and THC-COOH were detectable in aged biosolids. The detection of some cannabinoids in biosolids demonstrated that these compounds are stable throughout the treatment process.

PMID:34143389 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-021-14921-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34143389/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210619070005&v=2.14.4 June 18, 2021 10:00 am

Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market

Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market
Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market

Lithuania’s Seimas, the parliament’s upper house, has overwhelmingly passed a set of amendments clearly indicating an intention to allow the production and sale of products…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/amendments-to-lithuanias-hemp-law-could-spark-e100-million-market/
June 18, 2021 8:00 am

2017: Hemp Flower Products Pre-DSHEA

Hempseed and other hemp flower products have been in the human and animal diet for many millennia. There is much documentation of that, evidence from around the world including the U.S.

Therefore when in 2017 FDA announced it was soliciting comments for which food ingredients should be on the official list as existing before October 1994, I saw the opportunity present our case. Ingredients introduced after that date would require FDA notification and possibly much more testing and validation.

I submitted an 18-page fact-filled document arguing for all hemp flower products being on the list, including flowers and the compounds found therein such as CBD (and thus logically, THC). Seed and seed oil became GRAS about a year later, but CBD and hemp flower are still sitting in limbo.

FDA could take advantage of this elegant approach to regulating CBD and include hemp flower products in the official list of ingredients existing before DSHEA. It could overcome Food and Drug Act, DSHEA, Exclusionary Rule, New Dietary Ingredient, Generally Recognized As Safe, Investigative New Drug, and Orphan Drug Status objections, depending on product, form, marketing, content, and other factors.

Comments of Richard Rose to FDA’s Request for Comments on the ‘Development of a List of Pre-Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act Dietary Ingredients’ and the reasons Hemp Flower Products should be considered an ingredient existing before the passage of DSHEA” can be downloaded at: https://downloads.regulations.gov/FDA-2017-N-4625-0024/attachment_1.pdf.

The Docket FDA-2017-N-4625 with 37 comments can be seen at: https://www.regulations.gov/docket/FDA-2017-N-4625.

PubMed: Cannabinoids and Terpenes: How Production of Photo-Protectants Can Be Manipulated to Enhance Cannabis sativa L. Phytochemistry

PubMed: Cannabinoids and Terpenes: How Production of Photo-Protectants Can Be Manipulated to Enhance Cannabis sativa L. Phytochemistry

Front Plant Sci. 2021 May 31;12:620021. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.620021. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated for its secondary metabolites, of which the cannabinoids have documented health benefits and growing pharmaceutical potential. Recent legal cannabis production in North America and Europe has been accompanied by an increase in reported findings for optimization of naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoid production. Of the many environmental cues that can be manipulated during plant growth in controlled environments, cannabis cultivation with different lighting spectra indicates differential production and accumulation of medically important cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG), as well as terpenes and flavonoids. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation shows potential in stimulating cannabinoid biosynthesis in cannabis trichomes and pre-harvest or post-harvest UV treatment merits further exploration to determine if plant secondary metabolite accumulation could be enhanced in this manner. Visible LED light can augment THC and terpene accumulation, but not CBD. Well-designed experiments with light wavelengths other than blue and red light will provide more insight into light-dependent regulatory and molecular pathways in cannabis. Lighting strategies such as subcanopy lighting and varied light spectra at different developmental stages can lower energy consumption and optimize cannabis PSM production. Although evidence demonstrates that secondary metabolites in cannabis may be modulated by the light spectrum like other plant species, several questions remain for cannabinoid production pathways in this fast-paced and growing industry. In summarizing recent research progress on light spectra and secondary metabolites in cannabis, along with pertinent light responses in model plant species, future research directions are presented.

PMID:34135916 | PMC:PMC8200639 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.620021

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34135916/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210618065954&v=2.14.4 June 17, 2021 10:00 am

SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel

SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel

SC Labs, a cannabis testing company with roots in Santa Cruz, California, announced this week that they have developed a comprehensive hemp testing panel that covers a number of contaminants on a national regulatory level. In the press release, the company says they aim to fill the void of national hemp testing requirements.

The hemp testing panel they have developed purportedly meets testing standards in states that require contaminant levels below a certain action limit. The SC Labs hemp testing panel could theoretically be used for regulatory compliance testing across the country, reaching action limits and analyte levels that meet the strictest state requirements.

The panel tests for pesticides, heavy metals, microbiology, mycotoxins, residual solvents and water activity. In the press release, the company says they have received ISO accreditation for the panel, although it’s not immediately clear to what standard it has been accredited.

Still, the test panel is one sign of progress in the long road to nationally harmonized testing standards. “As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now,” says Jeff Gray, CEO of SC Labs. “The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act. As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now. The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act.”

SC Labs is headquartered in Santa Cruz, but has licenses in California, Oregon, Texas and Colorado (pending). Their California and Oregon locations are both ISO 17025-accredited and conducting THC-containing cannabis testing, as well as hemp testing.

The post SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel


June 16, 2021 6:55 pm

PubMed: Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs

PubMed: Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs

FP Essent. 2021 Jun;505:28-34.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies Cannabis sativa as marijuana. The term cannabis refers to all products derived from Cannabis plants. The active compounds in cannabis are cannabinoids, which include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the psychoactive component, whereas CBD has no psychoactive effects. There are three Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cannabis-related drugs. Dronabinol and nabilone (Cesamet) are approved for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; cannabidiol (Epidiolex) is approved for two pediatric epilepsy syndromes. FDA-approved cannabis-related drugs, marijuana, and cannabis formulations have been studied for the management of other conditions and symptoms (eg, cachexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, chronic pain, muscle spasticity) and have shown varying effectiveness. CBD formulations have been shown to be effective for certain forms of epilepsy. However, marijuana, cannabis-containing products, and cannabis-derived products in general are not approved by the FDA for any indication. Adverse effects include impaired executive function, cognition, and driving. Physicians can recommend use of marijuana under medical marijuana laws but cannot prescribe it, as it is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. Laws regulating use of marijuana and cannabis products vary among states.

PMID:34128629

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34128629/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210616065939&v=2.14.4 June 15, 2021 10:00 am

Five Cannabis Leaders Forecast Industry Changes

Five Cannabis Leaders Forecast Industry Changes

There’s no question that the cannabis industry is booming and changing daily. MJBizDaily recently released a publication that expects marijuana sales to boost the economy by $92 billion in 2021 alone. That statistic is up 30% from last year, and the same analysis predicts it will reach upwards of $160 billion by 2025.

With all of this incredible growth, significant changes are on the horizon. So, we decided to ask five top leaders in the cannabis and CBD industries about the changes they anticipate happening in the next five years. 

Here’s what they shared. 

1 . Products Will Become More Accessible to the Consumer

“[The majority of CBD products] are trying to be luxury brands and premium brands. And that just isn’t a sustainable marketplace, nor what serves most consumer needs,” explains Sequoia Prince-Lazarus, Founder and CEO of Lazarus Naturals.

He founded his company to fill a void in the marketplace, and his mission was to make farm-to-bottle CBD products that were both effective and affordable. He believes we’ll see more accessible products like his in the future, and in the next five years the industry will normalize, and prices will fall. 

“I think [brands] are trying to effectively milk it for all it’s worth before the prices come down,” he shared. And the high prices are coming at the expense of consumers.

Because luxury brands are nearly ten times the cost of typical supplements, it’s difficult for the average consumer to include CBD as part of their health routine. 

As more and more brands enter the marketplace, Price-Lazarus predicts that we’ll see a lot more commoditization and more affordable brands. “Eventually, the prices will be no more than twice the price of normal supplements, and they may even be more affordable than over-the-counter drugs or at least similar prices,” he shared. 

2. Tailored Delivery Methods to Fit Each Use Case

As more and more scientists research cannabinoids from a medical perspective, Price-Lazarus also predicts that we’ll see delivery methods tailored to each use case. “Right now, we’re operating off of anecdotal evidence for the most part—and also a few research papers,” he shared. 

But as medical research expands, he predicts scientists will know which delivery methods are most effective for treating each ailment. “You’ll have to understand market trends and consumer preference and pair that in.

But I think it will be more important to know what type of cannabinoids, at what exact levels, and determining the right and proper serving,” he explained.

As the industry better understands the answers to these questions, more brands will take a scientific approach to how CBD should be delivered. Delivery methods that fit the use case of those substances will reign supreme, meaning more effective products for consumers. 

3. Brands Will Understand the Power of Cannabinoid Combos

Because there’s not very much research done on isolated cannabinoids that aren’t THC, Marcus Quinn, CEO of Your CBD Store, says there’s tons of opportunity to study the combination of cannabinoids. “[Medical research] hasn’t even begun to look at how [certain cannabinoids] work together,” he explained.

Quinn and his wife, Rachael Quinn, founded their company after using CBD products to treat Rachael’s Crohn’s disease. After finding much-sought-after relief from the hemp products, the duo realized they could help heal others with the supplement.

And they even began creating their own products, which are tested and certified by ISO-accredited labs.

“[The industry] looks totally different than it did five years ago. And I think five years from now, it’s going to look totally different, too,” Quinn explained. “We know CBD somewhat blocks THC, but we don’t know if that affects the efficacy of the THC. And now, we know about even more cannabinoids, like CBG and CBN.”

Quinn believes that as interest peaks and regulations change, more researchers will start asking the right questions. “Like, what [cannabinoid combos] are the best? Does it vary from person to person? Or are there different ratios that give you better [results]?”

If brands want to survive in the next five years, their offerings can’t remain stagnant. Because more innovative brands will force the industry to stay on the cutting edge.

Brands that thrive will identify the cannabinoid combination trends. They’ll work with the research and listen to the science.  And they’ll adapt their products accordingly to provide the best in the market. 

4. Brands Will Focus More on Developing People

According to Nichole LaMay, Head of HR and Culture at Mammoth Distribution, cannabis brands have left employee development on the table for far too long. “There’s an opportunity for growing and developing people in this industry,” she explained. “So being able to have solid learning, development and succession plans that continue to evolve and grow employees will be important.”

She says brands will need to take an innovative and unique approach to these programs if they want to reach and resonate with their audience. They’ll also need to invest in performance-proven c-suite leaders who align with their culture. 

“Having people who are passionate about what they do helps you drive everything you’re doing,” she explained. “When you have a healthy, robust culture where people want to come to work and want to collaborate for the greatest good, you see the greatest results.”

5. More Small Businesses to Help Local Communities and Support The Global Good

Thomas Rimbach, Co-Founder, and CEO at Baked Bros, says predicting the next five years is challenging. “Because where I want to see it and where we might end up —with a bunch of money and corporate backing —are two different directions.” 

He hopes that small businesses in America will be able to keep and maintain the footing they’ve helped build thus far. “I’d like to see small businesses helping local communities and supporting globally, but I don’t know how it’s going to work out once it’s federally legal and big money opens up.”

Rimbach told us there’s one thing he knows for sure: Small businesses (like his) will drive the industry forward with more sustainable business practices and put consumers first. “We want to prevent [the cannabis industry] from going to this corporate setting—where people are forgotten and treated as a ticket,” he shared.

Predicting what’s next in cannabis is a tall order. With rules that vary from state to state, constant regulation changes, and a chance to become federally legal, this industry is constantly changing. Whatever happens next will make or break the brands that built the industry—and only the most innovative will survive. 


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/five-cannabis-leaders-forecast-industry-changes/
June 14, 2021 4:06 pm

PubMed: Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People

PubMed: Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001427. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonintoxicating constituent of cannabis, exhibits anxiolytic properties in preclinical and human studies and is of interest as a novel intervention for treating anxiety disorders. Existing first-line pharmacotherapies for these disorders include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and other antidepressants. Cannabidiol has well-described inhibitory action on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug-metabolizing enzymes and significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between CBD and various anticonvulsant medications (eg, clobazam) have been described in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, we examined the likelihood of DDIs when CBD is added to medications prescribed in the treatment of anxiety.

METHODS: The effect of CBD on CYP450-mediated metabolism of the commonly used antidepressants fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and mirtazapine were examined in vitro. Cannabidiol-citalopram interactions were also examined in vivo in patients (n = 6) with anxiety disorders on stable treatment with citalopram or escitalopram who received ascending daily doses of adjunctive CBD (200-800 mg) over 12 weeks in a recent clinical trial.

RESULTS: Cannabidiol minimally affected the metabolism of sertraline, fluoxetine, and mirtazapine in vitro. However, CBD significantly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of citalopram and its stereoisomer escitalopram at physiologically relevant concentrations, suggesting a possible in vivo DDI. In patients on citalopram or escitalopram, the addition of CBD significantly increased citalopram plasma concentrations, although it was uncertain whether this also increased selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-mediated adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: Further pharmacokinetic examination of the interaction between CBD and citalopram/escitalopram is clearly warranted, and clinicians should be vigilant around the possibility of treatment-emergent adverse effects when CBD is introduced to patients taking these antidepressants.

PMID:34121064 | DOI:10.1097/JCP.0000000000001427

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34121064/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210615070047&v=2.14.4 June 14, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Potency testing of cannabinoids by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography: Where we are, what we need

PubMed: Potency testing of cannabinoids by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography: Where we are, what we need

J Chromatogr A. 2021 Jun 1;1651:462304. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462304. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp and cannabis industry is undergoing a renewed interest due to legalization of marijuana (a topic that all countries are discussing, especially in recent years) and the growing importance of therapeutic properties of cannabinoids. Together with an increment in the production of hemp and recreational cannabis, there has been an increasing demand for accurate potency testing of products (i.e. quantification of main cannabinoids present in the plant in terms of weight percentage) prior commercialization. This translates in an urgent need of reliable analytical methods to characterize cannabis and hemp samples. Cannabis and hemp preparations are commercialized under various forms (e.g., flowers, oils, candies or even baked goods) usually containing a large number of often very similar compounds making their separation very challenging. Strictly connected to this, another emerging topic concerns the need for the developing of large scale separation techniques for the purification of cannabinoids from complex matrices and for the preparation of analytical-grade standards (including the chiral ones). This paper reviews the most recent achievements in both these aspects. Cutting-edge applications and novel opportunities in potency testing by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection (which is becoming the golden standard, according to several pharmacopeias, for this kind of measurements) are discussed. The focus has been given to the very important topic of enantio-discrimination of chiral cannabinoids, for which supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) appears to be particularly suitable. The last part of the work covers the purification of cannabinoids through preparative chromatography. In this regard, particular attention has been given to the most innovative multi-column techniques allowing for the continuous purification of target molecules. The most recent advancements and future challenges in this field are discussed.

PMID:34118531 | DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462304

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34118531/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 12, 2021 10:00 am

Quick Hits: Criminal and Social Justice Reform in Cannabis Industry

Quick Hits: Criminal and Social Justice Reform in Cannabis Industry

The NFL and NFLPA will award $1M in up to five grants as the league seeks to know more about the efficacy of cannabis and CBD for pain management.

The National Football League and its Players Association are providing $1 million in funding for research into pain management and cannabinoids through its joint pain management committee, the NFL announced on Tuesday.

The league and union launched the committee last year and said cannabis is included in its research into alternative therapies for pain management.

According to Gangapreneur, “Up to five grants are expected to be awarded by Thanksgiving as the league seeks to learn more about the efficacy of cannabis and CBD and their potential as alternatives to opioids.”

Full story here. 

Zelira Therapeutics has licensed its ZTL-106 proprietary cannabinoid formulation to Levin Health for a chronic pain treatment clinical trial on retired athletes.

Zelira Therapeutics Ltd (ASX: ZLD, OTCQB: ZLDAF), a company that focuses on the development of clinically validated cannabinoid-based medicines, announces that it has licensed a proprietary cannabinoid formulation to Levin Health Limited (Levin Health) to undertake a clinical trial to test the efficacy of the formulation in treating sports-related chronic pain experienced by retired professional and amateur athletes.

Studies show that retired athletes are more likely to suffer chronic pain and associated conditions such as depression and anxiety due to injuries and physical exertion over long periods.

While clinical data is currently limited, medicinal cannabis may provide a safe and effective targeted treatment option for this large cohort.

The clinical trial to be conducted by Levin Health will address this.

In addition to licensing the proprietary formulation to Levin Health, Zelira and Levin Health have entered into a Project Management Agreement, whereby Levin Health will pay for the trial and engage Zelira to project manage the clinical trial to be undertaken at La Trobe University’s Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre in Victoria, Australia.

Morocco’s House of Councilors finally passes their cannabis legalization bill.

After several amendments, Morocco’s House of Councilors has finally approved the intensely debated measure on the limited legalization of cannabis.

Morocco’s Parliament put Bill No. 13.21, concerning the commercialization and legal uses of cannabis, up for a vote during today’s governmental plenary session.

It passed by a majority vote, with 41 advisers voting in favor and 11 voting against. 

The bill aims to improve Moroccan farmers’ income and give rise to “promising and sustainable” job opportunities in the country’s rural regions. 

Full story here.   

Connecticut: Senate Lawmakers Advance Adult Use Marijuana Legalization Bill

(Via NORML) Members of the Connecticut state Senate have approved legislation, Senate Bill 1118, to legalize the adult use of marijuana, regulate its commercial retail sales, and tax the potency of THC. 

SB 1118 allows adults 21 and older to legally purchase and possess up to 1.5 ounces of marijuana in public and up to five ounces of marijuana in their private residence. 

Beginning October 2021, state-registered medical cannabis patients will be permitted to cultivate up to three mature and three immature marijuana plants.

Non-patients must wait until 2023 until they are legally allowed to home-cultivate marijuana for personal use.

Those with past criminal records for activities involving up to four ounces of cannabis will automatically expunge their convictions.

Those with convictions for more serious offenses can petition the courts to take action.  

The proposed measure also limits the discriminatory actions that employers, hospitals, and others may take against those who test positive for past cannabis exposure.

The bill also provides protections for parents and tenants who use cannabis in compliance with the law.

It mandates that the odor of marijuana alone cannot be used as a basis for police to search an individual.

It prohibits jail time as a penalty for those under 21 years of age who are caught in possession of marijuana.

Under the legislation, marijuana flowers available at retail facilities will be capped at 30 percent THC, while concentrated products (except vape cartridges) will be capped at 60 percent THC.

Senate lawmakers approved the bill with a 19 to 17 vote.

House lawmakers are expected to consider the proposal shortly.

Lawmakers face a tight deadline of Wednesday, June 9, 2021, at midnight to move SB 1118 through the House and to the Governor’s desk before the legislative session adjourns for the year.

The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation Announce New Grants

Today, the Hawthorne Gardening Company (Hawthorne) announced the first grantees of The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation.

These organizations are contributing to criminal and social justice reform for the cannabis industry. 

The $2.5 million fund is dedicated to non-profit organizations working toward social justice reform within state-regulated cannabis industries.

The recipients include Minorities for Medical Marijuana and United Returning Citizens.

In addition, Hawthorne is funding the NuLeaf Project, an organization that provides direct support for minority cannabis entrepreneurs through a corporate donation. 

As North America’s household name in indoor and hydroponic growing supplies, Hawthorne has committed to using its influence and resources to help drive criminal justice reform related to cannabis prohibition and contribute to shaping a more equitable post-prohibition cannabis industry. 

“Our commitment to being a good company is what drove us to create The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation. As we announced earlier this year, establishing the fund with an initial investment of $2.5 million to support non-profit organizations with cannabis social justice missions,” said Chris Hagedorn, Executive Vice President and Division President of Hawthorne. “This fund deepens Hawthorne’s commitment to sparking change as policy reform advances across the country and states address the legacy of racial inequity tied to cannabis prohibition. We promise to support programming that helps communities and individuals who have been negatively affected by the long-standing and systemic inequality related to cannabis prohibition in the United States.”

The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund grantees were chosen because of the powerful work they’re doing to address the negative impacts caused by the disproportionate number of cannabis-related arrests and incarcerations involving persons of color to support minority entrepreneurs and increase investments in minority communities. 

The work of the Fund’s grantees includes:

 

  • Minorities for Medical Marijuana provides advocacy, outreach, research, and training related to business, social reform, public policy, and health/wellness in the cannabis industry. Its Project Clean Slate program offers expungement clinics and wraparound services nationwide for those affected by past marijuana possession charges. At the same time, Project Safe Access NV assists members of the Latino community in accessing medical marijuana. 

 

  • NuLeaf Project is working to build intergenerational wealth via the legal cannabis industry for the communities disproportionately harmed by cannabis criminalization–including Black and Brown communities. Hawthorne is a corporate sponsor for the Nu School Accelerator Program, which offers financial support and technical expertise on cannabis startup financing and operating an ancillary business.

 

  • United Returning Citizens provides job search and training, life and financial literacy skills, and transitional and stable housing for citizens reentering society from correctional facilities. This partnership focuses on workforce development, helping people with cannabis convictions in a high-unemployment area (Youngstown, Ohio) find employment and start hemp and indoor cultivation businesses.

 

Product Launches:

Homie: Helping Homeless Youth One Hoodie At A Time

Homie was born in 2015 from a shared passion between three friends eager to break down the stigma associated with homelessness and help young people who found themselves living on the streets.

Homie continues to draw awareness to the faces and stories of everyday youth affected by homelessness and allows them to share their narrative in a dignified way – ultimately destigmatizing and humanizing the issue.

With its recent expansion in the U.S., Homie seeks to continue empowering young people and raising awareness across the globe from Melbourne to Los Angeles.

 Homie has designed trendy and comfortable all-season pieces, collaborating with Champion, a household name in hoodies,  to create a new line. 100% of profits go towards achieving their mission of supporting young people affected by homelessness or hardship and help them become their champions. 

House of Saka announces the release of Saka Spark Mimosa. 

Photo courtesy of House of Saka.

House of Saka, Inc., Napa Valley producers of the award-winning cannabis beverages Saka PINK and Saka WHITE, announced Tuesday the launch of much-anticipated single-serve offering, Saka Spark ‘Mimosa.’

House of Saka Spark ‘Mimosa’ is the first and only cannabis-infused beverage to blend alcohol-removed, premium, California sparkling Chardonnay with the natural essence of orange blossom, nectarine, and a Mimosa-strain specific live resin to bolster its organic cannabis emulsion. 

Available in single-serve, 187ml (6 ounces) champagne bottles with a micro-dose of 5mgs of full-spectrum THC per bottle, Saka Spark Mimosa delivers all the flavor and celebration of a traditional Mimosa, without the adverse health effects and excessive calories of alcohol. 

“Saka Spark Mimosa marks the next evolution in cannabis beverages,” explains Tracey Mason, Co-founder & CEO. “Offering enhanced bioavailability, a unique, strain-specific full spectrum experience, and unparalleled flavor, House of Saka continues to set the standard for quality and true innovation in the infused beverage sector.”

Just in time for summer imbibing, Mimosa is available wherever House of Saka Vinfusions™ are sold. 

Plus Pride Limited Edition Pride Rainbow Sherbet

Photo courtesy of PLUS.

PLUS announces the release of a celebratory rainbow-marbled gummy from California’s cannabis cube connoisseurs, featuring a rainbow sherbet flavor and an uplifting Sativa strain. 

Ten percent of the proceeds of Plus Pride sales will be donated to the San Francisco-based, Black trans-women led Transgender, Gender-Variant & Intersex Justice Project (TGIJP) to further their mission of ending the human rights abuses committed against Black and Brown TGI people inside of California prisons, jails, detention centers and beyond.

TGIJP provides advocacy, legal and re-entry services, direct life-saving services like temporary housing, employment, and transportation.

The gummies are $18 and contain 5mg THC. Pride and more varieties are available throughout California.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/quick-hits-criminal-and-social-justice-reform-in-cannabis-industry/
June 11, 2021 10:47 pm

Trade Secrets: Innovators Share Their Strategies for Industry Domination

Trade Secrets: Innovators Share Their Strategies for Industry Domination

Each quarter, Cannabis & Tech Today speaks with innovative brands from around the country to discover who is leading the call for a more resilient, thoughtful, transparent cannabis industry.

This issue, we’re highlighting three brands receiving national attention for their commitment to excellence within the cannabis community. 

Clear Cannabis Inc.

Rich Batenburg Jr., has decades of experience developing scalable business models in various industries.

As president and chairman of Clear Cannabis, Inc., Batenburg is using his expertise to develop an infrastructure for the company capable of scaling to a national level.

Rich Batenburg Jr.: What was going to happen with cannabis in my mind was exactly what happened with cable.

Richard M Batenburg. Photo courtesy of Clear Cannabis, Inc.

A bunch of mom-and-pop operators who were very passionate about the product, very customer-centric, but did not have the skills and the foresight and capitalization to build heavy weight infrastructure that could scale to handle millions of customers as opposed to thousands of customers.

So I thought “Hey, this is my opportunity to fix all this stuff that’s been broken in cable before it happens in cannabis.”

Once we have ubiquitous legalization, big food, big pharma, big tobacco, and big agriculture will likely be taking over this industry.

It takes money to scale up.

There are thousands of inventive, creative, sincere, gentle geniuses in the business that have come up with products.

What you don’t see is the massive distribution and commercialization of those products.

That’s really our focus.

What I liked about Clear Cannabis is it has a trade secret component to it, it has a formula.

It’s not based on things you can’t own.

Nobody can own a strain name.

It’s not a capitalistic thing, but a brand needs to have its own identity and its own interpersonal and emotional connection to the customer and it needs to have a brand promise that can be replicated. 

GrowRay Technologies

Ash Ganley. Photo courtesy of GrowRay Technologies

The cannabis space, in many ways, is about collaboration.

The industry relies on different sectors coming together to create solutions.

Ash Ganley, CEO of GrowRay Technologies understands the fractured nature of the industry and is working to unite growers with technology and science to create a more efficient cultivation ecosystem. 

Ash Ganley: “We realized quickly that the market is not always going to be so high margin that you could hide bad business practices and hide a lack of efficiency in your operation and production.

And now that’s happening across the country.

As prices are coming down and regulations are increasing in terms of how much electricity you use per square foot, etc., a lot of growers who used pre-legal, scaled-up practices are losing their businesses because they’re not taking those low-margin, high-efficiency lessons from traditional agronomy.

That’s what we’re doing, is really learning cannabis from a whole systems technical point of view, knowing all the while that we have to get better.

Photo courtesy of GrowRay Technologies

We’re never going to be good enough.

You always have to keep learning.

But we’re pushing the envelope, and we know that.

So, we have to be curious.

We have to be hungry.

We have to learn together.

The whole issue of legality in cannabis has forced a lot of businesses to operate in a silo or in a vacuum.

So it’s a very fractured industry and that has hamstrung innovation in a big way.

We’re just trying to approach it from that point of view.

Aspen Green

Colorado-based Aspen Green is one of only seven USDA Organic certified full-spectrum hemp and CBD brands in the country.

Their products are free from toxins, formaldehyde, phthalates, parabens, and sulfates.

They’re one of five brands recognized by Realm of Caring for their commitment to transparency, quality, and integrity.

To learn more about the company’s commitment to serving the industry, we spoke with Aspen Green President and CEO Brandon Lewis.

Brandon Lewis. Photo courtesy of Aspen Green.

Brandon Lewis: We are filling the need for education around the hemp plant, it’s properties, and where to find the actual science that’s been conducted for decades — which can start with a simple search at the National Institute of Health. 

We are passionate about assisting people in what to look for in high-quality hemp & CBD products even if not from Aspen Green. 

We believe cannabis will be federally legal within 5 years and consumers will be educated on the value of the whole hemp plant and all of its properties. 

We also believe laws will become uniform versus how fragmented they are currently at the state level. 

We also see the industry maturing to focusing on various regions where the plant is grown, much like wine. 

In our opinion, what Napa is to wine — the Colorado Rockies are to hemp.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/trade-secrets/
June 11, 2021 11:00 am

PubMed: Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

PubMed: Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun;6(3):211-220. doi: 10.1089/can.2020.0181.

ABSTRACT

Opioids are effective analgesics; however, there are many negative consequences of chronic use. One important side effect of chronic opioid use is the continuous engagement of the immune response that can exacerbate chronic pain. The opioid, morphine, initiates a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling cascade that drives the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome proteins, resulting in cytokine production and effectively creating a positive feedback loop for continuous TLR4 activation. In addition to driving cytokine production, morphine drives changes in proinflammatory lipid signaling. The alteration of both cytokine and lipid signaling systems by morphine suggests that its chronic use leads to a pathological immune response that would benefit from targeted therapy. Engaging the endogenous cannabinoid system has shown therapeutic benefit, particularly regarding its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Promising preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) is an effective adjuvant for treatment of symptoms of opioid use disorders; however, the mechanism through which CBD drives this outcome is unclear. One potential source of insight into this mechanism is in how CBD regulates immune regulators such as cytokines and lipid signaling systems, including endocannabinoids and related immune-responsive lipids. In this review, we outline the immune response to chronic opioid use as well as CBD in the context of a lipopolysaccharide-induced immune response and speculate on the mechanism of CBD as a modulator of chronic opioid-induced immune system dysregulation.

PMID:34115948 | DOI:10.1089/can.2020.0181

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115948/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

PubMed: Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0041. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing symptoms reported by oncology patients undergoing anticancer treatment. With the currently available treatments, vomiting and especially nausea remain problematic, highlighting the need for alternative treatments. Discussion: Here we review in vitro and in vivo evidence for the effectiveness of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) in managing nausea and vomiting. In addition, we also review the evidence for CBD’s acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and a methylated version of CBDA (CBDA-ME) in these phenomena. Finally, we explore the potential role of CBD in the treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Conclusions: CBD has demonstrated efficacy in reducing nausea and vomiting, with CBDA and CBDA-ME being more potent. The data suggest a need for these compounds to be evaluated in clinical trials for their ability to reduce nausea and/or vomiting.

PMID:34115951 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0041

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115951/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Detectability of cannabinoids in the serum samples of cannabis users: Indicators of recent cannabis use? A follow-up study

PubMed: Detectability of cannabinoids in the serum samples of cannabis users: Indicators of recent cannabis use? A follow-up study

Drug Test Anal. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1002/dta.3110. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Forensic toxicologists are frequently required to predict the time of last cannabis consumption. Several studies suggested the utility of minor cannabinoids as indicators of recent cannabis use. Because several factors influence blood cannabinoid concentrations, the interpretation of serum cannabinoid concentrations remains challenging. To assess the informative value of serum cannabinoid levels in cannabis users (in total N = 117 patients, including 56 patients who stated an exact time of last cannabis use within 24 h before blood sampling), the detectability of cannabinoids, namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC, cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidivarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabicyclol, delta-8-THC, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A, cannabichromenic acid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid, cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH), and 11-nor-CBN-9-COOH, was investigated. Excluding CBDA and CBLA, all investigated cannabinoids were detected in at least one analyzed sample. The interval between cannabis consumption and sample collection (reported by the patients) was not correlated with cannabinoid concentrations. Minor cannabinoids tended to be more easily detected in samples obtained shortly after consumption. However, some samples tested positive for minor cannabinoids despite an interval of several hours or even days between consumption and sampling (according to patients’ statements). For instance, CBC, CBG, THCVCOOH, CBD, and CBN in certain cases could be detected more than 24 hours after the last consumption of cannabis. Thus, findings of minor cannabinoids should always be interpreted with caution.

PMID:34114750 | DOI:10.1002/dta.3110

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34114750/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210612065945&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

CBD Concentration: The Less Is More

CBD Concentration: The Less Is More

Products with a lower concentration of CBD are the better choice for consumers who need the presence of THC or other cannabinoids because the proportion of minor cannabinoids is falling with a higher concentration of CBD in the end product.

It is not about the concentration – it is about the dose.

At the moment, the market is overwhelmed with CBD products coming in different forms – from beverages to cosmetics, and now including even CBD clothes. The studies have shown that CBD is safe to consume in doses up to 20 times higher than recommended, and the recommended dose for healthy individuals is 70 mg daily.

However, the consumers might still find it difficult to determine the exact amount of CBD they need for their condition. Also, apart from different dosages needed for different symptoms, there is evidence that gender could also play a role in CBD dosage. Women and men don’t react the same way to the same formulations, and women should generally be more careful with the highest doses.

Unless you suffer from schizophrenia, scientific studies have determined there is no need for a high intake of CBD. In other words, for most conditions, when it comes to dosage, the less is more.

Even in schizophrenia, the best results are obtained with intermediate doses, and there is evidence of a bell-shaped response. This principle is identified in many conditions. For example, fighting anxiety in public speaking will be efficient only with a 300 mg single dose, while higher doses proved to be inefficient. In the same way, when CBD is taken for the treatment of glaucoma, the recommended dosage is 20 to 40 mg in a single sublingual dose. If the dose exceeds 40 mg, it will cause increased eye pressure. Parkison’s disease is treated with a CBD dose of 100–400 mg daily, but worsening of the symptoms has in some cases occurred with the dosage higher than 300 mg per day. In every case, it is strongly recommended to start with the lower doses and to lift them gradually.

Besides, it is becoming more and more evident that the effects of CBD depend on other components inside the formulation. Science has determined that the terpenes evoke the entourage effect, and some studies point to other factors contributing to the acceleration of CBD effects. As an example, the usage of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil as a base oil seems to produce accelerated effects and thus better results in humans; but in dogs, it leads to side effects like emesis and diarrhea.

For that reason, it might be wise to pay attention to the other components in CBD products, and not only the percentage of CBD itself. For CBD producers, the proportion of these ‘other’ components could show to be crucial for the complete product success.

At the beginning of the CBD industry development, the product designers were highly enthusiastic about Rick Simpson‘s paradigm, which follows the ‘the higher concentration – the better results’ rule. However, in medical treatment, the concentration of medicine is not as important as the dosage, or the quantity, points out Sasha Bajilo, the founder of Ilesol Pharmaceuticals.

”For the people whose condition demands full-spectrum oil or the products containing THC and other cannabinoids, to consume a product that is lower in CBD concentration is a much better solution. The reason lies in the proportion of THC:CBD in industrial hemp. Most commonly the ratio varies between 20 to 30. The products that contain 4-5% of CBD and 0,2% THC are the products containing that proportion, reflecting the natural ratio of the components in the cannabis plant. Such products are not enriched with isolate.

Producers that market their products as containing more than 10% CBD without additional processing or isolate are simply not telling the truth. In one dose of 5% product, the consumer will intake 20-30 times fewer minor cannabinoids than CBD. In one dose of 10% product, the consumer will intake 40-60 times fewer minor cannabinoids than CBD. The ratio is increasing. For some consumers who shouldn’t be taking THC, it is not advised to consume full-spectrum oils. For example, schizophrenia patients should be consuming pure isolate. But all the others should be aware of the importance of minor cannabinoids and additional components in the formulation.” – said Bajilo.

The post CBD Concentration: The Less Is More appeared first on ilesol.


#CBD #Hemp

CBD Concentration: The Less Is More


June 11, 2021 9:33 am

NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management

NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management
NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management

The U.S. National Football League (NFL) said it will award $1 million in grants for research into pain management and cannabinoids. The league is soliciting…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/nfl-will-spend-1-million-to-study-cannabinoids-in-pain-management/
June 11, 2021 4:58 am

Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market

Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market
Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market

Regulated medical cannabis and hemp industries in Argentina could generate 10,000 new jobs, $500 million in domestic sales and $50 million in exports annually, Minister…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/passage-of-law-in-argentina-could-spark-500-million-market/
June 11, 2021 3:30 am

1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer

1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer
1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer

Celebrating Hemp History Month – [Sonoma Business, May 1995] – In 1994, an experimental hemp crop was planted in the Imperial Valley which was intended to…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/1995-an-early-hemp-trial-faces-the-bulldozer/
June 11, 2021 2:57 am

PubMed: Characterization of chemotype-dependent terpenoids profile in cannabis by headspace gas-chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry

PubMed: Characterization of chemotype-dependent terpenoids profile in cannabis by headspace gas-chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021 Jun 1;203:114180. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114180. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A headspace method called full evaporation technique (FET) coupled to capillary gas chromatography with a mass detector operating in time-of-flight mode (HS-GC/MS-TOF) was developed to characterize the volatile components, especially the terpene fraction, in Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences. This analytical approach allows to reach a high equilibration temperature, that was able to obtain a complete quantification of the volatile components, providing simple sample preparation, specific qualitative detection, high sensitivity, a precise and accurate quantitative determination. The method was applied to 20 cannabis THC-dominant (I) and 13 CBD-dominant (III) chemotypes. The obtained results were then compared with a series of standard solutions consisting of 35 terpenoids and the mass spectra present in a computer library (NIST). The method has an accuracy of more than 90 % and a limit of detection of 5 ppm for all analytes. The main terpenoids in cannabis are namely (% Chemotypes III vs. I of the total terpene content): β-Caryophyllene (25 vs. 19.3), β-Mircene (18.2 vs. 20.0), Terpinolene (12.1 vs. 7.0), α-Humulene (6.5 vs. 8.5), D-Limonene (6.2 vs. 7.2), α-Pinene (5.8 vs. 4.9), β-Pinene (5.0 vs. 5.8) and cis-β-Ocimene (4.3 vs. 5.2), whose presence is confirmed in both plant chemotypes and account for more than 80 % of the total terpenoids amount. The terpenoids which can clearly distinguish the chemotype are α-Terpineol, Linalool, DL-Menthol, α-Cedrene, and Borneol. This application provides important data on the secondary volatile components of the plant, which may be useful for a better understanding of the therapeutic properties of the cannabis phyto-complex. It gives the possibility of establishing the aroma profile of different Cannabis batches, allowing possible similarities between samples and identifying any artificial adulteration such as hexyl butyrate ester and it provides the opportunity to highlight some target compounds characteristic of the different chemotypes.

PMID:34111731 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114180

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34111731/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210611070013&v=2.14.4 June 10, 2021 10:00 am

Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies

Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies
Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies

A Texas bill that would have outlawed products containing delta-8 THC has died in the legislature after agreement could not be reached on amendments between…

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/texas-coalition-fights-off-ban-on-delta-8-thc-as-proposed-law-dies/
June 10, 2021 8:46 am

Cannabis & Crony Capitalism: From Matt Gaetz to Trulieve

Cannabis & Crony Capitalism: From Matt Gaetz to Trulieve

The origins of Trulieve, a major cannabis company, trace back to a nexus of prominent Florida Republicans tied to disgraced Congressman Matt Gaetz. A special report from Project CBD.

An excerpt:

“CANNABIZ TYCOONS UNDERWRITE THE RIGHT

If a time-traveler from the Woodstock generation were to land in contemporary America, it would likely come as a shock how many captains of the legal cannabis industry are supporters of a Republican Party that is now lurching deeper into reaction than even Nixon dared to dream of on his worst day.

Legalization was supposed to take cannabis out of the hands of criminal networks, but the new model often looks like crony capitalism.

Recall the headlines of 2019, when four Rudolph Giuliani associates were busted on suspicion of influence-peddling related to the cannabis industry in California and Nevada — and two of them were directly linked to Giuliani’s Ukraine intrigues. Charges are still pending against the quartet.

An investigation last year by Cannabis Wire found that more than a dozen cannabis executives and investors focused their 2020 election funding on political action committees backing Republicans.

Among these was Trulieve CEO Kim Rivers, who gave $2,800 to the Tillis Daines Majority Committee — backing Republicans Steve Daines in Montana and Thom Tillis in North Carolina in their successful bids to hold on to their Senate seats.

Single-issue politics may be a partial explanation here. Cannabis Wire writes: “Neither Senator Tillis nor Senator Daines has expressed support for cannabis legalization. However, in the last couple of years … Senator Tillis co-sponsored a medical cannabis research bill, and Senator Daines introduced an amendment to expand medical cannabis access for veterans.”

Both Tillis and Daines voted against impeaching Trump after the January 6th Capitol insurrection.

Jason Vedadi, the former executive chair of Harvest Health & Recreation (Trulieve’s acquisition target), last year gave $1,000 to the Tillis Daines Majority Committee.

This is a far cry from the image Trulieve seeks to promote of itself. In a November 2020 press release, Trulieve boasted of its $40,000 donation to the Last Prisoner Project, a group seeking clemency for cannabis prisoners. The donation was part of the Last Prisoner Project’s “Roll it Up for Justice” campaign, which encourages cannabis businesses to support its clemency efforts. The press release boasted of “Trulieve’s ongoing efforts to support initiatives aimed at bringing restorative justice to the lives of those unfairly impacted by past cannabis convictions.”

Such efforts are to be applauded, but for those who view cannabis legalization in the context of a broader struggle for social justice, there is an unsettling dissonance here. Legalization was supposed to take cannabis out of the hands of criminal networks, but the new model often looks like crony capitalism.”

#CBD #Hemp #Trulieve #MattGaetz

Click to read: https://www.projectcbd.org/politics/cannabis-crony-capitalism-matt-gaetz-trulieve

June 10, 2021

How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?

How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?

The word “audit” evokes various emotions depending on your role in an organization and the context of the audit. While most are familiar with and loathe the IRS’s potential for a tax audit, the audits we are going to discuss today are (or should be) welcomed – proactive internal quality audits. A softer term that is also acceptable is “self-assessment.” These are independent assessments conducted to determine how effective an organization’s risk management, processes and general governance is. 

“How do you know where you’re going if you don’t know where you’ve been” – Maya Angelou

Internal quality audits are critical to ensuring the safety of products, workers, consumers and the environment. When planned and performed periodically, these audits provide credible, consistent and objective evidence to inform the organization of its risks, weaknesses and opportunities for improvement. Ask yourself the question: do your clients/vendors rely on you to produce reliable, consistent and safe products? Assuming the answer is yes, what confidence do you have, and where is the documented evidence to support it?

Compliance units within cannabis businesses are typically responsible for ensuring a business stays legally compliant with state and federal regulations. This level of minimum compliance is critical to prevent fines and ensure licenses are not revoked. However, compliance audits rarely include fundamental components that leave cannabis operators exposed to many unnecessary risks.

Internal quality audits are critical to ensuring the safety of products, workers, consumers and the environment.

As a producer of medical and adult-use products that are ingested, inhaled or consumed in other forms by our friends, family and neighbors, how can you be sure that these products are produced safely and consistently? Are you confident that the legal requirements mandated by your state cannabis control board are sufficient? Judging by the number of recalls and frustrations voiced by the industry regarding the myriad of regulations, I would bet the answer is no.

What questions do internal audits address? Some examples include:

  • Are you operating as management intends?
  • How effective is your system in meeting specified objectives? These objectives could include quality metrics of your products, on-time delivery rates and other client/customer satisfaction metrics.
  • Are there opportunities to improve?
  • Are you doing what you say you do (in your SOPs), and do you have the recorded evidence (records) to prove it?
  • Are you meeting the requirements of all applicable government regulations?

There are potential drawbacks to internal audits. For one, as impartiality is essential in internal audits, it may be challenging to identify an impartial internal auditor in a small operation. If your team always feels like it is in firefighting mode, it may feel like a luxury to take the time to pull members out of their day-to-day duties and disrupt ongoing operations for an audit. Some fear that as internal assessments are meant to be more thorough than external assessments, a laundry list of to-do items may be uncovered due to the audit. But, these self-assessments often uncover issues that have resulted in operational efficiencies in the first place. This resulting “laundry list” then affords a proactive tool to implement corrective actions in an organized manner that can prevent the recurrence of major issues, as well as prevent new issues. The benefits of internal audits outweigh the drawbacks; not to mention, conducting internal audits is required by nearly every globally-recognized program, both voluntary (e.g. ISO 9001 or ASTM Internationals’s Cannabis Certification Program) and government required programs such as 21 CFR 211 for Pharmaceuticals.

Internal Auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. Additional benefits of internal audits include giving your organization the means to:

  • Ensure compliance to the requirements of internal, international and industry standards as well as regulations and customer requirements
  • Determine the effectiveness of the implemented system in meeting specified objectives (quality, environmental, financial)
  • Explore opportunities for improvement
  • Meet statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Provide feedback to Top Management
  • Lower the cost of poor quality

Findings from all audits must be addressed. This is typically done in accordance with a CAPA (Corrective Action Preventive Action) program. To many unfamiliar with Quality Management Systems, this may be a new term. As of Jan 1, 2021, this is now a requirement for all cannabis licensed operators in Colorado. Many other states require a CAPA program or similar. Continuing education units (CEUs) are available through ASTM International’s CAPA training program, which was developed specifically for the cannabis industry.

Examples of common audit findings that require CAPAs include:

  • Calibration – Production and test equipment must be calibrated to ensure they provide accurate and repeatable results.
  • Document and record control – Documents and records need to be readily accessible but protected from unintended use.
  • Supplier management – Most standards have various requirements for supplier management that may include auditing suppliers, monitoring supplier performance, only using suppliers certified to specific standards, etc.
  • Internal audits – Believe it or not, since internal audits are required by many programs, it’s not uncommon to have a finding related to internal audits! Findings from an internal audit can include not conducting audits on schedule, not addressing audit findings or not having a properly qualified internal auditor. Are you looking for more guidance? Last year, members of ASTM International’s D37 Committee on Cannabis approved a Standard Guide for Cannabis and Hemp Operation Compliance Audits, ASTM D8308-21.

If you are still on the fence about the value of an internal audit, given the option of an inspector uncovering a non-conformance or your own team discovering and then correcting it, which would you prefer? With fines easily exceeding $100,000 by many cannabis enforcement units, the answer should be clear. Internal audits are a valuable tool that should not be feared.

The post How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program? appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


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How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?


June 9, 2021 3:58 pm

PubMed: Medicinal cannabis and driving: the intersection of health and road safety policy

PubMed: Medicinal cannabis and driving: the intersection of health and road safety policy

Int J Drug Policy. 2021 Jun 6;97:103307. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103307. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent shifting attitudes towards the medical use of cannabis has seen legal access pathways established in many jurisdictions in North America, Europe and Australasia. However, the positioning of cannabis as a legitimate medical product produces some tensions with other regulatory frameworks. A notable example of this is the so-called ‘zero tolerance’ drug driving legal frameworks, which criminalise the presence of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in a driver’s bodily fluids irrespective of impairment. Here we undertake an analysis of this policy issue based on a case study of the introduction of medicinal cannabis in Australia.

METHODS: We examine the regulatory approaches used for managing road safety risks associated with potentially impairing prescription medicines and illicit drugs in Australian jurisdictions, as well as providing an overview of evidence relating to cannabis and road safety risk, unintended impacts of the ‘zero-tolerance’ approach on patients, and the regulation of medicinal cannabis and driving in comparable jurisdictions.

RESULTS: Road safety risks associated with medicinal cannabis appear similar or lower than numerous other potentially impairing prescription medications. The application of presence-based offences to medicinal cannabis patients appears to derive from the historical status of cannabis as a prohibited drug with no legitimate medical application. This approach is resulting in patient harms including criminal sanctions when not impaired and using the drug as directed by their doctor, or the forfeiting of car use and related mobility. Others who need to drive are excluded from accessing a needed medication and associated therapeutic benefit. ‘Medical exemptions’ for medicinal cannabis in comparable jurisdictions and other drugs included in presence offences in Australia (e.g. methadone) demonstrate a feasible alternative approach.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that in medical-only access models there is little evidence to justify the differential treatment of medicinal cannabis patients, compared with those taking other prescription medications with potentially impairing effects.

PMID:34107448 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103307

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34107448/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210610070031&v=2.14.4 June 9, 2021 10:00 am

Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival

Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival
Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival

Hemp plants bred and studied by Turkish researchers have been harvested with promising results at the cannabis research center of Ondokuz Mayıs University in Samsun….

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/turkish-researchers-say-results-signal-promise-for-hemps-revival/
June 9, 2021 5:05 am

Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University

Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University
Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University

The Washington State University (WSU) Faculty Senate and Board of Regents have formalized the school’s extensive research into cannabis by establishing a Center for Cannabis Policy,…

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https://hemptoday.net/center-with-100-researchers-formalized-at-washington-state-university/
June 9, 2021 3:51 am

1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp

1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp
1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp

Celebrating Hemp History Month – [Details Magazine, April 1995] – “For all the new start-ups, there are also seasoned entrepreneurs venturing into hemp. Richard Rose is…

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https://hemptoday.net/1995-seasoned-entrepreneurs-join-startups-in-hemp/
June 9, 2021 3:00 am

UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration

UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration
UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration

The fate of 67 CBD food safety applications is unclear as UK food safety authorities reported June 1 that only 250 are still under active…

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https://hemptoday.net/uk-regulators-trim-67-applications-from-novel-food-consideration/
June 8, 2021 12:31 pm

PubMed: The Effects of Acute Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Striatal Glutamatergic Function: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

PubMed: The Effects of Acute Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Striatal Glutamatergic Function: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2021 Jun;6(6):660-667. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.04.013.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis and its main psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit transient psychotic symptoms. A key candidate biological mechanism of how THC induces psychotic symptoms is the modulation of glutamate in the brain. We sought to investigate the effects of acute THC administration on striatal glutamate levels and its relationship to the induction of psychotic symptoms.

METHODS: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure glutamate levels in the striatum in 20 healthy participants after THC (15 mg, oral) and matched placebo administration in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory.

RESULTS: We found that THC administration did not significantly change glutamate (glutamate plus glutamine relative to creatine) concentration in the striatum (p = .58; scaled Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow Bayes factor = 4.29). THC increased psychotic symptoms, but the severity of these symptoms was not correlated with striatal glutamate levels.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that oral administration of 15 mg of THC does not result in altered striatal glutamate levels. Further work is needed to clarify the effects of THC on striatal glutamate.

PMID:34099186 | DOI:10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.04.013

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34099186/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210609070034&v=2.14.4 June 8, 2021 10:00 am

Skin Serum

Skin Serum

Reviva Labs has added Calming Renewal Serum to its Revitalizing skin care collection. The Serum combines K-Beauty with Ayurvedic medicinal herbs and includes Argan, Rosehip, JoJoba, and Hemp Oils along with Ashwagandha, Shiitake, Chinaberry, Turmeric, and Red Seaweed. 

705 Hopkins Rd., Haddonfield, NJ 08033, www.revivalabs.com

The post Skin Serum appeared first on WholeFoods Magazine.

#CBD #Hemp https://wholefoodsmagazine.com/haba/new-products-haba/skin-serum/ June 7, 2021 7:48 pm

Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution

Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution
Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution

A fast-growing and cost effective hemp industry can fulfill its economic development and environmental promise only through widespread implementation of smart technology systems, a white…

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https://hemptoday.net/tech-driven-processing-critical-to-advancing-the-industrial-hemp-revolution/
June 7, 2021 6:01 pm

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

Front Psychiatry. 2021 May 21;12:643442. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.643442. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder) have broad health implications for children, with no definitive cure for the vast majority of them. However, recently medicinal cannabis has been successfully trialled as a treatment to manage many of the patients’ symptoms and improve quality of life. The cannabinoid cannabidiol, in particular, has been reported to be safe and well-tolerated with a plethora of anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, the current consensus is that the endocannabinoid system is a crucial factor in neural development and health; research has found evidence that there are a multitude of signalling pathways involving neurotransmitters and the endocannabinoid system by which cannabinoids could potentially exert their therapeutic effects. A better understanding of the cannabinoids’ mechanisms of action should lead to improved treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders.

PMID:34093265 | PMC:PMC8175856 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.643442

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093265/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Kinetics of CBD, delta(9)-THC Degradation and Cannabinol Formation in Cannabis Resin at Various Temperature and pH Conditions

PubMed: Kinetics of CBD, delta(9)-THC Degradation and Cannabinol Formation in Cannabis Resin at Various Temperature and pH Conditions

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 4. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0004. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are major cannabinoids in cannabis resin and products. The kinetic of the chemical reaction of resin cannabis is important for product development and storage. A few reports are available in the literature on the rate of CBD and Δ9-THC degradation, and CBN formation in dried resin and solutions of various pH. Materials and Methods: Thermal degradation of CBD, Δ9-THC, and formation of CBN was studied at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C for dried cannabis resin. The effect of pH and temperature on cannabinoids transformation in cannabis solution was also examined at pH 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 and at 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C. High-performance chromatography coupled with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used for the analysis of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC transformation. The values of activation energies (Ea), shelf-life (t90% – t110%), and rate constant (k) were calculated for the CBD, Δ9-THC, and CBN. The effect of temperature and pH on the dried cannabis resin was adequately modeled with the Arrhenius equation. Results: The results indicated that the chemical kinetics in the thermal degradation of CBD, Δ9-THC, and formation of CBN were the zero-order, pseudo-zero-order, and first-order reactions, respectively, in cannabis resin. The first-order and pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics were evidenced for CBD and Δ9-THC, respectively, in cannabis solutions, whereas the zero-order formation kinetic was detected for the CBN. The transformation rate of the CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC increased with increasing temperature, especially as temperature increased to 70°C at pH 2.0. The optimum pH for CBD stability was between pH 4 and 6, whereas the optimum pH for Δ9-THC stability was between pH 4 and 12. Conclusion: The major cannabinoids (CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC) reacted more quickly at high temperature and in an acidic solution. Especially, the minimum transformation of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC was achieved by using on a low temperature, slightly to moderately acidic pH values, and short-time processing. These results may help to improve the storage condition of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC products and in the manufacturing process.

PMID:34096805 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0004

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34096805/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Biomechanical Effects of delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model: A Pilot Study

PubMed: Biomechanical Effects of delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model: A Pilot Study

Am J Sports Med. 2021 Jun 7:3635465211016840. doi: 10.1177/03635465211016840. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of cannabis is common among athletes and the US population at large. Cannabinoids are currently being evaluated as alternatives to opioid medications for chronic pain management. However, the effects of recreational and/or medical use of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on musculoskeletal injury and healing remain largely unknown.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of CBD and THC on tendon-to-tendon healing in a rat Achilles tendon repair model. The hypothesis was that rats administered CBD would demonstrate decreased tensile load to failure of surgically repaired Achilles tendons compared with the THC and control groups.

STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.

METHODS: A total of 33 Sprague Dawley rats underwent Achilles tendon surgical transection and repair and were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of THC, CBD, or vehicle once daily starting on the day of surgery and for 5 total days. After sacrifice, biomechanical tensile load-displacement testing was performed to determine Achilles tendon load to failure and stiffness. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The THC group demonstrated the highest median load to failure, 18.7 N (95% CI, 15.3-19.2 N); the CBD group had the second highest at 16.9 N (95% CI, 15.1-19.8 N), and the control group had the lowest at 14.4 N (95% CI, 12.1-18.3 N). Stiffness was highest in the THC group at 4.1 N/mm (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 N/mm) compared with 3.6 N/mm (95% CI, 2.9-4.1 N/mm) for the CBD group and 3.6 N/mm (95% CI, 2.8-4.3 N/mm) for the control group. No statistically significant differences for strength and stiffness were observed between the groups.

CONCLUSION: In this pilot study using an animal tendon-to-tendon repair model, neither THC nor CBD resulted in altered biomechanical characteristics compared to control.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cannabinoids do not appear to adversely affect Achilles tendon healing.

PMID:34097540 | DOI:10.1177/03635465211016840

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34097540/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

PubMed: Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

Front Pharmacol. 2021 May 20;12:626010. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.626010. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Drug treatments available for the management of substance use disorders (SUD) present multiple limitations in efficacy, lack of approved treatments or alarming relapse rates. These facts hamper the clinical outcome and the quality of life of the patients supporting the importance to develop new pharmacological agents. Lately, several reports suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) presents beneficial effects relevant for the management of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, or Alzheimer’s diseases. Furthermore, there is a large body of evidence pointing out that CBD improves cognition, neurogenesis and presents anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and neuroprotective effects suggesting potential usefulness for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and SUD. Here we review preclinical and clinical reports regarding the effects of CBD on the regulation of the reinforcing, motivational and withdrawal-related effects of different drugs of abuse such as alcohol, opioids (morphine, heroin), cannabinoids, nicotine, and psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine). Furthermore, a special section of the review is focused on the neurobiological mechanisms that might be underlying the ‘anti-addictive’ action of CBD through the regulation of dopaminergic, opioidergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid systems as well as hippocampal neurogenesis. The multimodal pharmacological profile described for CBD and the specific regulation of addictive behavior-related targets explains, at least in part, its therapeutic effects on the regulation of the reinforcing and motivational properties of different drugs of abuse. Moreover, the remarkable safety profile of CBD, its lack of reinforcing properties and the existence of approved medications containing this compound (Sativex®, Epidiolex®) increased the number of studies suggesting the potential of CBD as a therapeutic intervention for SUD. The rising number of publications with substantial results on the valuable therapeutic innovation of CBD for treating SUD, the undeniable need of new therapeutic agents to improve the clinical outcome of patients with SUD, and the upcoming clinical trials involving CBD endorse the relevance of this review.

PMID:34093179 | PMC:PMC8173061 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.626010

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093179/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment is Associated With Quality of Life Improvement and Reduction of Analgesic Medication Consumption in Chronic Pain Patients

PubMed: Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment is Associated With Quality of Life Improvement and Reduction of Analgesic Medication Consumption in Chronic Pain Patients

Front Pharmacol. 2021 May 19;12:613805. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.613805. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is one of the most prevalent indications for medical cannabis (MC) treatment globally. In this study, we investigated CNCP parameters in patients during prolonged MC treatment, and assessed the interrelation between CNCP parameters and the chemical composition of MC chemovar used. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in one-month intervals for the duration of six months. Subjects were adult patients licensed for MC treatment who also reported a diagnosis of CNCP by a physician. Data included self-reported questionnaires. MC treatment features included administration route, cultivator, cultivar name and monthly dose. Comparison statistics were used to evaluate differences between the abovementioned parameters and the monthly MC chemovar doses at each time point. Results: 429, 150, 98, 71, 77 and 82 patients reported fully on their MC treatment regimens at six one-month intervals, respectively. Although pain intensities did not change during the study period, analgesic medication consumption rates decreased from 46 to 28% (p < 0.005) and good Quality of Life (QoL) rates increased from 49 to 62% (p < 0.05). These changes overlapped with increase in rates of (-)-Δ9trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and α-pinene high dose consumption. Conclusion: Even though we observed that pain intensities did not improve during the study, QoL did improve and the rate of analgesic medication consumption decreased alongside with increasing rates of high dose THC and α-pinene consumption. Understanding MC treatment composition may shed light on its long-term effects.

PMID:34093173 | PMC:PMC8172141 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.613805

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093173/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases

CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases

A new study shows that a combination of CBD, terpenes, and flavonoids improves the results of compression therapy in venous leg ulcers. With the application of the topical solution containing molecules naturally present in cannabis, the wounds rapidly healed in patients with chronic conditions. The scientists believe in the efficiency of CBD for venous leg ulcers as a promising novel supportive therapy.

Venous leg ulcers are a chronic problem in many countries, especially in Northern Europe and the US. The overall prevalence of this condition is 1% rising to 3% in patients over 65 years of age. The venous leg ulcers are formed in the skin over the ankles and often are painful. Their treatment includes standardized care, which relies on a reliable diagnosis, compression, and local wound care. The healing of these wounds is variable, with common recurrence.

A recent analysis of 1323 patients reported that the proportion of patients who achieved complete closure using compression therapy at three and six months was 42.2% and 48.6%, respectively.

A new study published in May 2021 in Experimental Dermatology shows that a combination of cannabidiol, terpenes, and flavonoids leads to rapid wound closure of previously non-healing venous leg ulcers among elderly and highly complex patients.

This prospective open-label cohort trial recruited 14 patients with 16 chronic and non-healing leg ulcers referred to a regional consultative wound management clinic in Toronto, Canada.

The median age of the patients was 75.8 years, all with chronic wounds. One 81-year old patient with a surgically fused ankle was affected by his wound for 12.2 years. More than half of the patients had moderate to severe lipodermatosclerosis, edema, and peripheral arterial disease, all of which are significant factors against wound closure.

All patients had venous leg ulcers for longer than six months that failed to close despite at least four weeks of compression therapy. All patients underwent duplex venous dopplers that confirmed the presence of venous incompetency, and wound biopsies were carried out to rule out neoplasm, vasculitis, and rare vasculopathy. All patients provided informed consent for treatment using cannabis-based medicines – VS-12 and VS-14.

The cannabis-based medicines in this trial were composed of mixtures of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids applied topically to the wound beds and peri-wound tissues. VS-12 and VS-14 were chemically equivalent but compounded in separate vehicles. Formula VS-12, applied to wound bed consisted of CBD 3.8 mg/ml, THC <1 mg/ml, Quercetin 31.3 mg/ml, Diosmin 25.3 mg/ml, Hesperidin 2.5 mg/ml and Beta-Caryophyllene 152.7 mg/ml in the base carrier containing Hyaluronic acid + Aloe Vera Gel (1/1 v/v). Formula VS-14, applied to peri-wound, consisted of the same components but in liposomal base.

CBD for venous leg ulcers: The treatment

Great results obtained in this study on CBD for venous leg ulcers resulted with the following methodology:

Treatments were carried out every second day and continued until complete wound closure,
defined as the wound bed being 100% epithelialized. On their initial visits, all patients’ degrees of global medical complexity was calculated using both the M3 multimorbidity index tool and the Palliative Performance Scale score (PPS). Qualitative clinical assessments of their degrees of lipodermatosclerosis, edema, and peripheral arterial disease were also scored and documented. Following gentle cleansing with sterile normal saline, each patient underwent application of evenly applied thin layers of VS-12 to the wound beds, and VS-14 to a 4-6 cm radial cuff of peri-wound integument every second day. Tissues were then covered with one layer each of Jelonet and Mesorb. This was followed by the application of inelastic compression bandages, chosen based upon patient preferences, using a spiral technique, between the level of the metatarsal phalangeal joints and the infra-popliteal space.

Two-dimensional wound measurements, namely, widest width and longest length, were documented at each visit after debridement was carried out. Given the irregular and eclectic wound bed contours, the wound area calculations were approximated by matching them to various geometric shapes and applying their respective mathematical formulae. Data was also fitted to a linear regression model to report the general trend and the estimated time to complete wound closure. The observed time to complete wound closure, defined as the number of days since treatment onset to observe complete wound closure since the start of treatment, was calculated. The wound area data points were also fitted using a least-squares linear regression model. The slope was extracted to report both the absolute (cm² per 30 days) and relative (% of original wound area per 30 days) rates of wound healing. The estimated time to achieve wound healing, defined as the number of days since treatment onset for the linear fit line to reach zero was reported.

Rapid wound closure in 34 days

Complete wound closure, defined as being fully epithelialized, was achieved among 11 patients (79%) and 13 wounds (81%) within a median of 34 days. The three remaining patients were unavailable for follow-up because one of them moved out of the country, and two died of unrelated reasons. However, those three wounds also demonstrated progressive healing when last seen. There were no significant adverse reactions in any patients.

These positive outcomes are the result of potentiation and synergy between cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, the scientists conclude.

The rapid wound closure of previously non-healing venous leg ulcers among elderly and highly complex patients suggests that topical cannabis-based medicines may become effective adjuvants in conjunction with compression therapy. It may also indicate that they may have an even broader role within the skin and wound management.

The post CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases appeared first on ilesol.


#CBD #Hemp

CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases


June 7, 2021 9:37 am

PubMed: Correction to: Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

PubMed: Correction to: Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

J Cannabis Res. 2021 Jun 5;3(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s42238-021-00076-y.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:34090535 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-021-00076-y

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34090535/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210607065948&v=2.14.4 June 6, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

PubMed: A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jun 3;140:111639. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111639. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a conserved physiological system emerged as a novel pharmacological target for its significant role and potential therapeutic benefits ranging from neurological diseases to cancer. Among both, CB1 and CB2R types, CB2R have received attention for its pharmacological effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic that can be achieved without causing psychotropic adverse effects through CB1R. The ligands activate CB2R are of endogenous, synthetic and plant origin. In recent years, β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene in cannabis as well as non-cannabis plants, has received attention due to its selective agonist property on CB2R. BCP has been well studied in a variety of pathological conditions mediating CB2R selective agonist property. The focus of the present manuscript is to represent the CB2R selective agonist mediated pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic potential of BCP. The present narrative review summarizes insights into the CB2R-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of BCP such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator. The available evidences suggest that BCP, can be an important candidate of plant origin endowed with CB2R selective properties that may provide a pharmacological rationale for its pharmacotherapeutic application and pharmaceutical development like a drug. Additionally, given the wide availability in edible plants and dietary use, with safety, and no toxicity, BCP can be promoted as a nutraceutical and functional food for general health and well-being. Further, studies are needed to explore pharmacological and pharmaceutical opportunities for therapeutic and preventive applications of use of BCP in human diseases.

PMID:34091179 | DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111639

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34091179/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210607065948&v=2.14.4 June 6, 2021 10:00 am

CBD Greatly Improves Performance in Stressful Situations, Reduces Anxiety

Anxiety can lower our cognitive and creative abilities, and make us very uncomfortable. One aspect of it is negative self-evaluation, thinking that we did poorly at something.

It especially happens when having to be in social situations or when having to speak or perform before an audience. This 2011 study from Brazil found that 600 mg of CBD one to two hours before having to quickly create a speech then perform it will greatly reduce anxiety and improve performance, and reduce negative self-evaluation.

Anxious in front of people? Need peak performance while creating or performing in front of others, such as acting, speaking, dancing, or playing music? Then try 300-600 mg CBD with no THC.

Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 May; 36(6): 1219–1226, doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.6

“The anxiolytic effects of CBD had been extensively demonstrated in animal studies and in healthy volunteers submitted to anxiety induced by several procedures, including the simulation of public speaking (Crippa et al, 2010, 2011). However, there is only one published report of the anxiolytic effect of CBD in an anxiety disorder (Crippa et al, 2010, 2011). This study was performed with SAD patients and the anxiolyic effects of CBD were detected before provoking anxiety by the tracer injection and scanning procedure of SPECT, suggesting that CBD facilitates habituation of anticipatory anxiety. The SPECT analysis of this study and of a previous one with healthy volunteers (Crippa et al, 2004) showed that the CBD effects were associated with the activity of the parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) detected attenuated responses in the amygdala and in the cingulated cortex induced by CBD (600 mg) during the viewing of fearful facial stimuli (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009a). Moreover, CBD has shown to disrupt forward intrinsic connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate during the neural response to fearful faces (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009b). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the action of CBD in limbic and paralimbic brain areas, which are known to be associated with anxiety.

The anxiolytic action of CBD may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors, as it displaces the agonist [3H]8-OHDPAT from the cloned human 5-HT1A receptor in a concentration-dependent manner and exerts an effect as an agonist at the human 5-HT1A receptor in signal-transduction studies (Russo et al, 2005). Additionally, CBD injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze and elevated T-maze, and these effects were prevented by a 5HT1A receptor antagonist (Soares et al, 2010; Campos and Guimaraes, 2008).

Another important observation of this study was that the increase of negative self-evaluation during public speaking was almost abolished by CBD. In a previous study, we suggested that the negative self-evaluation during the phobic situation of public speaking would be important for the avoidance and impairment in social functioning that support the diagnosis of SAD (Freitas-Ferrari et al, submitted). In that way, the observed effect of CBD for improving the self-evaluation during public speaking, which is one of the pivotal aspects of SAD, will influence the therapy of SAD patients.”

This shows that using CBD, performance was little changed from normal compared to those using placebo, especially immediately before, during, and soon after performing:

This shows CBD reduced anxiety and discomfort, improved cognitive impairment (mental functioning), and people felt more calm:

Click here for the study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079847/

PubMed: Urinary Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD), delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their Metabolites Following Oral and Vaporized CBD and Vaporized CBD-Dominant Cannabis Administration

PubMed: Urinary Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD), delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their Metabolites Following Oral and Vaporized CBD and Vaporized CBD-Dominant Cannabis Administration

J Anal Toxicol. 2021 Jun 5:bkab059. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkab059. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The market for products containing cannabidiol (CBD) is booming globally. However, the pharmacokinetics of CBD in different oral formulations and the impact of CBD use on urine drug testing outcomes for cannabis (e.g., 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THCCOOH)) are understudied. This study characterized the urinary pharmacokinetics of CBD (100 mg) following vaporization or oral administration (including 3 formulations: gelcap, pharmacy-grade syrup, or Epidiolex) as well as vaporized CBD-dominant cannabis (containing 100 mg CBD and 3.7 mg Δ9-THC) in healthy adults (n=18). A subset of participants (n=6) orally administered CBD syrup following overnight fasting (versus low-fat breakfast). Urine specimens were collected before and for 58 hours after dosing on a residential research unit. Immunoassay (IA) screening (cutoffs: 20, 50, 100 ng/mL) for ∆9-THCCOOH was performed, and quantitation of cannabinoids was completed via LC-MS-MS. Urinary CBD concentrations (ng/mL) were higher after oral (mean Cmax: 734; mean Tmax: 4.7 h, n=18) versus vaporized CBD (mean Cmax: 240; mean Tmax: 1.3 h, n=18), and oral dose formulation significantly impacted mean Cmax (Epidiolex=1274 ng/mL, capsule=776 ng/mL, syrup=151 ng/mL, n=6/group) with little difference in Tmax. Overnight fasting had limited impact on CBD excretion in urine, and there was no evidence of CBD conversion to ∆8- or ∆9-THC in any route or formulation in which pure CBD was administered. Following acute administration of vaporized CBD-dominant cannabis, 3 of 18 participants provided a total of 6 urine samples in which ∆9-THCCOOH concentrations ≥15 ng/mL. All 6 specimens screened positive at a 20 ng/mL IA cutoff, and 2 of 6 screened positive at a 50 ng/mL cutoff. These data show that absorption/elimination of CBD is impacted by drug formulation, route of administration, and gastric contents. Although pure CBD is unlikely to impact drug testing, it is possible that hemp products containing low amounts of ∆9-THC may produce a cannabis-positive urine drug test.

PMID:34089060 | DOI:10.1093/jat/bkab059

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34089060/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210606065912&v=2.14.4 June 5, 2021 10:00 am

5 Laws Every Vape Company Owner in the U.S. Should Know

5 Laws Every Vape Company Owner in the U.S. Should Know

It’s always an advantage to know the vaping laws governing the marketing, sales, and use of vape products, especially if you’re a company in the e-cigarette industry. In the U.S, the sales and use of vape pens, liquid nicotine, e-cigarettes, e-liquids, or bulk import of such products aren’t without a list of requirements and regulatory guidelines.

You need to ensure compliance for your company and employees. This calls for an in-depth understanding of the rules and regulations surrounding customer age verifications, product placements and displays, sampling, internet and mail orders, restricted store sections, and many more.

Like most laws in the U.S, there are state and federal regulations for nicotine devices. Certain states in the U.S consider vaping companies to be manufacturers and retailers. What this implies is that you’ll have to deal with additional rules and laws. Ensuring that you’re compliant will save you a lot of delays, fees, and fines.

This article covers five essential laws you should understand as a vape company in the U.S. But before diving into it, let’s look at a general overview of vape regulations.

A Quick Overview

In the latter part of December 2020, a budget package saw the light of day after its passing by Congress.

The package included the likes of the coronavirus relief bill, but what would interest most vape companies was a 5000-page document also located inside the package.

This document was the law called the Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act.

It regulated several vape products, like the dual battery vape mods and the more sophisticated vape setups like the Tesla Punk Vape MOD. But this was just a piece of the iceberg, and laws such as these can easily go unnoticed if you’re not paying attention. So let’s take a closer look at five of them.

1.   Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act

President Trump signed this Act into law in 2020. In the vaping industry, this act is commonly called the “vape mail ban.”

However, vape companies will feel the effects of the Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act reaching past the postal delivery. Despite its popularity since December 2020, this law isn’t new.

It had previously passed the House back in 2019 and, in July 2020, made its way to the Senate in somewhat different forms. However, the Senate received a call-to-action from CASAA concerning the bill before its passing in the summer.

Overall, few vape businesses and vapers are alarmed by the possible impacts of its passage, not knowing its full impacts.

2.   Preventing All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT)

All vendors of vapor products and businesses that deal in devices that deliver flavor, the nicotine from an aerosolized solution, or other substances that enable users to inhale will have to comply with Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) from late March 2021. This law also goes by the name Jenkins Act.

It regulates regular vapor products that deliver nicotine and non-nicotine vapor products, which the government might regard as containing hemp oil.

Failure to abide by the rules and regulations stipulated by the Jenkins/PACT Act exposes vape companies to the possibility of heavy fines in the sums of $5,000 to $10,000 for each violation.

3.   FDA Regulation of ENDS

Electronic nicotine delivery systems, otherwise termed ENDS, are devices such as vape pens, electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and e-pipes, among many others. All these devices are non-combustible tobacco products.

The FDA in 2016 concluded a ruling that extended CTP’s regulatory domain to cover tobacco products, including ENDS that fall under the category of tobacco products.

Hence, the FDA controls the import, advertising, sale, packaging, distribution, labeling, and manufacture of all such products. Its regulations also cover the parts and components of ENDS. However, it excludes all accessories. Some examples of such components include:

  • Battery
  • Atomizer
  • Cartomizer
  • Cartridge
  • Clearomizer
  • Tank System
  • Drip Tip
  • Programmable software

4.   FDA Tobacco Regulations

Businesses that produce, modify fabricate, mix, fix, assemble, repack, label, import, or relabel ENDS must also abide by the requirements for manufactures, in addition to the first three laws.

If your company falls into this category, the FDA considers you a tobacco product “manufacture.” Even companies that import finished tobacco products must comply just like tobacco products distributors or manufacturers.

Therefore, you’ll have to register your company and submit the list of products, advertisements, and labeling. Per the regulations, other details you’ll need to submit include an ingredient listing and data.

5.   Protecting American Lungs And Reversing the Youth Tobacco Epidemic Act

In February 2020, the U.S House of Representatives approved a bill to tackle the youth tobacco crisis. The name of this bill was the Protecting American Lungs and Reversing the Youth Tobacco Epidemic Act of 2020.

It bans most flavored tobacco and vaping products such as mint and menthol flavor. Plus, it imposes taxes on nicotine e-cigarettes and affects vape companies.

Conclusion

One vital fact to always keep in mind, law and regulations are always subject to modification via the passing of new legislation, federal decisions, ballot initiatives, high court rulings, or other approved methods. Therefore, It’s always necessary to follow the latest developments and know current information.

Often, understanding the complex rules and how they affect your business can be challenging. Therefore, you may need an attorney in addition to your legal research to clear all your doubts.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/laws-vape-company-u-s/
June 4, 2021 11:00 am

PubMed: Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis -Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)

PubMed: Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis -Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)

Neurology (ECronicon). 2021 Apr;13(4):86-92. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction and intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it powerfully stimulates the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. When used in the form of the plant marijuana, because of the many compounds that exist in the plant form they could inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee., et al. incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. We caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. We argue that one issue facing the scientific community, has to do with the increasing legalization of Cannabis products in many states across America. We are in favor of some reform in terms of either decriminalization or restrictive legalization especially in control of legal limits of THC. Like other psychoactive compounds at high doses, it is our hypothesis that chronic use of these drugs including high THC content in its various forms (wax, smoke or vapor) resulting in brain reward dysfunction induces an imbalance of neurotransmission and subsequent hypodopaminergia and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. It is further proposed that in order to overcome THC and even other psychoactive drugs of abuse induced anhedonia the coupling of genetic risk testing and pro dopamine regulation is warranted.

PMID:34085060 | PMC:PMC8171216

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34085060/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210605065956&v=2.14.4 June 4, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain HOB6, Isolated from Hemp Seed Oil

PubMed: Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain HOB6, Isolated from Hemp Seed Oil

Microbiol Resour Announc. 2021 Jun 3;10(22):e0034421. doi: 10.1128/MRA.00344-21. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

ABSTRACT

Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HOB6 was isolated from hemp seed oil. The strain displays antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens and has potential for development as a biopesticide against cannabis diseases. Its genome was sequenced and annotated, uncovering the ability to encode the biosynthetic pathways for antimicrobial lanthipeptides and nonribosomal peptides.

PMID:34080899 | DOI:10.1128/MRA.00344-21

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34080899/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210604070005&v=2.14.4 June 3, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Sex differences in the acute pharmacological and subjective effects of smoked cannabis combined with alcohol in young adults

PubMed: Sex differences in the acute pharmacological and subjective effects of smoked cannabis combined with alcohol in young adults

Psychol Addict Behav. 2021 Jun 3. doi: 10.1037/adb0000749. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The prevalence of co-use of alcohol and cannabis is increasing, particularly among young adults. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol alone and cannabis alone have been observed in animals and humans. However, sex differences in the acute pharmacological effects of cannabis combined with alcohol have not yet been studied. In young adults, aged 19-29 years, we aimed to examine sex differences following an intoxicating dose of alcohol (target 0.08% breath alcohol content) combined with a moderate dose of cannabis (12.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC) using an ad libitum smoking procedure. Method: Using a within-subjects design, 28 regular cannabis users (16 males; 12 females) received in random order: (a) placebo alcohol and placebo cannabis, (b) active alcohol and placebo cannabis, (c) placebo alcohol and active cannabis, and (d) active alcohol and active cannabis. Blood samples for THC were collected and measures of vital signs, subjective drug effects, and cognition were collected. Results: In the alcohol-cannabis combined condition, females smoked significantly less of the cannabis cigarette compared to males (p < .001), although both sexes smoked similar amounts in the other conditions. There was minimal evidence that females and males differed in THC blood concentrations, vitals, subjective effects, or cognitive measures. Conclusions: In the alcohol-cannabis combined condition, females experienced the same acute pharmacological and subjective effects of alcohol and cannabis as males, after smoking less cannabis, which has potential implications for informing education and policy. Further research is warranted on sex differences in cannabis pharmacology, as well as the combined effects of alcohol and cannabis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID:34081489 | DOI:10.1037/adb0000749

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34081489/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210604070005&v=2.14.4 June 3, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination

PubMed: The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination

Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2021 May 31:102047. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102047. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies with Cannabis Sativa plant extracts and endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, and antitussive properties in the airways of allergic and non-allergic animals. However, the potential therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of respiratory diseases has not been widely investigated, in part because of local irritation of airways by needing to smoke the cannabis, poor bioavailability when administered orally due to the lipophilic nature of cannabinoids, and the psychoactive effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) found in cannabis. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of two of the non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) alone and in combination, in a model of pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The second purpose was to explore the effects of two different cannabinoid formulations administered orally (PO) and intraperitoneally (IP). Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil was used as the sole solvent for one formulation, whereas the second formulation consisted of a Cremophor® EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil, CrEL)-based micellar solution.

RESULTS: Exposure of guinea pigs to LPS induced a 97 ± 7 % and 98 ± 3% increase in neutrophils found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) at 4 hours and 24 hours, respectively. Administration of CBD and CBG formulated with MCT oil did not show any significant effects on the LPS-induced neutrophilia measured in the BAL fluid when compared with the vehicle-treated groups. Conversely, the administration of either cannabinoid formulated with CrEL induced a significant attenuation of the LPS induced recruitment of neutrophils into the lung following both intraperitoneal (IP) and oral (PO) administration routes, with a 55 – 65% and 50 – 55% decrease in neutrophil cell recruitment with the highest doses of CBD and CBG respectively. A combination of CBD and CBG (CBD:CBG = 1:1) formulated in CrEL and administered orally was also tested to determine possible interactions between the cannabinoids. However, a mixture of CBD and CBG did not show a significant change in LPS-induced neutrophilia. Surfactants, such as CrEL, improves the dissolution of lipophilic drugs in an aqueous medium by forming micelles and entrapping the drug molecules within them, consequently increasing the drug dissolution rate. Additionally, surfactants increase permeability and absorption by disrupting the structural organisation of the cellular lipid bilayer.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study has provided evidence that CBD and CBG formulated appropriately exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Our observations suggest that these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may have beneficial effects in treating diseases characterised by airway inflammation.

PMID:34082108 | DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102047

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34082108/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210604070005&v=2.14.4 June 3, 2021 10:00 am

Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference

Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference

On June 29, 2021, Cannabis Industry Journal is hosting the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference. From Noon to 5 pm EST, you’ll get access to five veterans of the extraction market discussing a variety of topics related to the ins and outs of extracting cannabis and hemp.

Hear from subject matter experts who will share their perspectives on cannabis and hemp extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, post-processing, risk management, hazards and controls, optimization, closed loop hydrocarbon extraction, machine learning algorithms and more.

Alex Hearding, Chief Risk Management Officer at the National Cannabis Risk Management Association (NCRMA) will kick things off with a session exploring the Hazards and Controls of Extraction with Liquified Petroleum Gases. Dr. Markus Roggen, Founder & CEO of Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures, will follow that up with a discussion surrounding the kinetics and thermodynamics of cannabis extraction.

Other talks from the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference include:

  • The Quest to Discover the Limnits of CO2 Extraction
    • Jeremy Deihl, co-founder & CTO of Green Mill Supercritical
  • The Future of Cannabis Concentrates: Developments in Hydrocarbon Extraction and Manufacturing
    • Michelle Sprawls, Laboratory Director at CULTA
  • Process Scale Up in the Cannabis/Hemp Industry
    • Darwin Millard, Committee ViceChair on ASTM International’s D37.04 on Processing & Handling of Cannabis

You can check out the agenda in its entirety and register here. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask speakers questions during the live Q&A session that follows each session. Registration is complimentary. For sponsorship opportunities, contact RJ Palermo at [email protected]

The post Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference


June 2, 2021 5:11 pm

CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies

CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies

Charlotte’s Web Holdings announced a new collaboration with the University of Colorado-Boulder and their Research and Education Addressing Cannabis and Health (REACH) Center. The University’s REACH Center will conduct a preclinical study on how hemp oil can influence sleep quality and anxiety.

Charlotte’s Web and University of Colorado-Boulder Collaborative Study to Assess CBD and CBN’s Potential to Support Improved Sleep (CNW Group/Charlotte’s Web Holdings, Inc.)

The study will use Charlotte’s Web hemp products, including their full spectrum hemp formulations containing CBN, CBD and less than 0.3% THC. Monika Fleshner, PhD, Professor of Integrative Physiology and member of the Center for Neuroscience at the University of Colorado, will be the project lead and will conduct the study in her Stress Physiology Laboratory. “There is a great need for properly controlled experimental studies that are designed to test the potential neural and physiological impacts of hemp derived phytocannabinoids,” says Dr. Fleshner. “With support from CU REACH and Charlotte’s Web, our research will explore both the efficacy and mechanisms of how these substances can affect complex brain-mediated behavior, such as disturbed sleep.”

Tim Orr, senior vice president of Charlotte’s Web and president of its CW Labs division, is currently working on more than twelve scientific research studies with the company. “Charlotte’s Web is committed to advancing science on the benefits and safety of CBD and other hemp phytocannabinoids through rigorous scientific investigations such as this sleep and anxiety study,” says Orr. “We’re honored to team up with CU’s REACH Center to explore the potential impacts of full-spectrum hemp extract with CBD and CBN on anxiety and sleep quality.”

Long term, Charlotte’s Web expects this study will help build the foundation for future clinical studies to “better understand how specific ratios of cannabinoids and different delivery formats are effective at supporting improved sleep quality and instilling healthier sleep architecture in humans,” reads the press release.

The post CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies


June 2, 2021 4:39 pm

PubMed: Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

PubMed: Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

Nutrients. 2021 May 11;13(5):1603. doi: 10.3390/nu13051603.

ABSTRACT

The consumption of fatty acids has increased drastically, exceeding the nutritional requirements of an individual and leading to numerous metabolic disorders. Recent data indicate a growing interest in using cannabidiol (CBD) as an agent with beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the influence of chronic CBD administration on the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio in different lipid fractions, inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress parameters in the white and red gastrocnemius muscle. All the designed experiments were performed on Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard rodent diet for seven weeks and subsequently injected with CBD (10 mg/kg once daily for two weeks) or its vehicle. Lipid content and oxidative stress parameters were assessed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), colorimetric and/or immunoenzymatic methods, respectively. The total expression of proteins of an inflammatory pathway was measured by Western blotting. Our results revealed that fatty acids (FAs) oversupply is associated with an increasing oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which results in an excessive accumulation of FAs, especially of n-6 PUFAs, in skeletal muscles. We showed that CBD significantly improved the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and shifted the equilibrium towards anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFAs, particularly in the red gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, CBD prevented generation of lipid peroxidation products and attenuated inflammatory response in both types of skeletal muscle. In summary, the results mentioned above indicate that CBD presents potential therapeutic properties with respect to the treatment of obesity and related disturbances.

PMID:34064937 | DOI:10.3390/nu13051603

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34064937/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Analysis of Cannabinoids Concentration in Cannabis Oil Galenic Preparations: Harmonization between Three Laboratories in Northern Italy

PubMed: Analysis of Cannabinoids Concentration in Cannabis Oil Galenic Preparations: Harmonization between Three Laboratories in Northern Italy

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 May 14;14(5):462. doi: 10.3390/ph14050462.

ABSTRACT

Medical cannabis is increasingly being used in the treatment and support of several diseases and syndromes. The quantitative determination of active ingredients (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, and cannabidiol, CBD) in galenic oily preparations is prescribed by law for each produced batch. The aim of this work is to describe the organization of the titration activity centralized at three regional reference laboratories in Northern Italy. Pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases have been defined in order to guarantee high quality standards. A cross-validation between laboratories allowed for the definition of the procedures that guarantee the interchangeability between reference laboratories. The risk management protocol adopted can be useful for others who need to undertake this activity.

PMID:34069020 | DOI:10.3390/ph14050462

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34069020/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: A Multimethodological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Seven Dioecious Cultivars Grown in Italy: The Effect of Different Harvesting Stages

PubMed: A Multimethodological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Seven Dioecious Cultivars Grown in Italy: The Effect of Different Harvesting Stages

Molecules. 2021 May 14;26(10):2912. doi: 10.3390/molecules26102912.

ABSTRACT

The chemical profile of the female inflorescence extracts from seven Cannabis sativa L. dioecious cultivars (Carmagnola, Fibranova, Eletta Campana, Antal, Tiborszallasi, Kompolti, and Tisza) was monitored at three harvesting stages (4, 14, and 30 September), reaching from the beginning of flowering to end of flowering/beginning of seed formation, using untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and targeted (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and spectrophotometry) analyses. The tetrahydrocannabinol content was always below the legal limits (<0.6%) in all the analyzed samples. The NMR metabolite profile (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and minor compounds) subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) showed a strong variability according to the harvesting stages: samples harvested in stage I were characterized by a high content of sucrose and myo-inositol, whereas the ones harvested in stage II showed high levels of succinic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and threonine. Samples harvested in stage III were characterized by high levels of glucose, fructose, choline, trigonelline, malic acid, formic acid, and some amino acids. The ratio between chlorophylls and carotenoids content indicated that all plants grew up exposed to the sun, the Eletta Campana cultivar having the highest pigment amount. Tiborszallasi cultivar showed the highest polyphenol content. The highest antioxidant activity was generally observed in stage II. All these results suggested that the Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences of each analyzed dioecious hemp cultivar presented a peculiar chemical profile affected by the harvesting stage. This information could be useful for producers and industries to harvest inflorescences in the appropriate stage to obtain samples with a peculiar chemical profile suitable for proper applications.

PMID:34068911 | DOI:10.3390/molecules26102912

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34068911/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: The (Poly)Pharmacology of Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Molecular Mechanisms and Targets

PubMed: The (Poly)Pharmacology of Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Molecular Mechanisms and Targets

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 5;22(9):4876. doi: 10.3390/ijms22094876.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, has been proposed for the treatment of a wide panel of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, epilepsy and drug addiction due to the ability of its versatile scaffold to interact with diverse molecular targets that are not restricted to the endocannabinoid system. Albeit the molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of CBD have yet to be fully elucidated, many efforts have been devoted in the last decades to shed light on its complex pharmacological profile. In particular, an ever-increasing number of molecular targets linked to those disorders have been identified for this phytocannabinoid, along with the modulatory effects of CBD on their cascade signaling. In this view, here we will try to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the molecular basis underlying the therapeutic effects of CBD involved in the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID:34062987 | DOI:10.3390/ijms22094876

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34062987/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Metabolomic Analysis of Cannabinoid and Essential Oil Profiles in Different Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Phenotypes

PubMed: Metabolomic Analysis of Cannabinoid and Essential Oil Profiles in Different Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Phenotypes

Plants (Basel). 2021 May 12;10(5):966. doi: 10.3390/plants10050966.

ABSTRACT

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cannabinoids and terpenoids have therapeutic effects on human and animal health. Cannabis plants can often have a relatively high heterogeneity, which leads to different phenotypes that have different chemical profiles despite being from the same variety. Little information exists about cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles in different hemp phenotypes within the same variety. For this study, 11 phenotypes from three different varieties (“Carmagnola” selected (CS), “Tiborszallasi” (TS), and “Finola” selection (FS)) were analyzed. The components of essential oil (29) were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 10 different cannabinoids of each phenotype were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that according to the components of essential oil, FS and TS plants were more uniform than CS plants, where there were great differences between CI and CII phenotypes. The content of cannabinoid CBD-A was the highest in all four FS phenotypes. By comparing cannabinoid profiles, FS was clearly separated from TS and CS, while these two varieties were not clearly distinguishable. Phenotypes TV and CI had the highest total content of Δ-9-THC, while all phenotypes of FS had the highest total content of CBD. The highest total content of CBG was determined in phenotype CI. Obtained results are useful for the development of new supplementary ingredients, for different pharmacy treatments, and for further breeding purposes.

PMID:34066131 | DOI:10.3390/plants10050966

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066131/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabinoids, Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloids of Cannabis

PubMed: Cannabinoids, Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloids of Cannabis

Molecules. 2021 May 8;26(9):2774. doi: 10.3390/molecules26092774.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world. It was introduced into western medicine during the early 19th century. It contains a complex mixture of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid-type constituents. More than 500 compounds have been reported from C. sativa, of which 125 cannabinoids have been isolated and/or identified as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are C21 terpeno-phenolic compounds specific to Cannabis. The non-cannabinoid constituents include: non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and others. This review discusses the chemistry of the cannabinoids and major non-cannabinoid constituents (terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenolics, and alkaloids) with special emphasis on their chemical structures, methods of isolation, and identification.

PMID:34066753 | DOI:10.3390/molecules26092774

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066753/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Medium-throughput zebrafish optogenetic platform identifies deficits in subsequent neural activity following brief early exposure to cannabidiol and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol

PubMed: Medium-throughput zebrafish optogenetic platform identifies deficits in subsequent neural activity following brief early exposure to cannabidiol and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol

Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11515. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90902-3.

ABSTRACT

In light of legislative changes and the widespread use of cannabis as a recreational and medicinal drug, delayed effects of cannabis upon brief exposure during embryonic development are of high interest as early pregnancies often go undetected. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) until the end of gastrulation (1-10 h post-fertilization) and analyzed later in development (4-5 days post-fertilization). In order to measure neural activity, we implemented Calcium-Modulated Photoactivatable Ratiometric Integrator (CaMPARI) and optimized the protocol for a 96-well format complemented by locomotor analysis. Our results revealed that neural activity was decreased by CBD more than THC. At higher doses, both cannabinoids could dramatically reduce neural activity and locomotor activity. Interestingly, the decrease was more pronounced when CBD and THC were combined. At the receptor level, CBD-mediated reduction of locomotor activity was partially prevented using cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor inhibitors. Overall, we report that CBD toxicity occurs via two cannabinoid receptors and is synergistically enhanced by THC exposure to negatively impact neural activity late in larval development. Future studies are warranted to reveal other cannabinoids and their receptors to understand the implications of cannabis consumption on fetal development.

PMID:34075141 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-90902-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34075141/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Identification of Potential Distinguishing Markers for the Use of Cannabis-Based Medicines or Street Cannabis in Serum Samples

PubMed: Identification of Potential Distinguishing Markers for the Use of Cannabis-Based Medicines or Street Cannabis in Serum Samples

Metabolites. 2021 May 13;11(5):316. doi: 10.3390/metabo11050316.

ABSTRACT

Increasing prescription numbers of cannabis-based medicines raise the question of whether uptake of these medicines can be distinguished from recreational cannabis use. In this pilot study, serum cannabinoid profiles after use of cannabis-based medicines were investigated, in order to identify potential distinguishing markers. Serum samples after use of Sativex®, Dronabinol or medical cannabis were collected and analyzed for 18 different cannabinoids, using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Analytes included delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabicyclol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, tetrahydocannabinolic acid A, cannabidiolic acid, cannabinolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, cannabichromenic acid, cannabicyclolic acid, tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid and cannabidivarinic acid. Cannabinoid profiles of study samples were compared to profiles of street cannabis user samples via principal component analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Potential distinguishing markers for Dronabinol and Sativex® intake were identified, including 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios ≥1 and increased concentrations of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol or cannabichromene. Larger quantities of minor cannabinoids suggested use of cannabis. Use of medical and street cannabis could not be distinguished, except for use of a cannabidiol-rich strain with higher cannabidiol/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabichromene/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios. Findings of the study were used to classify forensic serum samples with self-reported use of cannabis-based medicines.

PMID:34068332 | DOI:10.3390/metabo11050316

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34068332/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Development and Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Setup Leading to Quantification of 11 Cannabinoids Derived from Medicinal Cannabis

PubMed: Development and Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Setup Leading to Quantification of 11 Cannabinoids Derived from Medicinal Cannabis

Biology (Basel). 2021 May 28;10(6):481. doi: 10.3390/biology10060481.

ABSTRACT

In this study, the optimal setup of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was designed and developed, leading to the quantitation of 11 distinct cannabinoids (cannabidivann (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivann (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabinol (CBN), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabichomere (CBC) and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA-A)) extracted from the flowers of medicinal cannabis (sp. Sativa). Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction was performed at 37 °C, a pressure of 250 bar with the maximum theoretical density of CO2 (893.7 kg/m3), which generated the highest yield of cannabinoids from the flower-derived extract. Additionally, a cold separator (separating chamber) was used and positioned immediately after the sample containing chamber to maximize the yield. It was also found that successive washing of the extract with fresh scCO2 further increased yields. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD (uHPLC-DAD) was used to develop a method for the quantification of 11 cannabinoids. The C18 stationary phase was used in conjunction with a two solvent system gradient program resulting in the acquisition of the well-resolved chromatogram over a timespan of 32 min. The accuracy and precision of isolated cannabinoids across inter-and intra-day periods were within acceptable limits (<±15%). The assay was also fully validated and deemed sensitive from linearity, LOQ, and LOD perspective. The findings of this body of work are expected to facilitate improved conditions for the optimal extraction of select cannabinoids using scCO2, which holds promise in the development of well-characterized medicinal cannabis formulations. As to our best knowledge, this is the first study to report the uHPLC quantification method for the analysis of 11 cannabinoids from scCO2 extract in a single run with more than 1 min peak separation.

PMID:34071473 | DOI:10.3390/biology10060481

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34071473/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Antioxidant Activity of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae under Non-Stress and H(2)O(2)-Induced Oxidative Stress Conditions

PubMed: Antioxidant Activity of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae under Non-Stress and H(2)O(2)-Induced Oxidative Stress Conditions

Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 May 22;10(6):830. doi: 10.3390/antiox10060830.

ABSTRACT

The oil extracted from hemp seeds has significant nutritional and biological properties due to the unique composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various antioxidant compounds. The potential of this oil for the prevention of oxidative stress and for the treatment of oxidative-stress-induced ailments is of increasing interest. Most studies of hemp seed oil were conducted in-vitro, meaning we lack information about effects and activity in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the hypothesis that hemp seed oil at different concentrations improves the oxidative state of D. melanogaster, under non-stress as well as hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress. We analyzed the effects of hemp seed oil on oxidative stress markers and on the life cycle of D.melanogaster under non-stress and hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress conditions. D.melanogaster larvae were exposed to hemp seed oil concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 125 μL/mL. The results revealed that under non-stress conditions, oil concentrations up to 62.5 µL/mL did not induce negative effects on the life cycle of D. melanogaster and maintained the redox status of the larval cells at similar levels to the control level. Under oxidative stress conditions, biochemical parameters were significantly affected and only two oil concentrations, 18.7 and 31.2 µL/mL, provided protection against hydrogen peroxide stress effects. A higher oil concentration (125 μL/mL) exerted negative effects on the oxidative status and increased larval mortality. The tested oil was characterized chemically by NMR, transesterification, and silylation, followed by GC-MS analyses, and was shown to contain polyunsaturated fatty acid triglycerides and low levels of tocopherols. The high levels of linoleic and linolenic acids in the oil are suggested to be responsible for the observed in vivo antioxidant effects. Taken together, the results show that hemp seed oil is effective for reducing oxidative stress at the cellular level, thus supporting the hypothesis. The obtained results point to the potential of hemp seed oil for the prevention and treatment of conditions caused by the action of reactive oxygen species.

PMID:34067432 | DOI:10.3390/antiox10060830

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34067432/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Mild Abiotic Stress Affects Development and Stimulates Hormesis of Hemp Aphid Phorodon cannabis

PubMed: Mild Abiotic Stress Affects Development and Stimulates Hormesis of Hemp Aphid Phorodon cannabis

Insects. 2021 May 8;12(5):420. doi: 10.3390/insects12050420.

ABSTRACT

The hemp aphid Phorodon cannabis Passerini is a well- known (Asia, Europe) or newly emerging (North America) insect. It is a monophagous insect pest causing considerable damage in field and glasshouse cultivations. The aim of this work was to study the effects of meteorological (temperature) and agronomical (herbicide) factors on the biology of the hemp aphid. In one experiment, hemp plants were kept at constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 °C, and aphid survival and fecundity were measured. In a related experiment conducted at 20 °C, plants were treated with field-appropriate rates of a selective graminicide containing quizalofop-P-tefuryl (40 gL-1, 4.38%, HRAC group 1), commonly used to control weeds in hemp, and aphid enzyme activity was measured in addition to population parameters. We found that hemp aphids could live, feed and reproduce within the whole studied range of temperatures, demonstrating its great evolutionary plasticity. However, the optimal temperature for development was 25 °C, at which the insect lived and reproduced for 25 and 15 days, respectively, with an average fecundity of 7.5 nymphs per reproduction day. The herbicide treatment increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), β-glucosidase, S-glutathione transferase (GST), oxidoreductive peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the aphids, but only on certain days after treatment, which indicates a mild stress in aphid tissues, related to a higher reproduction and changed feeding behavior; aphids moved from the actively growing tips compared to untreated plants. The results of these experiments are discussed in terms of the impact on the future management of this pest.

PMID:34066736 | DOI:10.3390/insects12050420

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066736/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoids to treat behavioural problems in children and adolescents with developmental disorders

PubMed: Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoids to treat behavioural problems in children and adolescents with developmental disorders

Aust J Gen Pract. 2021 Jun;50(6):352-355. doi: 10.31128/AJGP-01-21-5809.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of interest in the potential symptomatic benefits of medicinal cannabis among parents of children and adolescents with developmental disorders.

OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of what is known about medicinal cannabis as a treatment for paediatric developmental disorders.

DISCUSSION: While there is emerging evidence in support of medicinal cannabis for some adult mental health disorders, to date the evidence in children and adolescents is scant. Reports from uncontrolled observational studies suggest that cannabidiol-rich products may be helpful in reducing behavioural problems in autistic youth. Cannabidiol appears to have a relatively benign adverse effect profile and therefore may be worth considering as a treatment option in some cases. Several controlled clinical trials are underway that will provide more definitive information on the therapeutic value of medicinal cannabis in paediatric developmental and behavioural disorders.

PMID:34059838 | DOI:10.31128/AJGP-01-21-5809

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34059838/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210602070011&v=2.14.4 June 1, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: A primer on medicinal cannabis safety and potential adverse effects

PubMed: A primer on medicinal cannabis safety and potential adverse effects

Aust J Gen Pract. 2021 Jun;50(6):345-350. doi: 10.31128/AJGP-02-21-5845.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis prescriptions are on the rise in Australia, and general practitioners will increasingly encounter patients using cannabis-based products.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to provide a primer on the safety issues that need to be considered with medicinal cannabis.

DISCUSSION: Medicinal cannabis is generally well tolerated when dosed appropriately. It is important for doctors to consider carefully the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) content of the products. CBD is not intoxicating and has fewer safety concerns than THC. When commencing a new medicinal cannabis product, the recommendation is to prescribe relatively low doses and slowly up-titrate the dose. This aims to minimise dose-related toxicities and the potential for drug-drug interactions with concomitant medications. THC found in medicinal cannabis may acutely impair cognitive function and is best not prescribed to children or adolescents unless the benefits outweigh the risks. THC-containing cannabis products should not be prescribed to individuals with angina or a history of myocardial infarction, or to those who have a personal or family history of psychosis.

PMID:34059837 | DOI:10.31128/AJGP-02-21-5845

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34059837/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210602070011&v=2.14.4 June 1, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis Varieties Can Be Distinguished by Achene Shape Using Geometric Morphometrics

PubMed: Cannabis Varieties Can Be Distinguished by Achene Shape Using Geometric Morphometrics

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.1089/can.2020.0172. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cannabis plant uses are widespread across human cultures. The current tendency is to classify Cannabis varieties into chemovars upon their chemical fingerprint, mainly cannabinoids and terpenoids content. The identification of chemovars has important medical implications; however, their pharmacological characterization is costly and time consuming. The goal of this study was to assess whether achene shape variation could be related to Cannabis varieties with contrasting cannabinoid concentrations, as a first approach to chemovar identification. Methods: We used two-dimensional geometric morphometrics (GM) of the achenes and multivariate statistical analysis. We used achenes from five varieties, two from Type II chemotype (expressing both tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and cannabidiol [CBD]), two Type I (THC-only), and one Type III (CBD-only). Results: The achenes from the different chemotypes were clearly distinguishable. No significant differences between varieties from the same chemotype were observed. The varieties with high THC concentration (Type I) were rounded and bigger, whereas achene from varieties containing only CBD (Type III) had a slender shape with smaller size. Conclusion: Achene shape variation is a potential biomarker of cannabinoid content in the plant flowers. Further studies are needed to confirm the suitability of GM methods for high-throughput screening of Cannabis cultivars, including larger diversity of varieties, and taking into account growth conditions, which can also influence plant chemical fingerprint.

PMID:34061660 | DOI:10.1089/can.2020.0172

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34061660/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210602070011&v=2.14.4 June 1, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of phytocannabinoids in oily based preparations

PubMed: Fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of phytocannabinoids in oily based preparations

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021 May 26;203:114174. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114174. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The reported method aims to be a powerful aid for the simultaneous determination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) in oily based preparations. The chromatographic separation was carried out using an Hypersil Gold PFP (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) column, using H2O + 2 mM ammonium formate + 0.2 % formic acid (M1) and Methanol + 2 mM ammonium formate + 0.2 % formic acid (M2) as mobile phases. The flow rate was set 0.4 mL/min. Specifically, this method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detections and quantifications (LODs and LOQs), accuracy (precision and trueness, both intra and interday), selectivity, and matrix effects. This procedure allowed quantifying seven phytocannabinoids in less than 10 min. The validated method shows a good linearity within the range 0.25-1000 ng/mL, while precision and trueness (intra- and inter-day) were below <13.25 % and 7.59 %, respectively. Regarding the matrix effect, the method satisfies all the requirements, except for the THC and THCV, where it reaches about 120 %. This element does not affect the method performances as it has been observed that this value is constant and reproducible and therefore does not involve errors in the quantitative analysis. The method was tested and applied on more 70 different oily based preparations. Furthermore, starting from four different cannabis cultivar (FM2, Bedrolite, Bedrocan, and Bediol), it allowed to evaluate the reproducibility of the magistrali preparations. The real samples, in fact, derive from different local pharmacies, and were analyzed by the accredited UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018, Pharmatoxicology Laboratory (ACCREDIA, lab n. 2274 ASLPE, accreditation number 1822 L), accordingly to the current regulations.

PMID:34062478 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114174

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34062478/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210602070011&v=2.14.4 June 1, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Medical cannabis and driving

PubMed: Medical cannabis and driving

Aust J Gen Pract. 2021 Jun;50(6):357-362. doi: 10.31128/AJGP-02-21-5840.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical cannabis use is increasingly common in Australia. Patients and physicians need to be aware of the important implications that such use may have for driving.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to briefly review the scientific evidence regarding cannabis and driving impairment and discuss current legal issues affecting patients, as well as to update physicians on relevant issues and the best guidance to offer their patients.

DISCUSSION: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs driving performance and can increase crash risk. These effects are more pronounced in people who use THC occasionally and can last for up to eight hours with oral THC products. There is no evidence that cannabidiol (CBD) impairs driving. Patients using THC-containing products should avoid driving and other safety-sensitive tasks (eg operating machinery), particularly during initiation of treatment and in the hours immediately following each dose. Patients may test positive for THC even if they do not feel impaired, and medical cannabis use does not currently exempt patients from mobile (roadside) drug testing and associated legal sanctions.

PMID:34059836 | DOI:10.31128/AJGP-02-21-5840

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34059836/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210602070011&v=2.14.4 June 1, 2021 10:00 am

Different Ways Hemp Can be Utilized as House-Building Materials

Different Ways Hemp Can be Utilized as House-Building Materials

Hemp is a miracle material. When most people think of it, one or two uses might come to mind. But, when you really do your research on everything hemp is used for, you quickly start to see how valuable it is.

Right now, it’s important to shine a light on the fact that hemp can be used for home construction in a variety of ways. Lately, the cost of lumber has skyrocketed due to a shortage. There are also concerns about the sustainability of traditional building materials and how they might be impacting the planet.

Could hemp be the solution for those problems? Yes.

Using hemp as a building material is more than just a “pipe dream” (no pun intended). Instead, it’s a viable option that could cut costs and benefit the environment.

Not sure how it can be used and whether it truly is the right solution? Let’s look at the benefits and a few ways hemp can be implemented into construction materials.

The Benefits of Hemp for Building

If you think hemp can’t hold a candle to lumber or other building materials, think again. Nowadays, hemp is used to manufacture:

  • Rope
  • Textiles
  • Bioplastics
  • Insulation

There’s are several reasons why it’s being used to make so many things. First, it’s both fire and mold-resistant. That’s important if you live in a damp environment. Plus, it allows builders to rely less on using chemical fire retardants, which can cost money and be harmful to the environment.

Hemp can also be used to upgrade your home with new additions. It’s a much safer construction product than materials used in the past. For example, hemp can be used to replace old insulation that might contain asbestos.

If your home was built before the 1970s, you may have insulation or other building materials containing asbestos, which can cause damage to your respiratory system and may even cause cancer or mesothelioma. Hemp is a natural, safe, and healthy replacement.

If you’re building from the ground up, using materials like hempcrete can also be beneficial for the environment.

Sustainability is important, especially in the construction industry. But, so is cost. With lumber prices on the rise, can you save money by using hemp instead?

Sustainable Savings

Part of the reason why hemp is more cost-effective than other materials is that it’s sustainable. It’s a renewable resource that makes it easier to stay on a realistic budget with your home construction. A hemp-made house costs roughly the same as a normally-built house. Now, with rising material costs, it may be even cheaper than traditional options.

Materials like hempcrete are more commonly used for smaller projects, making them a big draw for tiny homes. If you’re on a strict budget or you have bad credit, using hemp to build your home can help you to avoid overspending. You might also be able to build or buy even if you have bad credit because you’ll be able to put down a larger downpayment.

It’s also important to note that the hemp tech industry is rapidly growing. In the future, that could mean even more hemp-based building materials for housing. Currently, hemp wood companies are becoming more prominent, creating everything from flooring to cabinets.

Hemp is also being used to replace certain plastic materials, which will also impact the building industry and how materials are used. If you’re not ready to build a home or upgrade right now, keep your eyes open for how hemp is going to grow (again, literally) in the future.

Hemp and Your Home Can Go Hand-in-Hand

Hemp is sustainable. It’s cost-effective. It’s growing in popularity, and it’s even got its own tech industry. Needless to say, it’s a trendy topic right now in the construction world. But, on a more personal level, hemp can be a fantastic addition to your home – inside or outside.

For example, because hemp wood is becoming more popular, you can use it to decorate your home’s interior. It can give you a more “rustic” and natural look that fits perfectly into a sustainability mindset. Natural wood accents are perfect for shabby chic homes, and they can make your space feel warmer and more inviting.

Because hemp is also used to create textiles, you can decorate with it. Some of the most common hemp fabrics include:

  • Linen
  • Terrycloth
  • Twill
  • Cotton muslin

From your sheets to your curtains, you could end up having a hemp home top to bottom and feel good about the environmentally sound choices you’re making.

If you’ve never considered hemp for building, now is a perfect time to do your research. If you’re already interested in the hemp industry, constructing a home using hemp building materials could be the next step in utilizing it. The more popular it becomes, the more we’re likely to see it as a strong competitor to traditional costly materials.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/hemp-house-building-materials/
May 31, 2021 11:00 am

PubMed: Down and High: Reflections Regarding Depression and Cannabis

PubMed: Down and High: Reflections Regarding Depression and Cannabis

Front Psychiatry. 2021 May 14;12:625158. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.625158. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

In light of the recent changes in the legal status of cannabis in Canada, the understanding of the potential impact of the use of cannabis by individuals suffering from depression is increasingly considered as being important. It is fundamental that we look into the existing literature to examine the influence of cannabis on psychiatric conditions, including mood disorders. In this article, we will explore the relationship that exists between depression and cannabis. We will examine the impact of cannabis on the onset and course of depression, and its treatment. We have undertaken a wide-ranging review of the literature in order to address these questions. The evidence from longitudinal studies suggest that there is a bidirectional relationship between cannabis use and depression, such that cannabis use increases the risk for depression and vice-versa. This risk is possibly higher in heavy users having initiated their consumption in early adolescence. Clinical evidence also suggests that cannabis use is associated with a worse prognosis in individuals with major depressive disorder. The link with suicide remains controversial. Moreover, there is insufficient data to determine the impact of cannabis use on cognition in individuals with major depression disorder. Preliminary evidence suggesting that the endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. This will need to be confirmed in future positron emission tomography studies. Randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate the potential efficacy of motivational interviewing and/or cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of cannabis use disorder in individuals with major depressive major disorder. Finally, although there is preclinical evidence suggesting that cannabidiol has antidepressant properties, randomized controlled trials will need to properly investigate this possibility in humans.

PMID:34054594 | PMC:PMC8160288 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.625158

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34054594/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210601065913&v=2.14.4 May 31, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Assessment of cognitive and psychomotor impairment, subjective effects, and blood THC concentrations following acute administration of oral and vaporized cannabis

PubMed: Assessment of cognitive and psychomotor impairment, subjective effects, and blood THC concentrations following acute administration of oral and vaporized cannabis

J Psychopharmacol. 2021 May 28:2698811211021583. doi: 10.1177/02698811211021583. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis legalization is expanding, but there are no established methods for detecting cannabis impairment.

AIM: Characterize the acute impairing effects of oral and vaporized cannabis using various performance tests.

METHODS: Participants (N = 20, 10 men/10 women) who were infrequent cannabis users ingested cannabis brownies (0, 10, and 25 mg Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) and inhaled vaporized cannabis (0, 5, and 20 mg THC) in six double-blind outpatient sessions. Cognitive/psychomotor impairment was assessed with a battery of computerized tasks sensitive to cannabis effects, a novel test (the DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs, DRUID®), and field sobriety tests. Blood THC concentrations and subjective drug effects were evaluated.

RESULTS: Low oral/vaporized doses did not impair cognitive/psychomotor performance relative to placebo but produced positive subjective effects. High oral/vaporized doses impaired cognitive/psychomotor performance and increased positive and negative subjective effects. The DRUID® was the most sensitive test to cannabis impairment, as it detected significant differences between placebo and active doses within both routes of administration. Women displayed more impairment on the DRUID® than men at the high vaporized dose only. Field sobriety tests showed little sensitivity to cannabis-induced impairment. Blood THC concentrations were far lower after cannabis ingestion versus inhalation. After inhalation, blood THC concentrations typically returned to baseline well before pharmacodynamic effects subsided.

CONCLUSIONS: Standard approaches for identifying impairment due to cannabis exposure (i.e. blood THC and field sobriety tests) have severe limitations. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers of cannabis exposure and/or behavioral tests like the DRUID® that can reliably and accurately detect cannabis impairment at the roadside and in the workplace.

PMID:34049452 | DOI:10.1177/02698811211021583

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049452/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210530065942&v=2.14.4 May 29, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Assessment of cognitive and psychomotor impairment, subjective effects, and blood THC concentrations following acute administration of oral and vaporized cannabis

PubMed: Assessment of cognitive and psychomotor impairment, subjective effects, and blood THC concentrations following acute administration of oral and vaporized cannabis

J Psychopharmacol. 2021 May 28:2698811211021583. doi: 10.1177/02698811211021583. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis legalization is expanding, but there are no established methods for detecting cannabis impairment.

AIM: Characterize the acute impairing effects of oral and vaporized cannabis using various performance tests.

METHODS: Participants (N = 20, 10 men/10 women) who were infrequent cannabis users ingested cannabis brownies (0, 10, and 25 mg Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) and inhaled vaporized cannabis (0, 5, and 20 mg THC) in six double-blind outpatient sessions. Cognitive/psychomotor impairment was assessed with a battery of computerized tasks sensitive to cannabis effects, a novel test (the DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs, DRUID®), and field sobriety tests. Blood THC concentrations and subjective drug effects were evaluated.

RESULTS: Low oral/vaporized doses did not impair cognitive/psychomotor performance relative to placebo but produced positive subjective effects. High oral/vaporized doses impaired cognitive/psychomotor performance and increased positive and negative subjective effects. The DRUID® was the most sensitive test to cannabis impairment, as it detected significant differences between placebo and active doses within both routes of administration. Women displayed more impairment on the DRUID® than men at the high vaporized dose only. Field sobriety tests showed little sensitivity to cannabis-induced impairment. Blood THC concentrations were far lower after cannabis ingestion versus inhalation. After inhalation, blood THC concentrations typically returned to baseline well before pharmacodynamic effects subsided.

CONCLUSIONS: Standard approaches for identifying impairment due to cannabis exposure (i.e. blood THC and field sobriety tests) have severe limitations. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers of cannabis exposure and/or behavioral tests like the DRUID® that can reliably and accurately detect cannabis impairment at the roadside and in the workplace.

PMID:34049452 | DOI:10.1177/02698811211021583

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049452/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210530065942&v=2.14.4 May 29, 2021 10:00 am

Canada Violates International Law With CBD Import Ban

This is a USMCA (formerly NAFTA) violation. CW has a good case, as does any U.S. CBD company:

“Charlotte’s Web Products are not easily available in Canada because laws do not allow for bulk importing of U.S.-grown hemp CBD or related products into Canada, the release said.”

Read more at: https://www.dailycamera.com/2021/04/20/canada-approves-3-charlottes-web-hemp-cultivars/

France Announces New CBD Regulation, Flowers and Raw Hemp Products Stay Illegal

France Announces New CBD Regulation, Flowers and Raw Hemp Products Stay Illegal

France will authorize products based on CBD, but the sale of dried flowers and leaves will remain prohibited, the AFP reported on Tuesday.

The new regulations will allow the cultivation, import, export, and industrial and commercial use of hemp with a THC content less than 0.2%, announced the prime minister’s office.

French farmers will be allowed to cultivate CBD for the manufacture of derivative products and the activity of specialized shops will be clarified. The shops will be allowed to sell various products based on CBD, but will not be able to market raw flowers or leaves. “The placing on the market of floral tops or raw leaves for smoking or herbal tea is prohibited, as are products incorporating raw hemp,” said the prime minister’s office, adding that the restriction is “justified on grounds of public order and public health”.

“Raw CBD flowers are often smoked and mixed with tobacco, which is harmful to health”, said a source familiar with the matter. The authorization of the flowers would have posed problems in the event of police control because without analysis of the seized herb, it would be impossible to know if the user has cannabis high in THC or is dominated by CBD.

The drafting of the new decree should be finalized soon. The text must then be sent to the European Commission. The Member States of the European Union will then have six months to ask France questions before the decree comes into effect.

France is by far the biggest hemp producer in Europe, with 17.900 hectares in 2018. At present, there are around 1800 hemp growers in France and more than 400 CBD shops. Products already for sale in those shops contain CBD of foreign origin. Last November, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled that France can not prohibit the marketing of the product legally produced in other member countries, even when the product is extracted from the Cannabis sativa plant in its entirety and not solely from its fiber and seeds, as it is the case in France. In its decision, the CJEU stated that the prohibition may be justified by the objective of protecting public health.

The Union of Industrialists for the Valorization of Hemp Extracts (UIVEC) welcomed the announcement of the prime minister’s office. “This is excellent news and a great relief for our farmers, our entrepreneurs, our established economic and industrial players. It is a very strong signal sent by the government and which should considerably advance the development of a hemp extract sector ensuring the quality of products for consumers.”, said Ludovic Rachou, president of UIVEC for LSA.

In Austria, Italy, and Switzerland, the police have a rapid reagent test for use on the street; some portable tests can analyze whether a product contains THC or not and others analyze the amount of THC.

The post France Announces New CBD Regulation, Flowers and Raw Hemp Products Stay Illegal appeared first on ilesol.


#CBD #Hemp

France Announces New CBD Regulation, Flowers and Raw Hemp Products Stay Illegal


May 28, 2021 7:23 pm

Hot Products: May 2021

Hot Products: May 2021

SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION
Hot, new products that industry companies don’t want you to miss.

Supplements

Joint Support

Bluebonnet Nutrition has added Bluebonnet’s Targeted Choice Joint Strength Vegetable Capsules to its line of products. Designed to support a healthy inflammatory response from physical overexertion of the joints after intense exercise and reduce cellular damage and oxidative stress caused by free radicals, the product is made from non-GMO ingredients and is free of common allergens, like milk, soy, nuts, and gluten.

12915 Dairy Ashford, Sugar Land, TX, 77478, www.bluebonnetnutrition.com

 

 

Aged Garlic Extract + Omega

NEW! Kyolic Omeg-AGE from Wakunaga starts by combining the heart and immune benefits of Kyolic® Aged Garlic Extract™ with the cardiovascular-supporting properties of sustainably sourced Omega-3s.* Omeg-AGE then adds a synergistic blend of nutrients including vitamins D3, K2, E, and B6, 9, 12, that have been clinically shown to support heart, bone and immune health.* Contact your Wakunaga Rep to find out more, or place an order!

23501 Madero, Mission Viejo, CA 92691, probiotics.com/product/omeg-age

 

Anti-Inflammatory

Freedom Softgels®, by Health Thru Nutrition®, is an award-winning product containing high absorption Curcumin, wild caught Fish Oil, Gamma Linolenic Acid, a full-spectrum Vitamin E complex, Vitamin D, Hydroxytyrosol, and organic Astaxanthin, all clinically substantiated to combat inflammation!* A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, IRB approved, clinical trial concluded at Lindquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor UCLA Medical Center shows how Freedom Softgels® significantly impacted inflammatory markers and systolic blood pressure in study subjects.*

30 New York Ave., Westbury, NY 11590, www.htnnaturally.com

 

Kids’ Gut Health

Hello Health has introduced Belly Great, a supplement for kids intended to help balance the gut microbiome and promote brain health.* Belly Great combines vitamin D3, L-methylfolate, one prebiotic, and 15 probiotic strains. The supplement is vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, and does not contain wheat, yeast, milk, eggs, soy, peanut, tree nut, fish allergens, or shellfish.

11445 East Via Linda, Ste. 2-321, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, https://hello.health/

 

Kids’ Wellness

Hello Health has launched Mighty Might, a supplement for children intended to help with focus, natural detox cleansing, and immune health.* Made with omega-3 fish oil powder, phosphatidylserine, curcumin, boswellia, oregano leaf, and zinc, the product is non-GMO, gluten-free, and does not contain wheat, yeast, milk, eggs, soy, peanut, or tree nuts.

11445 East Via Linda, Ste. 2-321, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, https://hello.health/

 

CBD Oils

Healthy Path CBD is offering all-natural, Colorado-produced, broad- and full-spectrum CBD oils derived from the company’s proprietary hemp strain, containing an abundance of cannabinoids and terpenes that work synergistically to provide a superior, therapeutic, and powerful anti-inflammatory effect, in order to help with pain relief and support healthy sleep and a healthy stress response.* Available in 500, 1000, and 1500mg strengths. Carried by health practitioners, nationwide.

175 Strafford Ave., Ste. 1, #801, Wayne, PA, 19087, healthypathnaturals.com

 

 

HABA

Anti-Fungal

The Anti-Fungal Serum from Tea Tree Therapy combines Undecylenic Acid, a proven anti-fungal, with Tea Tree Oil and Eucalyptus radiata, which are proven antiseptics.* Aloe soothes the skin.* May help with nail fungus, Athlete’s Foot, and ringworm.

 6019 Olivas Park Drive, Suite E Ventura, CA 93003, teatreetherapy.com

 

Antiseptic Foot Spray

Antiseptic Foot Spray from Tea Tree Therapy can help relieve Athlete’s Foot with Tea Tree Oil, Lavender and Eucalyptus radiata, and can deodorize the feet while calming itching and burning. Use for feet or on sunburn, where it can cool and calm the skin. Shake well and spray. Antiseptic Foot Spray can used as an antiseptic wherever it may be needed especially for surfaces plus bathrooms.

6019 Olivas Park Drive, Suite E Ventura, CA 93003, teatreetherapy.com

 

Liquid Bath Salts

White Egret has introduced Liquid Bath Salts. The Bath Salts were created to provide a relaxing and nourishing experience that may help moisturize, tighten, firm, and protect skin, the company says. Available in an 8 ounce bottle for an MSRP of $13.41, the new product is made with salt from the Great Salt Lake.

P.O. Box 234, Roy, Utah 84067, https://wepersonalcare.com/

 

Grocery

Single Serve Nut Butter Packs

Once Again Nut Butter is now offering its organic sunflower hemp butter and maple almond butter in single-serve squeeze packs. The portioned products are packed with plant-based protein, super-nut nutrition, and free of preservatives. Made with organic hemp oil, the vegan, kosher product is made in a peanut-free facility, is certified gluten-free, and is part of the brand’s Honest in Trade program.

12 South State St., Nunda, NY, 14517, onceagainnutbutter.com

 

RTD Cold Brew Coffee + Adaptogens

Pivot Coldbrew has introduced a line of cold brew coffee made with arabica coffee and infused with alpinia galanga, citicoline, l-theanine, reishi and l-ergothioneine. Offered in five flavors, the line promotes increased focus, stamina and immunity, the company says. The line is vegan, Non-GMO Project Verified, and free of BPA, soy, and gluten.

7080 Hollywood Blvd., Los Angeles, CA, 90028 https://pivotcoldbrew.com/

 

Salmon Nuggets

Steve’s Family Foods has released its first market-product, Salmon Nuggets, in four varieties including Original, Spicy Buffalo, Lemon Butter and Smoked Maple. All products are coated in crunchy Panko, are Non-GMO Project Verified, made with wild-caught Alaskan Salmon, and offer 2000mg of Omegas per serving.

www.stevesfamilyfoods.com

 

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

The post Hot Products: May 2021 appeared first on WholeFoods Magazine.

#CBD #Hemp https://wholefoodsmagazine.com/hot-products/hot-products-may-2021/ May 28, 2021 2:27 pm

Polish company raises additional €1.2m from existing shareholders

Polish company raises additional €1.2m from existing shareholders
Polish company raises additional €1.2m from existing shareholders

Polish hemp company Kombinat Konopny said it has raised an additional 5 million Polish zlotys (€1.2m; $1.36m) following an initial crowdfunding effort late last year…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp

Polish company raises additional €1.2m from existing shareholders


May 28, 2021 12:20 pm

PubMed: Cannabis Yield, Potency, and Leaf Photosynthesis Respond Differently to Increasing Light Levels in an Indoor Environment

PubMed: Cannabis Yield, Potency, and Leaf Photosynthesis Respond Differently to Increasing Light Levels in an Indoor Environment

Front Plant Sci. 2021 May 11;12:646020. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.646020. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Since the recent legalization of medical and recreational use of cannabis (Cannabis sativa) in many regions worldwide, there has been high demand for research to improve yield and quality. With the paucity of scientific literature on the topic, this study investigated the relationships between light intensity (LI) and photosynthesis, inflorescence yield, and inflorescence quality of cannabis grown in an indoor environment. After growing vegetatively for 2 weeks under a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of ≈425 μmol·m-2·s-1 and an 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod, plants were grown for 12 weeks in a 12-h light/12-h dark “flowering” photoperiod under canopy-level PPFDs ranging from 120 to 1,800 μmol·m-2·s-1 provided by light emitting diodes. Leaf light response curves varied both with localized (i.e., leaf-level) PPFD and temporally, throughout the flowering cycle. Therefore, it was concluded that the leaf light response is not a reliable predictor of whole-plant responses to LI, particularly crop yield. This may be especially evident given that dry inflorescence yield increased linearly with increasing canopy-level PPFD up to 1,800 μmol·m-2·s-1, while leaf-level photosynthesis saturated well-below 1,800 μmol·m-2·s-1. The density of the apical inflorescence and harvest index also increased linearly with increasing LI, resulting in higher-quality marketable tissues and less superfluous tissue to dispose of. There were no LI treatment effects on cannabinoid potency, while there were minor LI treatment effects on terpene potency. Commercial cannabis growers can use these light response models to determine the optimum LI for their production environment to achieve the best economic return; balancing input costs with the commercial value of their cannabis products.

PMID:34046049 | PMC:PMC8144505 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.646020

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34046049/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210529065948&v=2.14.4 May 28, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: PPARγ receptors are involved in the effects of cannabidiol on orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction induced by typical antipsychotic in mice

PubMed: PPARγ receptors are involved in the effects of cannabidiol on orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction induced by typical antipsychotic in mice

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021 May 25:110367. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110367. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that appears after chronic use of drugs that block dopaminergic receptors such as antipsychotics. Besides the motor symptoms, patients with TD also present cognitive deficits. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms could be involved in the development of these symptoms. A previous study showed that cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound of Cannabis sativa plant, prevents orofacial dyskinesia induced by typical antipsychotics by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ). Here, we investigated if CBD would also reverse haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated cognitive deficits. We also verified if these effects depend on PPARγ receptor activation. Daily treatment with haloperidol (3 mg/kg, 21 days) increased the frequency of vacuous chewing movements (VCM) and decreased the discrimination index in the novel object recognition test in male Swiss mice. CBD (60 mg/kg/daily) administered in the last 7 days of haloperidol treatment attenuated both behavioral effects. Furthermore, haloperidol increased IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the striatum and hippocampus while CBD reverted these effects. The striatal and hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines correlated with VCM frequency and discrimination index, respectively. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (2 mg/kg/daily) blocked the behavioral effects of CBD. In conclusion, these results indicated that CBD could attenuate haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and improve non-motor symptoms associated with TD by activating PPARγ receptors.

PMID:34048863 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110367

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34048863/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210529065948&v=2.14.4 May 28, 2021 10:00 am

Missouri’s amended hemp plan eases up on harvest window, remediation

Missouri’s amended hemp plan eases up on harvest window, remediation
Missouri’s amended hemp plan eases up on harvest window, remediation

An amendment to Missouri’s state hemp plan has been approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), bringing the state in compliance with federal law…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp

Missouri’s amended hemp plan eases up on harvest window, remediation


May 28, 2021 9:10 am

Challenges with Process Scale Up in Cannabis/Hemp Extraction

Challenges with Process Scale Up in Cannabis/Hemp Extraction

What makes scaling up your process so difficult?

There are many factors that can lead to the challenges people face when scaling up their processes. These challenges are not unique to the cannabis/hemp industry, but they are exacerbated by the consequences generated from decades of Reefer Madness. In my time operating in the cannabis/hemp space, 15+ years, I have seen established equipment vendors and sellers of laboratory supplies, like Sigma-Aldrich (now Millipore-Sigma), Fisher-Scientific, Cerilliant, Agilent, and others, go from reporting individuals inquiring about certified reference materials to setting up entire divisions of their companies to service the needs of the industry. Progress. But we are still a fledgling marketplace facing many challenges. Let’s look at a few specific to process scale up.

Darwin Millard will deliver a presentation on this topic during the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference on June 29. Click here to learn more.Equipment Availability: Lack of available equipment at larger and larger process scales can severely impact project timelines. Making not only equipment acquisition difficult, but also limiting the number of reputable equipment manufacturers you can work with.

Non-Linear Expansion: NEVER assume your process scales linearly. Perhaps one of the most avoidable mistakes during process scale up. You will quickly find that for many processes you cannot just put in a larger unit and expect a proportional increase in output. This is because as process equipment increases so to must utilities and other supporting infrastructure, but not only that, process vessel geometry, proportions, and design are contributing factors to process efficiency as your scale of operations increases.

Hazardous Material Quantities: Just as important to the process as the equipment are the solvents and reagents used. As your scale of operations increases so does your demand and production of hazardous materials; solvents including carbon dioxide (CO2), ethanol, and liquid petroleum gases (LPG) like Butane and Propane are obvious hazards, but so too are the refrigerants used in the chillers, fuels used to power generators, steam created to heat critical systems, and effluents and wastewater discharged from the process and supporting systems. Not every municipality wants thousands of gallons of flammable substances and hazardous waste being generated in their backyard…

Contractor/Vendor Misrepresentation: Finding out in the middle of you project that your contractor or equipment vendor has never set up a system at this scale before is never a good feeling. Unfortunately, contractor and vendor misrepresentation of qualifications is a common occurrence in the cannabis/hemp space.

If all this was not bad enough, all too often the consequences of improper planning and execution are not felt until your project is delayed or jeopardized due to misallocation of funds or undercapitalization. This is especially true when scaling up your production capacity. Now let’s look at some ways to avoid these mistakes.

The Rule of 10

Construction drawings for a piece of process equipment.

When scaling up your process, NEVER assume that a simple linear expansion of your process train will be sufficient. It is often the case that process scale up is non-linear. Using the Rule of 10 is one way of scaling up your process through a stepwise iterative approach. The Rule of 10 is best explained through an example: Say you are performing a bench-top extraction of a few grams and want to scale that up to a few thousand kilograms. Before jumping all the way to your final process scale, start by taking a smaller jump and only increase your bench-top process by a factor of 10 at a time. So, if you were happy and confident with your results at the tens of grams scale, perform the same process at the hundreds of grams scale, then the thousands of grams scale, tens of kilograms scale, and so forth until you have validated your process at the scale of operations you want to achieve. By using the Rule of 10 you can be assured that your process will achieve the same yields/results at larger and larger scales of operation.

Scaling up your process through an iterative approach allows you to identify process issues that otherwise would not have been identified. These can include (but by no means should be considered an exhaustive list) improper heat transfer as process vessels increase in size, the inability to maintain process parameters due to inadequately sized utilities and/or supporting infrastructure, and lower yields than expected even though previous iterations were successful. However, this type of approach can be expensive, especially when considering custom process equipment, and not every processor in the cannabis/hemp space is going to be in the position to use tools like the Rule of 10 and instead must rely on claims made by the equipment vendor or manufacture when scaling up their process.

The Cannabis/Hemp Specific Process Equipment Trap

How many times have you heard this one before: “We have a piece of process equipment tailor-made to perform X,Y,Z task.”? If you have been around as long as I have in the cannabis/hemp space, probably quite a few times. A huge red flag when considering equipment for your expansion project!

Unless the equipment manufacturer is directly working with cannabis/hemp raw materials, or with partners who process these items, during product development, there is no way they could have verified the equipment will work for its purported use.

GMP compliant phytocannabinoid processing facility underconstruction.

A good example of this are ethanol evaporation systems. Most manufacturers of evaporators do not work with the volumes of ethanol they claim their systems can recover. So how did they come up with the evaporation rate? Short answer – Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Mechanics. They modeled it. This much surface area, plus this much heat/energy, with this much pressure (or lack thereof), using this type of fluid, moving through this type of material, at this rate of speed, gets you a 1000-gal/hr evaporator or some other theoretical value. But what is the real rate once an ethanol and cannabis/hemp solution is running through the system?

For a straight ethanol system, the theoretical models and experimental models are pretty similar – namely because humans like alcohol – extensive real-world data for ethanol systems exist for reference in designing ethanol evaporators (more accurately described as distillation systems, i.e. stills). The same cannot be said for ethanol and cannabis/hemp extract systems. While it is true that many botanical and ethanol systems have been modeled, both theoretically and experimentally, due to prohibition, data for cannabis/hemp and ethanol systems are lacking and the data that do exist are primarily limited to bench-top and laboratory scale scenarios.

So, will that 1000-gal/hr evaporator hit 1000-gal/hr once it is running under load? That’s the real question and why utilizing equipment with established performance qualifications is critical to a successful process scale up when having to rely on the claims of a vendor or equipment manufacturer. Except this is yet another “catch 22”, since the installation, operational, and performance qualification process is an expensive endeavor only a few equipment manufacturers servicing the cannabis/hemp market have done. I am not saying there aren’t any reputable equipment vendors out there; there are, but always ask for data validating their claims and perform a vendor qualification before you drop seven figures on a piece of process equipment on the word of a salesperson.

Important Takeaways

Improper design and insufficient data regarding process efficiencies on larger and larger scales of manufacturing can lead to costly mistakes which can prevent projects from ever getting off the ground.

Each aspect of the manufacturing process must be considered individually when scaling your process train because each element will contribute to the system’s output, either in a limiting or expansive capacity.

I go further into this topic in my presentation: Challenges with Process Scale Up in the Cannabis/Hemp Industry, later this month during Cannabis Industry Journal’s Extraction Virtual Conference on June 29th, 2021. Here I will provide real-world examples of the consequences of improper process scale up and the significance of equipment specifications, certifications, and inspections, and the importance of vendor qualifications and the true cost of improper design specifications. I hope to see you all there.

Until then. Live long and process.

The post Challenges with Process Scale Up in Cannabis/Hemp Extraction appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

Challenges with Process Scale Up in Cannabis/Hemp Extraction


May 27, 2021 4:24 pm

Did Colorado Just Ban CBD?

In the announcement of their ban on Delta-8 THC, MED said: ““chemically modifying or converting any naturally occurring cannabinoids from industrial hemp is non-compliant with the statutory definition of ‘industrial hemp product’” in state laws.”

Decarboxylation of CBDa to CBD fits that definition, as does the current practice of converting CBDa to CBN. Plus the ~6 pounds of THCa in every acre of hemp, when it gets removed or decarboxylated.

Banning any Cannabinoid is a slippery slope to banning the other 150. Prohibition never works.

But just as a “hammer sees only nails,” bureaucrats ban. That’s all they know.

Read more: https://hemptoday-net.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/hemptoday.net/ban-on-delta-8-thc-spreads-as-colorado-warns-dispensaries/amp/

What’s Selling June 2021

What’s Selling June 2021

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Midwest:

Good Life Nutrition Company, Marion, IL (1,000 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: Garden of Life, MyKind Elderberry Syrup;
Solaray Leaf Therapeutics, CBD Spray and Capsules;
NOW Foods, Vitamin D3 5000 IU

FOOD: Ancient Nutrition, Multi Collagen Protein;
Endangered Species Chocolate, Chocolate Bars

HABA: Andalou Naturals, CannaCell Happy Day Cream

BEVERAGES: Reed’s, Zero Sugar Ginger Beer Extra

UP & COMING: Terry Naturally, Red Ginseng Male Sexual Enhancement;
The Ultra Human, Amino Code EAA + BCAA

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Northeast:

Sonnewald Natural Foods, Spring Grove, PA (10,000 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: Great Lakes, Collagen;
Zinc Products, All Brands;
Curcumin Products, All Brands

FOOD: Late July Snacks, Chips;
Oceans Halo, Full Line;
Reed’s, Ginger Chews

HABA: Fuchs, Toothbrush;
Nubian Heritage, Bar Soap;
Weleda, Body Wash

BEVERAGES: Penta, Water;
Live Soda, Rootbeer;
Kevita, Ginger Kombucha

UP & COMING: Good Catch Foods, Crab Cakes;
Nightingale Ice Cream, Ice Cream Sandwiches

 

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Southeast:

I AM Wonderful, Douglasville, GA (1,000 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: I AM Wonderful, 1 oz. Hemp Oil with Turmeric (Private Label);
I AM Wonderful, 4 oz. Hemp oil (Private Label);
Hemp Bombs, CBD Gummies

FOOD: Pumpkin Seeds, All Brands;
Hibiscus Tea, All Brands;
Local Honey

HABA: Charlotte’s Web, Hemp Ointment;
Nature’s Plus, Natural Beauty Bar;
Thayer’s, Witch Hazel

BEVERAGES: Fentimans, Curiosity Cola;
Fentimans, Rose Lemonade;
Alkaline Water, All Brands

UP & COMING: Terry Naturally, Healthy Feet and Nerves;
Terry Naturally, CuraMed;
Bluebonnet Nutrition, CholesteRice

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Northwest:

Bonanza Health Foods, Billings, MT (1,300 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: Jarrow Formulas, Bone-Up;
Doctor’s Best, L-Theanine;
Natrol, Melatonin 5mg Chewable

FOOD: Lily’s, Milk Chocolate Covered Almonds;
Bubbies, Dill Pickles;
Rip Van Wafels, Cookies and Cream Stroopwafels

HABA: Hippie Jacks Hemp Co., CBD Extreme Cream;
Derma E, Vitamin C Line;
Nature’s Rite, Bruise-Strain-Tear Repair

BEVERAGES: George’s, Aloe Vera;
Hint, Water (All Flavors);
Koe, Kombucha Teas

UP & COMING: Solaray, Sharp-Mind;
Terry Naturally, Omega 7;
Irwin Naturals, Mushroom-8

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Southwest:

Silver City Food Co-op, Silver City, NM (2,000 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: Solaray, Vitamin C 100 mg Timed-Release;
Solaray, Magnesium Citrate;
Nutrition Now, PB-8 Probiotic Vegetarian

FOOD: Garden of Eatin’, Blue Tortilla Chips;
Boulder Canyon, Sea Salt Avocado Kettle Chips;
Field Day, Black Beans 15 oz.

HABA: My Skin Feast, Assorted Bar Soaps;
Dr. Bronner’s, Lavender Bar Soap;
Oramed, Flossing Toothbrush

BEVERAGES: C2O, Coconut Water 17.5 oz.;
C2O, Coconut Water Ginger/Lime 17.5 oz.;
Icelandic Water, 1.5 Liter

UP & COMING: Trace Minerals, Research Zero-Sugar Orange Power Paks;
Epic, Salmon Fillet 0.8 oz.;
Hummingbird, Bulk Olive Oil

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West:

Star Store, Langley, WA (9,100 ft²)

SUPPLEMENTS: Natural Calm Vitality, Stress Relief & Magnesium;
Ultima, Electrolyte Drinks;
Natural Factors, Ultimate Probiotic 12/12

FOOD: Bob’s Red Mill, Organic Flours;
Pacific Foods, Aseptic Soups + Broths;
Foragers, Large Sized Yogurts

HABA: Intelligent Elixirs, Skin Care Line;
Bodyceuticals, Calendula Oil;
Shepherd Moon, Essential Oils and Salts

BEVERAGES: La Croix, Multipack;
GT’s, Kombucha;
Mountain Valley, Bottled Water

UP & COMING: Dr. Mercola, H2 Molecules Hydrogen;
Briotech, Topical Skin Spray

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If your store is interested in being featured in What’s Selling, e-mail: [email protected]
or go online now: http://bit.ly/2ha9BXK

The post What’s Selling June 2021 appeared first on WholeFoods Magazine.

#CBD #Hemp https://wholefoodsmagazine.com/columns/whats-selling/whats-selling-june-2021/ May 27, 2021 4:00 pm

Eteros Technologies Launches the New Mobius M9 Sorter in Las Vegas

Eteros Technologies Launches the New Mobius M9 Sorter in Las Vegas

What happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas.

This won’t be the case, however, for the new Mobius M9 Sorter, which was displayed at Eteros Technologies’ “Demo in the Desert” exhibition on May 13 in Las Vegas.

In fact, this innovative cannabis processing equipment will make cultivator’s jobs a whole lot easier, and will not just be limited to those who reside in Nevada.  

“We hope our ‘Demo in the Desert’ event showed what is possible for the industry going forward,” said Eteros Founder and CEO Aaron McKellar. “There are solutions out there for our growers to be even better, faster, and more efficient than ever before.”

Eteros Technology, which is the parent company of Mobius, plans to hire a dozen full-time employees for its Las Vegas facility, and more job opportunities will arise with future plans to branch out.

“The M9 Sorter is assembled right here in Las Vegas for our U.S. customers,” said Dana Mosman, director of marketing and sales for Eteros. “This automated technology is essential for the hemp and cannabis industry in a burgeoning and competitive marketplace.”

The Mobius M9 Sorter will be a game-changer for cannabis and hemp cultivators and process, as its many functions allow for the machine to handle more product in less time while increasing accuracy in sizing.

M9’s features include:

  • An industry-leading 9 sorting belts
  • An industry-leading 78” sorting zone for high-speed and precise sizing of product
  • A longer sorting table that leads to more accurate results
  • Every grading slot is longer, creating more opportunity for an accurate sort, and each grading partition is fully adjustable
  • All stainless steel construction
  • Sanitary construction for GMP workflows
  • Adjustable infeed hopper: tool-free adjustment and removal for feeding or conveyor infeed
  • Reversible table for operation in either left or right outfeed configuration
  • Easy access for cleaning with safety interlocked end panels and rear door
  • 7” HMI color controller
  • Accurately grades up to 200KG/HR
  • Quick and tool-free removal of all belts and rollers for easy and safe cleaning.

You know the cannabis industry must be booming when products like the M9 Sorter are created with cultivators in mind.

With more growers able to efficiently produce more and more cannabis and hemp to meet consumer demand, this means a more sustainable, healthy future.

For being a so-called desert, Nevada is starting to look pretty green.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/eteros-technologies-launches-the-new-mobius-m9-sorter-in-las-vegas/
May 27, 2021 11:01 am

PubMed: Self-administration of inhaled delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids in non-human primates

PubMed: Self-administration of inhaled delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids in non-human primates

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Apr;29(2):137-146. doi: 10.1037/pha0000457.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids are abused in spite of possible adverse health consequences. The current study investigated the reinforcing effects of an ecologically relevant mode of administration (inhalation) of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, and three synthetic cannabinoids detected in synthetic cannabinoid products (JWH-018, JWH-073, and HU-210) in non-human primates (NHPs). Male and female (N = 4 each) rhesus macaques were trained to inhale warm air via a metal stem to receive a candy reinforcer, an alcohol aerosol vehicle was then paired with the candy. Dose-dependent responding for inhaled aerosols of THC (2.0-16.0 μg/kg/inhalation), JWH-018 (0.2-1.6 μg/kg/inhalation), JWH-073 (2.0-8.0 μg/kg/inhalation), and HU-210 (1.0-8.0 μg/kg/inhalation) was established using a fixed-ratio five schedule of reinforcement and compared to vehicle (alcohol) self-administration. Dose-dependent responding for inhaled heroin (25.0-100.0 μg/kg/inhalation), a known reinforcer in NHPs, was also established. Responding approximated vehicle levels for many drug doses tested, but at least half of the monkeys responded for ≥ one dose of each cannabinoid and heroin above vehicle, with the exception of THC. Drug deliveries calculated as percent vehicle followed a prototypical inverted-U shaped dose-response curve for cannabinoids and heroin except for THC and JWH-018 (in males). Grouped data according to sex demonstrated that peak percent of vehicle reinforcers earned for THC was greater in males than females, whereas peak percent of vehicle reinforcers earned for JWH-018, HU-210, and heroin were greater in females than males. These findings indicate minimal reinforcing effects of CB1 receptor agonists when self-administered by NHPs via aerosol inhalation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID:34043398 | DOI:10.1037/pha0000457

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34043398/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210528070156&v=2.14.4 May 27, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis Use in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Symptomatology: Results From a Mexican Epidemiological Sample

PubMed: Cannabis Use in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Symptomatology: Results From a Mexican Epidemiological Sample

Front Psychiatry. 2021 May 10;12:664228. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.664228. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Recent studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system could play an important role in the physiopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There are reports of effective treatment with derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The study of the genetic factor associated with psychiatric disorders has made possible an exploration of its contribution to the pharmacological response. However, very little is known about the genetic factor or the prevalence of cannabis use in the Mexican population with OCD. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of use and dependence on cannabis in individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptomatology (OCS) with that of individuals with other psychiatric symptoms (psychosis, depression, and anxiety), and to explore the association between genetic risk and use. The study includes a total of 13,130 individuals evaluated in the second stage of the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use (Encodat 2016), with genetic analysis (polygenic risk scoring) of a subsample of 3,521 individuals. Obsessive symptomatology had a prevalence of 7.2% and compulsive symptomatology a prevalence of 8.6%. The proportion of individuals with OCS who had ever used cannabis was 23.4%, and of those with cannabis dependency was 2.7%, the latter figure higher than that in individuals with other psychiatric symptoms (hypomania, 2.6%; anxiety, 2.8%; depression, 2.3%), except psychosis (5.9%). Individuals with OCS who reported using cannabis had an increased genetic risk for cannabis dependence but not for OCD. We thus cannot know how the increased genetic risk of cannabis dependence in people with OCD is influenced by their pharmacological response to derivatives of THC. The results, however, suggest paths for future studies.

PMID:34040556 | PMC:PMC8141625 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.664228

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34040556/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210528070156&v=2.14.4 May 27, 2021 10:00 am

Düsseldorf reverses ban on CBD after court backs Hempro International

Düsseldorf reverses ban on CBD after court backs Hempro International
Düsseldorf reverses ban on CBD after court backs Hempro International

A Düsseldorf court has ruled in favor of German hemp company Hempro International GmbH (Hempro Int.), striking down a citywide ban on the marketing and…

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#CBD #Hemp

Düsseldorf reverses ban on CBD after court backs Hempro International


May 27, 2021 8:55 am

Denmark permanently authorizes production, export of medical cannabis

Denmark permanently authorizes production, export of medical cannabis
Denmark permanently authorizes production, export of medical cannabis

The Danish government has permanently authorized licensed companies to produce and export medical cannabis independent of an existing pilot program. “This is an important milestone…

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#CBD #Hemp

Denmark permanently authorizes production, export of medical cannabis


May 27, 2021 8:00 am

PubMed: Cannabinoids from inflorescences fractions of <em>Trema orientalis</em> (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae) against human pathogenic bacteria

PubMed: Cannabinoids from inflorescences fractions of <em>Trema orientalis</em> (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae) against human pathogenic bacteria

PeerJ. 2021 May 13;9:e11446. doi: 10.7717/peerj.11446. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN), might show antibacterial activity. Trema orientalis is a species in the Cannabaceae that is closely related to Cannabis through plastome phylogenetic evidence. This species is widely distributed throughout tropical Asia and is used as traditional medicine, particularly for the treatment of infectious diseases. However, no studies on the antibacterial activity of cannabinoid-containing inflorescences extracts are available. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine cannabinoid content and antibacterial activity of inflorescences fractions from T. orientalis native to Thailand.

METHODS: We hypothesized that inflorescences from T. orientalis might display cannabinoids similar to Cannabis because of their close taxonomic relationship. We extracted the mature inflorescences and infructescence of T. orientalis in three disparate populations from different Thailand floristic regions. Extractions were subsequently partitioned into hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions using distilled water and chloroform. The lipophilic extracts were further fractionated by the column chromatography with gradient elution and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Characterized cannabinoids were used in bioassays with multidrug-resistance bacteria.

RESULTS: Lipophilic extracts and fractions of inflorescences from all Thailand floristic regions consistently displayed cannabinoids (THC, CBD and CBN) in various quantities. These extracts exhibited inhibitory activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values varying from 31.25 to 125 µg/mL.

CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to report cannabinoid detection in extracts from inflorescences of T. orientalis, a species in the Cannabaceae. These extracts and their fractions containing cannabinoids showed pronounced antibacterial activity. The use of analytic methods also demonstrated reproducible cannabinoid extraction.

PMID:34035994 | PMC:PMC8126263 | DOI:10.7717/peerj.11446

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34035994/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210527070202&v=2.14.4 May 26, 2021 10:00 am

Plant-based Food Industry Wins; Lessons for CBD Companies

500,000 consumers helped the plant-based food industry push back on the EU’s ban on use of terms such as soy “milk” and vegan “meat.”

This is a lesson to the hemp industry, which missed a brilliant opportunity to push back on the ludicrous Novel Food registration requirement for CBD, which has been in food longer than members have even been states.

Instead of immediately caving it should have used lobbying and litigation, plus a consumer action PR program. Eventually likely to win an exemption, every adult would know about CBD and half would want to buy it. The industry’s political power would have been massively increased.

“We decide something, then put it in the room and wait for a while to see what happens. If there is no big shouting and no riots because most people do not understand what has been decided, then we go on – step by step – until there is no going back.” Jean Claude Juncker, former E.U. President in Der Spiegel, December 27, 1999.”

From Brad Vanstone, founder of vegan cheese company Willicroft:

“Some pretty awesome news came in last night as many of you will have seen. After a year of deliberation, the EU decided to put an end to Amendment 171.

Last night I had the chance to reflect on the success of this campaign as well as the next steps from here. This decision cannot be a one off and we need to ensure the EU continues to place the health of our planet at the centre of it’s policy and decision making:

Lessons:
1) You can’t ignore 500,000 consumers – democracy is alive and well
2) The plant-based sector now has a voice
3) Company and consumer action is a match made in heaven

Where do we go from here:
1) Green New Deal – rather than wasting time on legislation that limits the growth of sectors supporting climate goals (AM171), we need to start rolling out this policy
2) Breaking down the CAP – 35% of the EU’s budget could be better spent protecting our planets future not inhibiting it
3) True costs accounting – it’s time we started paying the true cost for everything we consume – there is no silver bullet solution to fixing global warming but a carbon tax would dramatically change things
4) All eyes on Glasgow – it’s crucial that we put pressure on our politicians and corporations to double down on climate commitments at this Novembers global conference in Glasgow.”

Read more on the issue at: https://vegconomist-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/vegconomist.com/politics/breaking-dairy-lobbys-amendment-171-is-rejected-by-the-eu-parliament/amp/

Canadian company raises $7 million, will develop fiber factory in Europe

Canadian company raises $7 million, will develop fiber factory in Europe
Canadian company raises $7 million, will develop fiber factory in Europe

Canadian natural fiber specialist Bast Fibre Technologies Inc. (BFTi) said it will use some of the $7 million it recently raised to develop a European…

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#CBD #Hemp

Canadian company raises $7 million, will develop fiber factory in Europe


May 26, 2021 4:13 am

Massachusetts amendment pushes for CBD in food, sale of hemp flowers

Massachusetts amendment pushes for CBD in food, sale of hemp flowers
Massachusetts amendment pushes for CBD in food, sale of hemp flowers

A proposed amendment in Massachusetts would allow for the addition of hemp-derived CBD ingredients to food, dietary supplements and animal feed, and permit the sale…

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#CBD #Hemp

Massachusetts amendment pushes for CBD in food, sale of hemp flowers


May 26, 2021 3:00 am

PubMed: The electrophysiological effects of cannabidiol on action potentials and transmembrane potassium currents in rabbit and dog cardiac ventricular preparations

PubMed: The electrophysiological effects of cannabidiol on action potentials and transmembrane potassium currents in rabbit and dog cardiac ventricular preparations

Arch Toxicol. 2021 May 24. doi: 10.1007/s00204-021-03086-0. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis use is associated with known cardiovascular side effects such as cardiac arrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms behind these adverse effects are unknown. The aim of the present work was to study the cellular cardiac electrophysiological effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on action potentials and several transmembrane potassium currents, such as the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier, the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents in rabbit and dog cardiac preparations. CBD increased action potential duration (APD) significantly in both rabbit (from 211.7 ± 11.2. to 224.6 ± 11.4 ms, n = 8) and dog (from 215.2 ± 9.0 to 231.7 ± 4.7 ms, n = 6) ventricular papillary muscle at 5 µM concentration. CBD decreased IKr, IKs and Ito (only in dog) significantly with corresponding estimated EC50 values of 4.9, 3.1 and 5 µM, respectively, without changing IK1. Although the EC50 value of CBD was found to be higher than literary Cmax values after CBD smoking and oral intake, our results raise the possibility that potassium channel inhibition by lengthening cardiac repolarization might have a role in the possible proarrhythmic side effects of cannabinoids in situations where CBD metabolism and/or the repolarization reserve is impaired.

PMID:34031697 | DOI:10.1007/s00204-021-03086-0

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34031697/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210526070113&v=2.14.4 May 25, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: First Report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' Related Strain Associated with Yellowing and Witches'-Broom of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa) in Arizona

PubMed: First Report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' Related Strain Associated with Yellowing and Witches'-Broom of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa) in Arizona

Plant Dis. 2021 May 25. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0847-PDN. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In Arizona, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a newly cultivated crop for fiber, oil, cosmetic products, and health food. During July to September 2020, two fields of industrial hemp crops were identified in southern Arizona with 10 to 30% incidence of plants showing witches’ broom. Disease incidence was assessed by counting symptomatic plants in 4 randomly selected rows of 25 plants in each field. Symptoms ranged from leaf mottling and yellowing on mildly affected plants to leaf curling and shortened internode length of stem on severely affected plants (Fig. 1). Shoots were randomly collected from eight symptomatic plants and three asymptomatic plants in the same area. Genomic DNA was extracted from 200 mg of each sample using DNeasy Plant Pro Kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Phytoplasma was tested by a real-time PCR assay and TaqMan probe targeting the 23S ribosomal RNA gene that detects a wide range of known Phytoplasmas (Hodgetts et al., 2009). Beet curly top virus (BCTV) was targeted using BCTV-specific primers BCTV1 and BCTV2 following a method by Rondon (Rondon et al., 2016). BCTV was not detected in the plants, but Phytoplasmas were detected in all eight symptomatic plants, but not in the three control plants. The positive DNA samples were used to identify the phytoplasma by nested PCR using universal phytoplasma-specific primer pairs P1/P6 (Deng, S. et al. 1991) and R16F2n/R16R2 (Gundersen et al., 1996) targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the resulting 1.25 kb fragment in 4 positive samples was subjected to Sanger sequencing (Eton Bioscience, San Diego). All 4 sequences were identical and deposited in GenBank under accession MW981356. BLASTn results indicated 100% identity with that of several ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ strains on potato (KR072666, KF178706) in Washington and chile peppers (HQ436488) in New Mexico. It also shared 99.84% identity with the sequence of the reference strain of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ (AY390261) that caused clover proliferation. The phytoplasma AZH1 was classified as a member of subgroup A within group16SrVI using iPhyClassifier, an interactive online tool for phytoplasma classification and taxonomic assignment (Zhao et al., 2013). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the phytoplasma AZH1 clustered with other isolates of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ (Fig. 2), including the strain NV1 associated with witches’ broom on C. sativa in Nevada (Feng et al. 2019). This is the first report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ related strain associated with yellowing and witches’ broom on hemp in Arizona. This finding is significant as the observation of symptoms at 30% incidence in one field suggested that the identified pathogen may pose a significant threat to the production of industrial hemp production in Arizona.

PMID:34032489 | DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0847-PDN

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34032489/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210526070113&v=2.14.4 May 25, 2021 10:00 am

PubMed: New perspective for the in-field analysis of cannabis samples using handheld near-infrared spectroscopy: A case study focusing on the determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol

PubMed: New perspective for the in-field analysis of cannabis samples using handheld near-infrared spectroscopy: A case study focusing on the determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021 May 19;202:114150. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114150. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of applying near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis products using handheld devices. A preliminary study was conducted on different physical forms (entire, ground and sieved) of cannabis inflorescences in order to evaluate the impact of sample homogeneity on THC content predictions. Since entire cannabis inflorescences represent the most common types of samples found in both the pharmaceutical and illicit markets, they have been considered priority analytical targets. Two handheld NIR spectrophotometers (a low-cost device and a mid-cost device) were used to perform the analyses and their predictive performance was compared. Six partial least square (PLS) models based on reference data obtained by UHPLC-UV were built. The importance of the technical features of the spectrophotometer for quantitative applications was highlighted. The mid-cost system outperformed the low-cost system in terms of predictive performance, especially when analyzing entire cannabis inflorescences. In contrast, for the more homogeneous forms, the results were comparable. The mid-cost system was selected as the best-suited spectrophotometer for this application. The number of cannabis inflorescence samples was augmented with new real samples, and a chemometric model based on machine learning ensemble algorithms was developed to predict the concentration of THC in those samples. Good predictive performance was obtained with a root mean squared error of prediction of 1.75 % (w/w). The Bland-Altman method was then used to compare the NIR predictions to the quantitative results obtained by UHPLC-UV and to evaluate the degree of accordance between the two analytical techniques. Each result fell within the established limits of agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of this chemometric model for analytical purposes. Finally, resin samples were investigated by both NIR devices. Two PLS models were built by using a sample set of 45 samples. When the analytical performances were compared, the mid-cost spectrophotometer significantly outperformed the low-cost device for prediction accuracy and reproducibility.

PMID:34034047 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114150

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34034047/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210526070113&v=2.14.4 May 25, 2021 10:00 am

Italian ‘cannabis light’ producers strike back at drug ‘manifesto’

Italian ‘cannabis light’ producers strike back at drug ‘manifesto’
Italian ‘cannabis light’ producers strike back at drug ‘manifesto’

A group of companies in Italy’s smokable hemp sector struck back against conservative political forces after the publication of a “manifesto against drugs” that would…

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#CBD #Hemp

Italian ‘cannabis light’ producers strike back at drug ‘manifesto’


May 25, 2021 5:12 am