A new Minnesota law that took effect last week is intended to prohibit the sale of products containing high amounts of delta-8 THC but also…
July 6, 2022 9:08 am
A new Minnesota law that took effect last week is intended to prohibit the sale of products containing high amounts of delta-8 THC but also…
July 6, 2022 9:08 am
Private CBD maker British Cannabis has jumped on top in the UK’s CBD sweepstakes as the Food Standards Agency (FSA) again doubled the total number…
July 5, 2022 10:36 am
PubMed: Congenital anomaly epidemiological correlates of Δ8THC across USA 2003-16: panel regression and causal inferential study
Environ Epigenet. 2022 May 17;8(1):dvac012. doi: 10.1093/eep/dvac012. eCollection 2022.
Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8THC) is marketed in many US states as ‘legal weed’. Concerns exist relating to class-wide genotoxic cannabinoid effects. We conducted an epidemiological investigation of Δ8THC-related genotoxicity expressed as 57 congenital anomaly (CA) rates (CARs) in the USA. CARs were taken from the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Drug exposure data were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, with a response rate of 74.1%. Ethnicity and income data were taken from the US Census Bureau. National cannabinoid exposure was taken from Drug Enforcement Agency publications and multiplied by state cannabis use data to derive state-based estimates of Δ8THC exposure. At bivariate continuous analysis, Δ8THC was associated with 23 CAs on raw CA rates, 33 CARs after correction for early termination for anomaly estimates and 41 on a categorical analysis comparing the highest and lowest exposure quintiles. At inverse probability weighted multivariable additive and interactive models lagged to 0, 2 and 4 years, Δ8THC was linked with 39, 8, 4 and 9 CAs. Chromosomal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, limb, central nervous system (CNS) and face systems were particularly affected. The minimum E-values ranged to infinity. Both the number of anomalies implicated and the effect sizes demonstrated were much greater for Δ8THC than for tobacco and alcohol combined. Δ8THC appears epidemiologically to be more strongly associated with many CAs than for tobacco and alcohol and is consistent with a cannabinoid class genotoxic/epigenotoxic effect. Quantitative causality criteria were fulfilled, and causal relationships either for Δ8THC or for cannabinoid/s, for which it is a surrogate marker, may be in operation.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35782486/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220706065846&v=2.17.6 July 5, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Association of Tetrahydrocannabinol Content and Price in Herbal Cannabis Products Offered by Dispensaries in California: A Purview of Consumers/Patients
Front Public Health. 2022 Jun 17;10:893009. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.893009. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The U.S. legal cannabis market is saturated with products containing high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), with no distinction between medical and recreational programs. This omnipresence of potent cannabis products seems to be driven by the recreational realm, where cannabis with the highest THC content is prized. This prevalence of highly potent cannabis is conveyed to medical programs, which places consumers (patients) at higher risk for over consumption and cannabis use disorder. Thus, understanding what factors influence the market that patients face in medical cannabis programs could shed light on the risks of legal cannabis. The supply and demand dynamic of the US for-profit cannabis market could explain the current market composition; therefore, we postulate that a financial gain could influence the perpetuation of the prevalence of high THC products in legal cannabis dispensaries. We investigate whether THC content in popular cannabis products correlates with higher prices and assess whether some attributes (type of product, chemovars, or presence of cannabidiol (CBD) affect the association of THC with price.
METHODS: We focus on the world’s largest cannabis market, California. We randomly selected dispensaries across the state, screened for a web presence and product menu, determined the most prevalent product type, and collected THC and CBD concentration, price, and other product attributes.
RESULTS: We observed that herbal products were more common, they had THC concentrations greater than 10%, and THC concentrations positively correlated with price. This correlation existed in flower and preroll presentations, all chemovar, and independently of the level of CBD. CBD did not correlate with price; however, the presence of CBD diminished the THC and price correlation particularly in products with high THC (>15%).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, highly potent herbal cannabis products (>15% THC) are the majority of products offered and more expensive regardless of product type or chemovar in California dispensaries, suggesting that a financial gain contributes to the current market composition. Efforts to limit the availability of highly potent THC products and educate consumers about potential harms are needed.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35784239/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220706065846&v=2.17.6 July 5, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Comparator-Controlled Parallel Study Investigating the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabinol in a Novel Delivery System, Solutech, in Association with Cannabis Use History
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Jul 5. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0176. Online ahead of print.
Background: An oral route of administration for tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) eliminates the harmful effects of smoking and has potential for efficacious cannabis delivery for therapeutic and recreational applications. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of CBD, Δ9-THC, 11-OH-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC (THC-COOH) in a novel oral delivery system, Solutech™, compared to medium-chain triglyceride-diluted cannabis oil (MCT-oil) in a healthy population. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two participants were randomized and divided into two study arms employing a comparator-controlled, parallel-study design. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Δ9-THC, CBD, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH, blood was collected at pre-dose (t=0) and 10, 20, 30, and 45, min and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h post-dose after a single dose of Solutech (10.0 mg Δ9-THC, 9.76 mg CBD) or MCT (10.0 mg Δ9-THC, 9.92 mg CBD). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Relationships between cannabis use history, body mass index, sex, and pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. Safety was assessed before and at 48 h post-acute dose. Results: Acute consumption of Solutech provided a significantly greater maximum concentration (Cmax), larger elimination and absorption rate constants, faster time to Cmax and lag time, and half-life for all analytes compared to MCT-oil (p<0.001). In addition, cannabis use history had a significant influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters of CBD, Δ9-THC, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH. On average, participants with later age of first use had higher Δ9-THC, CBD, and THC-COOH Cmax and later time-to-Cmax and half-life for Δ9-THC, CBD, THC-COOH, and 11-OH-THC than those with earlier age of first use (p≤0.032). Those with more years of recreational cannabis use had higher area under the curve for Δ9-THC and CBD, Cmax for CBD, and longer 11-OH-THC half-life than those with less (p≤0.048). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that consumption of Solutech enhanced most pharmacokinetics parameters measured compared to MCT-oil. Participant’s cannabis use history, including their age of first use and number of years using cannabis significantly impacted pharmacokinetic parameters investigated. Acute consumption of both products was found to be safe and well tolerated. The results suggest that Solutech may optimize bioavailability from cannabis formulations.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35787693/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220706065846&v=2.17.6 July 5, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Relative response factors and multiple regression models in liquid chromatography to quantify low-dosed components using alternative standards-proof of concept: total Δ9-THC content in cannabis flowers using CBD as reference
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2022 Jul 4. doi: 10.1007/s00216-022-04208-y. Online ahead of print.
A classical quantitative analysis in liquid chromatography is performed using either a one-point calibration or a calibration line, prepared using a reference standard of the compound(s) of interest. However, in some cases, adequate reference standards may be very expensive, rare to obtain, or have limited shelf-life properties. Also, in herbal matrices, multiple compounds could be necessary to be quantified, needing a whole series of different (related) reference standards. In these cases, the use of relative response (sometimes called relative correction factors) factors (RRFs) towards reference standards, different of the compound to be quantified, gained attraction. This study performed a comparison of the use of RRFs and linear relative response factor models (LRRFM) for the quantification of targeted low-dosed compounds using an alternative standard, since it is known that classical RRFs often fail in lower concentration ranges. For this purpose, the determination of the total Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC + Δ9-THC-A) content in dried cannabis flowers, using UHPLC-DAD, was used as a case study. A chromatographic method was implemented and validated, and the use of classical calibration lines, classical RRF, and the LRRFM was applied and compared, with special focus on the concentration around 0.2% (w/w) total Δ9-THC, the legal limit (in most European countries) in these products. Results showed that the newly presented and validated LRRFM approach outperformed the classical RRFs, especially in the low-concentration ranges and that concentrations obtained with the LRRFM were in accordance with the interpolation results obtained with a calibration line.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35788421/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220706065846&v=2.17.6 July 5, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Impact of converging sociocultural and substance-related trends on US autism rates: combined geospatiotemporal and causal inferential analysis
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2022 Jul 2. doi: 10.1007/s00406-022-01446-0. Online ahead of print.
Whilst cannabis is known to be toxic to brain development, it is unknown if it is driving rising US autism rates (ASMR). A longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted using national autism census data from the US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 1991-2011 and nationally representative drug exposure (cigarettes, alcohol, analgesic, and cocaine abuse, and cannabis use monthly, daily, and in pregnancy) datasets from National Survey of Drug Use and Health and US Census (income and ethnicity) and CDC Wonder population and birth data. Analysis was conducted in R. 266,950 were autistic of a population of 40,119,464 8-year-olds in 1994-2011. At national level after adjustment, daily cannabis use was significantly related to ASMR (β estimate = 4.37 (95%C.I. 4.06, 4.68), P < 2.2 × 10-16) as was first pregnancy trimester cannabis exposure (β estimate = 0.12 (0.08, 0.16), P = 1.7 × 10-12). At state level following adjustment for cannabis, cannabigerol (from β estimate = – 13.77 (- 19.41, 8.13), P = 1.8 × 10-6) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (from β estimate = 1.96 (0.88-3.04), P = 4 × 10-4) were significant. Geospatial state-level modelling showed exponential relationship between ASMR and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol exposure. Exponential coefficients for the relationship between modelled ASMR and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol exposure were 7.053 (6.39-7.71) and 185.334 (167.88-202.79; both P < 2.0 × 10-7). E-values are an instrument related to the evidence for causality in observational studies. High E-values were noted. Dichotomized legal status was linked with elevated ASMR. Data show cannabis use is associated with ASMR, is powerful enough to affect overall trends, and persists after controlling for other major covariates. Cannabinoids are exponentially associated with ASMR. The cannabis-autism relationship satisfies criteria of causal inference.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35779123/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220703065844&v=2.17.6 July 2, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Delineating genetic regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis during female flower development in <em>Cannabis sativa</em>
Plant Direct. 2022 Jun 8;6(6):e412. doi: 10.1002/pld3.412. eCollection 2022 Jun.
Cannabinoids are predominantly produced in the glandular trichomes on cannabis female flowers. There is little known on how cannabinoid biosynthesis is regulated during female flower development. We aim to understand the rate-limiting step(s) in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. We investigated the transcript levels of cannabinoid biosynthetic genes together with cannabinoid contents during 7 weeks of female flower development. We demonstrated that the enzymatic steps for producing cannabigerol (CBG), which involve genes GPPS, PT, TKS, and OAC, could rate limit cannabinoid biosynthesis. Our findings further suggest that upregulation of cannabinoid synthases, CBDAS and THCAS in a commercial hemp and medical marijuana variety, respectively, is not critical for cannabinoid biosynthesis. The cannabinoid biosynthetic genes are generally upregulated during flower maturation; increased expression occurs coincident with glandular trichome development and cannabinoid production in the maturing flower. The results also suggest that different cannabis varieties may experience discrete transcriptional regulation of cannabinoid biosynthetic genes. In addition, we showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can potentially increase cannabinoid production. We propose that biweekly applications of 100 μM MeJA starting from flower initiation would be efficacious for promoting cannabinoid biosynthesis. Our findings provide important genetic information for cannabis breeding to generate new varieties with favorable traits.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35774623/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220701065858&v=2.17.6 July 1, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol attenuates insular activity during motivational salience processing in patients with early psychosis
Psychol Med. 2022 Jul 1:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S0033291722001672. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic potential of cannabidiol (CBD) remain unclear but growing evidence indicates that dysfunction in the insula, a key brain region involved in the processing of motivationally salient stimuli, may have a role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Here, we investigate whether the antipsychotic mechanisms of CBD are underpinned by their effects on insular activation, known to be involved in salience processing.
METHODS: A within-subject, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of 19 healthy controls and 15 participants with early psychosis was conducted. Administration of a single dose of CBD was compared with placebo in psychosis participants while performing the monetary incentive delay task, an fMRI paradigm. Anticipation of reward and loss were used to contrast motivationally salient stimuli against a neutral control condition.
RESULTS: No group differences in brain activation between psychosis patients compared with healthy controls were observed. Attenuation of insula activation was observed following CBD, compared to placebo. Sensitivity analyses controlling for current cannabis use history did not affect the main results.
CONCLUSION: Our findings are in accordance with existing evidence suggesting that CBD modulates brain regions involved in salience processing. Whether such effects underlie the putative antipsychotic effects of CBD remains to be investigated.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35775365/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220701065858&v=2.17.6 July 1, 2022 10:00 am
Hempcrete failed to surpass petrochemical-based foams in insulation performance but can still be a viable replacement for traditional construction materials in sustainable “net-zero” buildings, experiments…
July 1, 2022 6:47 am
PubMed: Urinary Excretion Profile of Cannabinoid Analytes Following Acute Administration of Oral and Vaporized Cannabis in Infrequent Cannabis Users
J Anal Toxicol. 2022 Jun 29:bkac042. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkac042. Online ahead of print.
Traditionally, smoking has been the predominant method for administering cannabis, but alternative routes of administration have become more prevalent. Additionally, research examining urinary cannabinoid excretion profiles has primarily focused on 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-COOH), a metabolite of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), as the primary analyte. The aim of the current study was to characterize the urinary excretion profile of Δ9-THC-COOH, Δ9-THC, Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV-COOH), 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-9-carboxlic acid (THCV-COOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and 8,11-dihydroxytetrahydrocannabinol (8,11-diOH-Δ9-THC) following controlled administration of both oral and vaporized cannabis. Participants (N = 21, 11 men/10 women) who were infrequent cannabis users ingested cannabis-containing brownies (0, 10, and 25 mg Δ9-THC) and inhaled vaporized cannabis (0, 5, and 20 mg Δ9-THC) across six double-blind outpatient sessions. Urinary concentrations of Δ9-THC analytes were measured at baseline and for 8 h after cannabis administration. Sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between the three immunoassays (IA) for Δ9-THC-COOH (cutoffs of 20, 50, and 100 ng/mL) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analyses (confirmatory cutoff concentrations of 15 ng/mL) were assessed. Urinary concentrations for Δ9-THC-COOH, Δ9-THC, 11-OH-Δ9-THC, THCV, CBN, and 8,11-diOH-Δ9-THC all peaked at 5-6 h and 4 h following oral and vaporized cannabis administration, respectively. At each active dose, median maximum concentrations (Cmax) for detected analytes were quantitatively higher after oral cannabis administration compared to vaporized. Using current recommended federal workplace drug-testing criteria (screening via immunoassay with a cutoff of ≥ 50 ng/mL and confirmation via LC-MS-MS at a cutoff of ≥15 ng/mL), urine specimens tested positive for Δ9-THC-COOH in 97.6% of oral sessions and 59.5% of vaporized sessions with active Δ9-THC doses. These data indicate that while Δ9-THC-COOH may serve as the most consistent confirmatory analyte under the current drug-testing guidelines, future work examining 11-OH-Δ9-THC under similar parameters could yield an alternative analyte that may be helpful in distinguishing between licit and illicit cannabis products.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35770374/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220630065932&v=2.17.6 June 30, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: In-situ TD-GCMS measurements of oxidative products of monoterpenes at typical vaping temperatures: implications for inhalation exposure to vaping products
Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 30;12(1):11019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-14236-4.
Vaping is gaining in popularity. However, there is still much that remains unknown about the potential risk and harms of vaping. Formation of oxidative products is one of such areas that are not well understood. In this study, we used an in-situ thermal desorption GC/MS method to investigate the formation of oxidative products of several monoterpenes at or below typical vaping temperatures. Among the five tested monoterpenes, the unchanged portion of the parent compound in the vapour varied from 97 to 98% for myrcene to 11-28% for terpinolene. The majority of formed oxidative products in the vapour have a molecular weight of 134 (loss of two hydrogens), 150 (insertion of one oxygen and loss of two hydrogen atoms) or 152 (insertion of one oxygen atom). Three products, likely to be p-(1-propenyl)-toluene, β-pinone and fenchol were also observed. This is the first in-situ thermal desorption GC/MS study to investigate the possible formation of oxidative products of monoterpenes, one of the major components in vaping liquids, at temperatures that are relevant to the vaping process. Although the toxicity of inhaling these oxidative products is not clear yet, allergic and irritation reactions associated with oxidized monoterpene oils are well documented. Therefore, potential adverse effects of inhaling these oxidative products during vaping could be investigated to help support human risk assessment.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35773373/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220701065858&v=2.17.6 June 30, 2022 10:00 am
A group of seven European hemp organizations will look at strategies to finance innovative initiatives in a webinar scheduled for Tuesday, July 5. The webinar…
June 30, 2022 8:10 am
EFSA Clarified Data Gaps for Novel Food Registration
On 28th June 2022, the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) representatives joined the info-session organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in an attempt to foresee the reasons for any future delays in the approval of CBD novel food applications in the EU.
In the EU, if food is considered novel, it must be authorized by the European Commission and undergo a pre-market safety assessment by the EFSA. So far, there is still no approval for any of the 130-plus natural CBD applications within the EU. On the other hand, the Commission has since moved forward with synthetic CBD applications.
On June 7th, 2022, the EFSA published a statement summarizing the state of knowledge on the safety of CBD consumption and highlighting areas where more data is needed. EFSA said that its scientists cannot currently establish the safety of CBD as a novel food due to data gaps and uncertainties about potential hazards related to CBD intake.
They find that there is insufficient data on the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, and people’s psychological well-being.
As they pointed out, many human studies have been carried out with Epidyolex®, a CBD drug authorized to treat refractory epilepsies. In the context of medical conditions, adverse effects are tolerated if the benefit outweighs the adverse effect and that is not acceptable when considering CBD as a novel food, the EFSA stated. Furthermore, most of the human data referred to in the CBD applications investigated the efficacy of Epidyolex (or CBD) at therapeutic doses, and no NOAEL could be identified from these studies.
The online info session chaired by Ana Afonso, the team leader of the Emerging Risks team, discussed the status of the safety assessment of CBD as a novel food within the following scope: ADME, CBD interaction with drug metabolism, and gastrointestinal tract adverse effects; liver; neurological, psychiatric and psychological effects; endocrine and reprotox; the presence of small particles, including nanoparticles, or production of CBD as nanomaterial and CBD nano-formulation. After that, the EFSA shared the experiences of suitability checking and web-queries on CBD applications.
At the info session, the EFSA raised many concerns primarily regarding the lack of long-term data on healthy human individuals. From the published human studies, they claim that it will not be possible to determine that CBD would be safe food, considering that the studies are aimed at drug safety, not food safety.
The biggest concerns are on liver toxicity, repro toxicity, gastrointestinal, endocrine effects, plasma kinetics, neurological adverse effects, and drug interactions.
Obviously, additional studies will take more time and will have a considerable cost.
“We are confident that in the end, we will be able to prove that, at certain doses, CBD is safe as food. The obstacles are to be crossed, in time and with sufficient funds. The strength of the NF consortium is in numbers, and we will do all necessary steps to capitalize on our strength.”, said Sasha Bajilo, founder of Ilesol Pharmaceuticals and one of the EIHA’s representatives at the meeting.
In February 2021, the EIHA announced the largest-ever study on the impacts of trace levels of THC on human health. The trial involving observing the effects on 200 participants is estimated to cost 1.6 million euros. The laboratory analyzing the results will be Eurofins, after the Association members vote so in June 2019.
The Association has agreed that this approach is the only way the industry can proceed to demonstrate the safety of full-spectrum hemp food supplements, containing all of the cannabinoids, as well as their acid forms. The study is hoped to bring stability and future for whole plant extracts not only in Europe but worldwide and provide the science-based guidelines for all hemp foods and derivates
This is not the only investment planned by the EIHA members. The EIHA’s Consortium counting over 180 members has agreed to invest up to €3,5 million in financing all relevant and unprecedented toxicological studies on CBD and THC. Agreed scientific service provider ChemSafe will carry out the toxicological studies in GLP laboratories and follow a standard study plan according to OECD criteria.
The info session comes after the EIHA’s annual conference, taking place June 21-22, 2022 in Bruxelles.
Last year’s conference marked the first time in 20 years that EIHA welcomed speakers from the EU institutions, including the Member of the European Parliament, Mr. Adam Jarubas, and the Deputy Director-General for Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Commission, Mr. Michael Scannell.
In the UK, in February 2021, EIHA projects GmbH and ChemSafe submitted novel food applications for natural CBD isolate and full spectrum to the Food Standards Agency (FSA). In March 2022, the FSA published a list of CBD products that have credible applications for authorization, including the EIHA’s applications. The EIHA’s applications in the UK are now on the list awaiting evidence and can move towards the full risk assessment.
The post EFSA Clarified Data Gaps for Novel Food Registration appeared first on ilesol.
June 28, 2022 4:10 pm
PubMed: Is There Enough Knowledge to Standardize a <em>Cannabis sativa</em> L. Medicinal Oil Preparation with a High Content of Cannabinoids?
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Jun 28. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0076. Online ahead of print.
Introduction: Cannabis sativa L. medicinal oils are good therapeutic options due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological applications and the easy adjustment of individual doses. The lack of standardization of methodology in the preparation of medicinal oil using the Cannabis crude extract results in elevated variability of cannabinoid concentration in the final product. The elevated variability impairs the understanding of beneficial and adverse effects related to dose-response pharmacological activities. Objective: This study aimed to conduct a review on the current methods of Cannabis oil preparation present in the literature, to demonstrate the most appropriate methodologies to ensure a product with high content of cannabinoids and terpenes. Results: The decarboxylation stage is essential for the conversion of acid cannabinoids into neutral cannabinoids, which are substances with the highest bioavailability. Lower temperatures for longer periods of time instead of high temperatures in less time are highly recommended to ensure that all the acidic cannabinoids have passed through decarboxylation. For the guarantee of a high terpene content, the separate addition of essential oil to the fixed oil prepared from the crude extract should be considered. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is one of the best performing methodologies because it is cheaper than other techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, besides that, ultrasound extraction is effective in short extraction times and uses small amounts of solvent when compared with other techniques. Conclusion: Although the literature about the methods of preparation of Cannabis medicinal oil is scarce, it is possible to standardize an optimized, low-cost, and effective Cannabis extractive methodology from the results found in the literature; however, this will depend on new research for methodological validation.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35763833/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220629065900&v=2.17.6 June 28, 2022 10:00 am
European hemp grain supplies are near exhaustion, with an estimated 25 tons remaining priced at roughly €1.25/kg, according to the Q2 2022 benchmark report from…
June 28, 2022 5:58 am
Delta-8 THC products will be available only in Oregon’s licensed recreational cannabis outlets after a state law passed last year that placed the CBD-derived compound…
June 27, 2022 11:29 am
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol Following Intranasal, Intrarectal, and Oral Administration in Healthy Dogs
Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jun 7;9:899940. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.899940. eCollection 2022.
The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychtropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, is substantiated more and more. We aimed to determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of CBD after a single dose via intranasal (IN) and intrarectal (IR) administration in six healthy Beagle dogs age 3-8 years old, and compare to the oral administration route (PO). Standardized dosages applied for IN, IR and PO were 20, 100, and 100 mg, respectively. Each dog underwent the same protocol but received CBD through a different administration route. CBD plasma concentrations were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry before and at fixed time points after administration. Non-compartmental analysis was performed on the plasma concentration-time profiles. Plasma CBD concentrations after IR administration were below the limit of quantification. The mean area under the curve (AUC) after IN and PO CBD administration was 61 and 1,376 ng/mL*h, respectively. The maximal plasma CBD concentration (Cmax) after IN and PO CBD administration was 28 and 217 ng/mL reached after 0.5 and 3.5 h (Tmax), respectively. Significant differences between IN and PO administration were found in the Tmax (p = 0.04). Higher AUC and Cmax were achieved with 100 mg PO compared to 20 mg IN, but no significant differences were found when AUC (p = 0.09) and Cmax (p = 0.44) were normalized to 1 mg dosages. IN administration of CBD resulted in faster absorption when compared to PO administration. However, PO remains the most favorable route for CBD delivery due to its more feasible administration. The IR administration route is not advised for clinical application.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35754531/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220627065851&v=2.17.6 June 27, 2022 10:00 am
In a sharp turn from prohibition-based policy, Colombia will look to advantage small cannabis producers and farming cooperatives, according to a government plan under recently…
June 24, 2022 10:14 am
PubMed: Mechanisms of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Cancer Treatment: A Review
Biology (Basel). 2022 May 26;11(6):817. doi: 10.3390/biology11060817.
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis) and its bioactive compounds, including cannabinoids and non-cannabinoids, have been extensively studied for their biological effects in recent decades. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-intoxicating cannabinoid in Cannabis, has emerged as a promising intervention for cancer research. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the relationship between CBD and cancer based on recent research findings. The anticancer effects of CBD are mainly mediated via its interaction with the endocannabinoid system, resulting in the alleviation of pain and the promotion of immune regulation. Published reviews have focused on the applications of CBD in cancer pain management and the possible toxicological effects of its excessive consumption. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanisms of action underlying the anticancer activities of CBD against several common cancers. Studies on the efficacy and mechanisms of CBD on cancer prevention and intervention in experimental models (i.e., cell culture- and animal-based assays) and human clinical studies are included in this review.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35741337/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Theory-Guided Design of a Method to Obtain Competitive Balance between U(VI) Adsorption and Swaying Zwitterion-Induced Fouling Resistance on Natural Hemp Fibers
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 10;23(12):6517. doi: 10.3390/ijms23126517.
The competitive balance between uranium (VI) (U(VI)) adsorption and fouling resistance is of great significance in guaranteeing the full potential of U(VI) adsorbents in seawater, and it is faced with insufficient research. To fill the gap in this field, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to explore the influence and to guide the design of mass-produced natural hemp fibers (HFs). Sulfobetaine (SB)- and carboxybetaine (CB)-type zwitterions containing soft side chains were constructed beside amidoxime (AO) groups on HFs (HFAS and HFAC) to form a hydration layer based on the terminal hydrophilic groups. The soft side chains were swayed by waves to form a hydration-layer area with fouling resistance and to simultaneously expel water molecules surrounding the AO groups. HFAS exhibited greater antifouling properties than that of HFAO and HFAC. The U(VI) adsorption capacity of HFAS was almost 10 times higher than that of HFAO, and the max mass rate of U:V was 4.3 after 35 days of immersion in marine water. This paper offers a theory-guided design of a method to the competitive balance between zwitterion-induced fouling resistance and seawater U(VI) adsorption on natural materials.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35742958/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220628070004&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol Interacts Antagonistically with Cisplatin and Additively with Mitoxantrone in Various Melanoma Cell Lines-An Isobolographic Analysis
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 17;23(12):6752. doi: 10.3390/ijms23126752.
The medical application of cannabidiol (CBD) has been gathering increasing attention in recent years. This non-psychotropic cannabis-derived compound possesses antiepileptic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic properties. Recent studies report that it also exerts antineoplastic effects in multiple types of cancers, including melanoma. In this in vitro study we tried to reveal the anticancer properties of CBD in malignant melanoma cell lines (SK-MEL 28, A375, FM55P and FM55M2) administered alone, as well as in combination with mitoxantrone (MTX) or cisplatin (CDDP). The effects of CBD on the viability of melanoma cells were measured by the MTT assay; cytotoxicity was determined in the LDH test and proliferation in the BrdU test. Moreover, the safety of CBD was tested in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in LDH and MTT tests. Results indicate that CBD reduces the viability and proliferation of melanoma-malignant cells and exerts additive interactions with MTX. Unfortunately, CBD produced antagonistic interaction when combined with CDDP. CBD does not cause significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT cell line. In conclusion, CBD may be considered as a part of melanoma multi-drug therapy when combined with MTX. A special attention should be paid to the combination of CBD with CDDP due to the antagonistic interaction observed in the studied malignant melanoma cell lines.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35743195/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabis Use in Patients With Cancer: A Clinical Review
JCO Oncol Pract. 2022 Jun 24:OP2200080. doi: 10.1200/OP.22.00080. Online ahead of print.
Cannabis use and interest continues to increase among patients with cancer and caregivers. High-quality research remains scant in many areas, causing hesitancy or discomfort among most clinical providers. Although we have limitations on hard outcomes, we can provide some guidance and more proactively engage in conversations with patients and family about cannabis. Several studies support the efficacy of cannabis for various cancer and treatment-related symptoms, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and cancer pain. Although formulations and dosing guidelines for clinicians do not formally exist at present, attention to tetrahydrocannabinol concentration and understanding of risks with inhalation can reduce risk. Conflicting information exists on the interaction between cannabis and immunotherapy as well as estrogen receptor interactions. Motivational interviewing can help engage in more productive, less stigmatized conversations.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35749680/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220625065914&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Assessing Efficacy and Use Patterns of Medical Cannabis for Symptom Management in Elderly Cancer Patients
Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2022 Jun 24:10499091221110217. doi: 10.1177/10499091221110217. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Our study sought to further characterize patterns of medical cannabis use in elderly cancer patients. Furthermore, we sought to assess efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of pain, nausea, anorexia, insomnia and anxiety in elderly cancer patients.
BACKGROUND: Medical cannabis use is growing for symptom management in cancer patients, but limited data exists on the safety or efficacy of use in elderly patients.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review assessing changes in numerical symptom scores reported at clinic visits before and after medical cannabis initiation.
RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in pain, nausea, appetite, insomnia or anxiety scores reported before and after initiation of medical cannabis. Oil was the most common form used, followed by vape, and the most common ratios used were high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD) and equal parts THC/CBD products.
CONCLUSION: This study did not find a statistically significant change in symptom scores with medical cannabis use, although further study is warranted given the limitations of the present study. Elderly patients most commonly are using equal parts THC/CBD or high THC ratio products initially.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35749740/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220625065914&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: The Effect of Cannabidiol for Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease in Parkinson's Disease Patients with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A <em>Post Hoc</em> Exploratory Analysis of Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Jun 24. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0158. Online ahead of print.
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main nonpsychoactive components of Cannabis sativa and may represent an alternative treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Objective: Our purpose was a post hoc exploratory analysis to evaluate the CBD’s efficacy to improve the severity of RLS/WED symptoms in patients with PD and RBD. Methods: A post hoc exploratory analysis of a phase II/III, a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 18 patients with RLS/WED and PD plus RBD associated. Six patients were randomized to the CBD group in doses of 75-300 mg, and twelve received placebo capsules. They were followed up for 14 weeks. The primary outcome was the severity of RLS/WED by Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). Results: CBD showed no difference in relationship to placebo for primary and secondary outcomes. Conclusion: CBD showed no reduction in the severity of RLS/WED manifestation in patients with PD and RBD.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35749710/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220625065914&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Frequent Low-Dose Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Adolescence Disrupts Microglia Homeostasis and Disables Responses to Microbial Infection and Social Stress in Young Adulthood
Biol Psychiatry. 2022 May 10:S0006-3223(22)01237-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.04.017. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: During adolescence, microglia are actively involved in neocortical maturation while concomitantly undergoing profound phenotypic changes. Because the teenage years are also a time of experimentation with cannabis, we evaluated whether adolescent exposure to the drug’s psychotropic constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), might persistently alter microglia function.
METHODS: We administered THC (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) once daily to male and female mice from postnatal day (PND) 30 to PND44 and examined the transcriptome of purified microglia in adult animals (PND70 and PND120) under baseline conditions or following either of two interventions known to recruit microglia: lipopolysaccharide injection and repeated social defeat. We used high-dimensional mass cytometry by time-of-flight to map brain immune cell populations after lipopolysaccharide challenge.
RESULTS: Adolescent THC exposure produced in mice of both sexes a state of microglial dyshomeostasis that persisted until young adulthood (PND70) but receded with further aging (PND120). Key features of this state included broad alterations in genes involved in microglia homeostasis and innate immunity along with marked impairments in the responses to lipopolysaccharide- and repeated social defeat-induced psychosocial stress. The endocannabinoid system was also dysfunctional. The effects of THC were prevented by coadministration of either a global CB1 receptor inverse agonist or a peripheral CB1 neutral antagonist and were not replicated when THC was administered in young adulthood (PND70-84).
CONCLUSIONS: Daily low-intensity CB1 receptor activation by THC during adolescence may disable critical functions served by microglia until young adulthood with potentially wide-ranging consequences for brain and mental health.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35750512/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220626065817&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Inhibit Cholangiocarcinoma Growth In Vitro via Divergent Cell Death Pathways
Biomolecules. 2022 Jun 20;12(6):854. doi: 10.3390/biom12060854.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare and highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychedelic components extracted from cannabis. These non-psychoactive compounds have shown anti-proliferative potential in other tumor models; however, the efficacy of CBD and CBG in CCA is unknown. Furthermore, two cell death pathways are implicated with CBD resulting in autophagic degeneration and CBG in apoptosis. HuCC-T1 cells, Mz-ChA-1 cells (CCA cell lines) and H69 cells (immortalized cholangiocytes), were treated with CBD and CBG for 24 to 48 h. The influence of these cannabinoids on proliferation was assessed via MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated via Annexin-V apoptosis assay and propidium iodide, respectively. The expression of proliferation biomarker Ki-67, apoptosis biomarker BAX, and autophagic flux biomarkers LC3b and LAMP1 were evaluated via immunofluorescence. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated via wound healing assay and trans-well migration invasion assays, respectively. The colony formation was evaluated via colony formation assay. In addition, the expression of autophagy gene LC3b and apoptosis genes BAX, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were evaluated via Western blot. CBD and CBG are non-selective anti-proliferative agents yielding similar growth curves in CCA; both cannabinoids are effective, yet CBG is more active at lower doses. Low doses of CBD and CBG enhanced immortalized cholangiocyte activity. The reduction in proliferation begins immediately and occurs maximally within 24 h of treatment. Moreover, a significant increase in the late-stage apoptosis and a reduction in the number of cells in S stage of the cell cycle indicates both CBD and CBG treatment could promote apoptosis and inhibit mitosis in CCA cells. The fluorescent expression of BAX and LC3b was significantly enhanced with CBD treatment when compared to control. LAMP1 and LC3b colocalization could also be observed with CBD and CBG treatment indicating changes in autophagic flux. A significant inhibition of migration, invasion and colony formation ability was shown in both CBD and CBG treatment in CCA. Western blot showed an overall decrease in the ratio of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 with respect to pro-apoptotic protein BAX with CBG treatment. Furthermore, CBD treatment enhanced the expression of Type II cell death (autophagic degeneration) protein LC3b, which was reduced in CBG-treated CCA cells. Meanwhile, CBG treatment upregulated Type I cell death (programmed apoptosis) protein cleaved caspase-3. CBD and CBG are effective anti-cancer agents against CCA, capable of inhibiting the classic hallmarks of cancer, with a divergent mechanism of action (Type II or Type I respectively) in inducing these effects.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35740979/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 24, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Direct In Vivo Analysis of CBD- and THC-Acid Cannabinoids and Classification of Cannabis Cultivars Using SpiderMass
Metabolites. 2022 May 26;12(6):480. doi: 10.3390/metabo12060480.
In recent years, cannabis and hemp-based products have become increasingly popular for recreational use, edibles, beverages, health care products, and medicines. The rapid detection and differentiation of phytocannabinoids is, therefore, essential to assess the potency and the therapeutic and nutritional values of cannabis cultivars. Here, we implemented SpiderMass technology for in vivo detection of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolicacid (∆9-THCA), and other endogenous organic plant compounds, to access distribution gradients within the plants and differentiate between cultivars. The SpiderMass system is composed of an IR-laser handheld microsampling probe connected to a mass spectrometer through a transfer tube. The analysis was performed on different plant organs from freshly cultivated cannabis plants in only a few seconds. SpiderMass analysis easily discriminated the two acid phytocannabinoid isomers via MS/MS, and the built statistical models differentiated between four cannabis cultivars. Different abundancies of the two acid phytocannabinoids were found along the plant as well as between different cultivars. Overall, these results introduce direct analysis by SpiderMass as a compelling analytical alternative for rapid hemp analysis.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35736414/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Validation of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2-STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) for Detection of Shiga-Toxin Gene (stx1 and/or stx2) and Intimin Gene (eae) in Dried Cannabis Flower and Dried Hemp Flower: AOAC® Performance Tested MethodSM 071902
J AOAC Int. 2022 Jun 23:qsac067. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsac067. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) method is based on gene amplification by the use of real time loop-mediated isothermal amplification when used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the rapid and specific detection of Shiga toxin gene (stx1 and/or stx2) and intimin gene (eae) from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in enriched products. The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) was approved as AOAC® Performance Tested MethodSM Certificate No. 071902.
OBJECTIVE: This matrix extension study evaluated the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) method for detection of STECs in dried cannabis flower [>0.3% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and dried hemp flower (≤0.3% THC) at a 10 g test portion size.
METHODS: Testing followed procedures outlined in 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) Product Instructions and Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Cannabis and Cannabis Products (AOAC SMPR 2020.012). The method was evaluated at low, high, and non-inoculated levels.
RESULTS: Results showed no statistically significant difference between the presumptive positive 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) results and the SMPR 2020.012 recommended cultural confirmations.
CONCLUSION: This study provides data that demonstrate the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) is a reliable method for the rapid and specific detection of STEC organisms in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
HIGHLIGHT: The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx and eae) method is suitable for the rapid and specific detection of STEC organisms in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35737411/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Validation of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2-STEC Gene Screen (stx) for Detection of Shiga-Toxin Gene (stx1 and/or stx2) in Dried Cannabis Flower and Dried Hemp Flower: AOAC® Performance Tested MethodSM 071903
J AOAC Int. 2022 Jun 23:qsac069. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsac069. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) method is based on gene amplification by the use of real time loop-mediated isothermal amplification when used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the rapid and specific detection of Shiga toxin gene (stx1 and/or stx2) from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in enriched products. The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) was approved as AOAC® Performance Tested MethodSM Certificate No. 071903.
OBJECTIVE: This matrix extension study evaluated the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) method for detection of STECs in dried cannabis flower [>0.3% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and dried hemp flower (≤0.3% THC) at a 10 g test portion size.
METHODS: Testing followed procedures outlined in 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) Product Instructions and Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Cannabis and Cannabis Products (AOAC SMPR 2020.012). The method was evaluated at low, high, and non-inoculated levels.
RESULTS: Results showed no statistically significant difference between the presumptive positive 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) results and the SMPR 2020.012 recommended cultural confirmations.
CONCLUSION: This study provides data that demonstrate the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) is a reliable method for the rapid and specific detection of STECs in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
HIGHLIGHT: The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – STEC Gene Screen (stx) method is suitable for the rapid and specific detection of STECs in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35737394/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2-Salmonella for Detection of Salmonella in Dried Cannabis Flower and Dried Hemp Flower: Targeted Matrix Extension AOAC® Performance Tested MethodsSM 091501
J AOAC Int. 2022 Jun 23:qsac068. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsac068. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay 2-Salmonella method is based on real time loop-mediated isothermal amplification when used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in enriched products. The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella was approved as AOAC® Performance TestedSM Certificate No. 091501 and as AOAC Official Method of AnalysisSM 2016.01.
OBJECTIVE: This matrix extension study evaluated the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella for detection of Salmonella in dried cannabis flower [>0.3% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and dried hemp flower (≤0.3% THC) at a 10 g test portion size.
METHODS: Matrix studies in dried cannabis and hemp flowers followed procedures outlined in 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella Product Instructions and Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for Detection of Salmonella species in Cannabis and Cannabis Products (AOAC SMPR 2020.002). The method was evaluated at low, high, and non-contaminated levels.
RESULTS: Results showed no statistically significant difference between the presumptive positive 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella results and the SMPR 2020.002 recommended cultural confirmations.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella is a reliable method for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
HIGHLIGHT: The 3M Molecular Detection Assay 2 – Salmonella method is suitable for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in dried cannabis flower and dried hemp flower.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35737412/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Parasitism of Corn Earworm, <em>Helicoverpa zea</em> (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by Tachinid Flies in Cultivated Hemp
Insects. 2022 Jun 3;13(6):519. doi: 10.3390/insects13060519.
In a survey on hemp grown in western Kentucky we found an average of 27.8 CEW larvae per plant. We recorded 45% parasitism of CEW in these fields by two species of tachinid flies, Winthemia rufopicta and Lespesia aletiae. Most parasitized larvae were third to sixth instars at the time of collection. We found up to 22 tachinid eggs per host larva, 89% of which typically bore between 1 and 5 eggs on the thorax. 45.9% of CEW bearing eggs died. The number of tachinid eggs per host was unrelated to host body mass, but both the number of tachinid eggs and caterpillar body mass influenced CEW survival. Larger CEW often survived parasitism and the number of fly eggs was negatively related to survival rate. The emergence of adult flies was positively correlated with the number of eggs, but no influence of the host size was found. High mortality of CEW larvae and the parasitoids developing within them in this system suggests that secondary chemicals (or poor nutrition) of the hemp diet may be negatively affecting host and parasitoid development and influencing their interactions.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35735857/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Promising Health Benefits of Adjuvant <em>Acmella</em> and <em>Zingiber</em> Extracts Combined with Coenzyme Q10 Phytosomes, Supplementation in Chronic Pain Treated with Medical Cannabis: A Prospective and Open-Label Clinical Study
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022 Jun 13;2022:7099161. doi: 10.1155/2022/7099161. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a condition where pain persists for months or even years. Nowadays, several drugs comprising of medical cannabis are utilized for chronic pain relief. Even if there are some associated side effects, the use of supplements can widen the reliable tools available for improving an individual’s quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy in terms of pain intensity, psychological well-being, and quality of life of a new dietary supplement in chronic pain subjects under current treatment with medical cannabis.
METHODS: In this pilot study, 48 medical cannabis-treated subjects were supplemented with a dietary supplement containing a combination of standardized Zingiber officinalis and Acmella oleracea extracts in phytosome (Mitidol), coenzyme Q10 phytosome (Ubiqsome), and group B vitamins (B1, B6, and B12), twice daily for 90 days. In order to explore the benefits of the product as an adjuvant supplementation for pain relief, the pain intensity, measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), the pain type, and quality, evaluated by the Italian Pain Questionnaire (QUID) and the possible reduction of therapeutic and/or painkiller doses were recorded.
RESULTS: After 90 days, significant pain relief was detected in almost 70% of the subjects receiving the new dietary supplement, with sensory, emotional, and pain amelioration in one-third of them. A reduction in both tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) doses was also observed after 3 months of supplementation. These findings demonstrate new perspectives for the use of an innovative dietary supplement that combines Acmella and Zingiber extracts, Coenzyme Q10, and group B vitamins resulting in a beneficial long-term adjuvant in cannabis-treated pain subjects.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35733629/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220623065849&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Comparative Study of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Melanogenesis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes from Different Pigmentation Phototypes: A Pilot Study
J Xenobiot. 2022 Jun 10;12(2):131-144. doi: 10.3390/jox12020012.
Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the primary ingredients of cannabis plants and is responsible for the psychoactive properties of cannabis. While cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive compound from cannabis, has been shown to stimulate human epidermal melanogenesis, the effects of THC have not been addressed in human epidermal melanocytes. Moreover, to date, no study has tested the effects of these compounds on melanocytes differing in pigmentation, representative of different skin phototypes, which would be significant as different ethnicities are known to differentially metabolize these xenobiotics. Herein, the effects of THC were studied and compared alongside CBD in human epidermal melanocytes derived from lightly-pigmented (HEMn-LP; Caucasian) and darkly-pigmented (HEMn-DP; African-American) cells over a chronic exposure of 6 d. Results demonstrated that both compounds displayed cytotoxicity at 4 µM but stimulated melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a similar manner in LP and DP cells at nontoxic concentrations of 1-2 µM. However, THC and CBD showed a differential effect on dendricity in both cells; THC and CBD reversibly increased dendricity in LP cells while there was no significant change in DP cells. THC and CBD induced higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LP cells while there was no change in the ROS levels in DP cells. In summary, although THC was relatively less cytotoxic as compared to CBD to both LP and DP cells, it exhibited a similar capacity as CBD to stimulate melanin synthesis and export in LP cells which was accompanied by a significant oxidative stress. DP cells were relatively resistant to the effects of both THC and CBD which might implicate the protective effects conferred by melanin in dark-skinned individuals.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35736025/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220624070017&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Sources of Cannabis Information and Medical Guidance for Neurologic Use: NARCOMS Survey of People Living With Multiple Sclerosis
Neurol Clin Pract. 2022 Apr;12(2):102-112. doi: 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000001155.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As cannabis products become increasingly accessible across the United States, understanding how patients obtain medical information on cannabis and view the role of their health care provider in providing information is important.
METHODS: Participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis registry completed a supplemental survey on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-containing cannabis use between March and April 2020. Participants reported dialogue with health care providers regarding cannabis use, information sources used to make product decisions, and expenditure on cannabis. Findings are reported using descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: Overall, 3,249 participants responded (47% response rate), of whom 31% ever used cannabis and 20% currently used cannabis for MS. To determine presumed cannabis contents, respondents who had ever used cannabis (ever users) most often used dispensary-provided information (39%), word of mouth/dealer/friend (29%), and unregulated product labels (24%). For general information on cannabis for MS, ever users most often used dispensary staff (38%) and friends (32%). The primary source of medical guidance among ever users was most often “nobody or myself” (48%), followed by a dispensary professional (21%); only 12% relied on their MS physician, although 70% had discussed cannabis with their MS physician. Most current users (62%) typically sourced their cannabis from a dispensary. The most common factor in selecting a cannabis product was perceived quality and safety (70%).
DISCUSSION: Participants most often received information on cannabis for MS from dispensaries, unregulated product labels, and friends; only a small proportion used health care providers. Evidence-based patient and physician education is needed.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35733947/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220623065849&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Potency and Therapeutic THC and CBD Ratios: U.S. Cannabis Markets Overshoot
Front Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 6;13:921493. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.921493. eCollection 2022.
Background and aims: The effects exuded by cannabis are a result of the cannabinoids trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and is dependent upon their pharmacological interaction and linked to the two cannabinoids’ concentrations and ratios. Based on current literature and trends of increasing cannabis potency, we postulate that most medical cannabis products with THC and CBD have ratios capable of producing significant acute intoxication and are similar to recreational products. We will test this by organizing products into clinically distinct categories according to TCH:CBD ratios, evaluating the data in terms of therapeutic potential, and comparing the data obtained from medical and recreational programs and from states with differing market policies. Methods: We utilized data encompassing online herbal dispensary product offerings from nine U.S. states. The products were analyzed after being divided into four clinically significant THC:CBD ratio categories identified based on the literature: CBD can enhance THC effects (THC:CBD ratios ≥1:1), CBD has no significant effect on THC effects (ratios ∼ 1:2), CBD can either have no effect or can mitigate THC effects (ratios 1:>2 < 6), or CBD is protective against THC effects (ratios ≤1:6). Results: A significant number of products (58.5%) did not contain any information on CBD content. Across all states sampled, the majority (72-100%) of both medical and recreational products with CBD (>0%) fall into the most intoxicating ratio category (≥1:1 THC:CBD), with CBD likely enhancing THC’s acute effects. The least intoxicating categories (1:>2 < 6 and ≤1:6 THC:CBD) provided the smallest number of products. Similarly, the majority of products without CBD (0%) contained highly potent amounts of THC (>15%). These results were consistent, regardless of differing market policies in place. Conclusions: Despite the distinct goals of medical and recreational cannabis users, medical and recreational program product offerings are nearly identical. Patients seeking therapeutic benefits from herbal cannabis products are therefore at a substantial risk of unwanted side effects, regardless of whether they obtain products from medical or recreational programs. Efforts are needed to better inform patients of the risks associated with high potency cannabis and the interaction between THC and CBD, and to help shape policies that promote more therapeutic options.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35734402/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220623065849&v=2.17.6 June 23, 2022 10:00 am
By Steve Allin If the COVID-19 pandemic was, as U.N Secretary-General Antonio António Guterres said, “like an X-ray revealing fractures in the fragile skeleton of…
June 23, 2022 6:35 am
CDPHE Certifies More Labs for Hemp Testing
Aurum Labs, a cannabis testing laboratory based in Durango, Colorado, announced last week that they have become certified by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for all of the compliance testing required for hemp products. The press release says they are the first independent lab that is actually based in the state to receive the CDPHE certification for every compliance test.
Last year, Colorado rolled out hemp testing regulations that are some of the most comprehensive in the world. The required pesticide screening includes testing for more than 100 different types of pesticides. The new rules, along with the certification requirement, make it difficult for labs to enter the market, with only eleven total labs certified by the CDPHE for various hemp compliance panels and only five certified for every type of test, according to the department’s website.
Most of the companies on that list certified to conduct hemp compliance testing are familiar labs with large footprints, such as Eurofins, Kaycha Labs, Columbia Labs, SC Labs, InfiniteCAL and ACS Labs. Most of these labs are out of state and by the looks of it, only three independent, Colorado-based labs are certified so far: Aurum Labs, Gobi Analytical and Minova Labs. Gobi and Minova, however, are not yet certified for pesticide testing, while Aurum appears to be certified for all compliance testing.
“It’s difficult to compete with these large, private-equity-funded labs, but Aurum is passionate about serving the evolving hemp industry” Liz Mason, director of operations at Aurum Labs, said in a press release. “We are committed to staying on the scientific forefront to give the most comprehensive services to our clients.”
June 22, 2022 8:59 pm
PubMed: DoE-assisted development and validation of a stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of five cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. based on analytical quality by design (AQbD) concept
Phytochem Anal. 2022 Jun 22. doi: 10.1002/pca.3154. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Medical uses of Cannabis sativa L. have gained interest in recent decades, which highlights the need for defining appropriate quality specifications for Cannabis-based products. However, the complexity of plant matrices and structural similarity between cannabinoids make analytical development a challenging task. Thus, the application of analytical quality by design (AQbD)-driven approaches can favour the development of fit-for-purpose methods.
OBJECTIVES: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous quantification of cannabidiol, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and cannabinol in C. sativa by applying an AQbD-driven approach.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical method attributes (CMA) were established following the analytical target profile. Critical method variables (CMV) were categorised based on risk assessment and literature review. Selected CMV regarding sample preparation and chromatographic conditions were optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). The working point was estimated by multiple response optimisation using Deringer’s desirability function. The validity of the optimal conditions was confirmed experimentally. Method validation was performed according to ANVISA and ICH guidelines. Relative response factors (RRFs) were also determined.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Baseline resolution of 12 major cannabinoids was achieved in a 35 min chromatographic analysis. All experimental responses obtained during confirmatory analyses were within the prediction intervals (PI95% ). Method’s selectivity, linearity (10-100 μg/mL), precision, bias, extraction recovery, and ruggedness were satisfactorily demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS: The application of an AQbD-driven approach allowed for a better understanding of the effects of the ensemble of CMV on the analyte’s behaviour, enabling the definition of appropriate conditions to ensure consistent achievement of the intended method’s performance.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35733081/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220623065849&v=2.17.6 June 22, 2022 10:00 am
EIHA GmbH, a consortium of the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), said research it is currently conducting on the safety of CBD will meet the…
June 22, 2022 6:29 am
A UK advisory board on CBD was scheduled to meet today amid turmoil that has left members representing two trade bodies no longer a part…
June 21, 2022 10:55 am
PubMed: Effects of prenatal alcohol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure via electronic cigarettes on motor development
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2022 Jun 20. doi: 10.1111/acer.14892. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: It has been well established that prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of neurological and behavioral deficits, including alterations in motor domains. However, much less is known about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on motor development, despite the fact that cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among women. Cannabis use among pregnant women has become increasingly popular given the wide-spread perception that consumption is safe during pregnancy. Moreover, alcohol and cannabis are commonly used together, even among pregnant women. Yet, few studies have explored the potential consequences of combined prenatal exposure on behavioral domains.
METHODS: Using our previously established model, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of four groups: vaporized alcohol, delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) via electronic (e-) cigarettes, the combination of alcohol and THC, or a vehicle from gestational days 5-20. Following birth, offspring were tested on early sensorimotor development, adolescent motor coordination, and adolescent activity levels.
RESULTS: Prenatal THC e-cigarette exposure delayed sensorimotor development early in life and impaired motor coordination later in early adolescence; combined prenatal alcohol and THC exposure did not have additive effects on sensorimotor development. However, combined prenatal exposure did produce hyperactivity among male offspring.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that prenatal cannabis exposure may lead to impaired motor skills throughout early development, and that combined exposure with alcohol during gestation may also lead to hyperactivity in early adolescence. These findings have important implications for informing pregnant women of the risks associated with prenatal cannabis exposure, with and without alcohol, on the fetus and influencing related public policy.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35722858/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220620065809&v=2.17.6 June 20, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Effects of Light Spectra on Morphology, Gaseous Exchange, and Antioxidant Capacity of Industrial Hemp
Front Plant Sci. 2022 Jun 2;13:937436. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.937436. eCollection 2022.
One of the most important growth factors in cannabis cultivation is light which plays a big role in its successful growth. However, understanding that how light controls the industrial hemp growth and development is poor and needs advanced research. Therefore, a pot study was conducted to investigate the effects of different colors of light, that is, white light (WL), blue light (BL), red light (RL), and 50% red with 50% blue mix light (RBL) on morphology, gaseous exchange and antioxidant capacity of industrial hemp. Compared with WL, BL significantly increase hemp growth in terms of shoot fresh biomass (15.1%), shoot dry biomass (27.0%), number of leaves per plant (13.7%), stem diameter (10.2%), root length (6.8%) and chlorophyll content (7.4%). In addition, BL promoted net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration, while reduces the lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities. However, RL and RBL significantly reduced the plant biomass, gas exchange parameters with enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities. Thus, blue light is useful for large-scale sustainable production of industrial hemp.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35720586/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220620065809&v=2.17.6 June 20, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: "Skunky" Cannabis: Environmental Odor Troubleshooting and the "Need-for-Speed"
ACS Omega. 2022 May 12;7(23):19043-19047. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.2c00517. eCollection 2022 Jun 14.
Although the “skunky” odor characteristic of cannabis has been widely referenced, its cause has been historically misassigned to unspecified “skunky terpenes”. Recent reports from two independent research groups, the Koziel team (March and April 2021) and Oswald team (August and November 2021), have corrected this misassignment by linking the “skunky” character of industrial hemp and cannabis to 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol (321MBT). A recent USPTO patent application review clearly indicated that the Oswald team should take full credit for the discovery of this link with respect to cannabis. However, the August 19, 2021 publication of their patent application appears to be their formal public disclosure of 321MBT as the primary source odorant which is responsible for the targeted “skunky” odor. This date is well after the March and April 2021 public disclosures by the Koziel team for the 321MBT/”skunky” odor link relative to both cannabis and industrial hemp. This Viewpoint summarizes the investigative strategy leading to the public disclosure of this historically elusive link. It is presented from the perspective of the rapid multidimensional-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (i.e., MDGC-MS-O) based odorant-prioritization “screening” approach, as applied by the Koziel team.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35722010/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220620065809&v=2.17.6 June 20, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Sex differences exist in the perceived relief of cancer symptoms with medical cannabis: results from the Quebec Cannabis Registry
Support Care Cancer. 2022 Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s00520-022-07193-1. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: This study explored whether symptom relief differs by sex in patients with cancer receiving medical cannabis (MC) therapy.
METHODS: This is an analysis of data collected from patients with cancer enrolled in the Quebec Cannabis Registry. MC was initiated for the therapeutic management of cancer symptoms. Patients completed the revised Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS-r) questionnaire at baseline and 3-month follow-up. We examined the interaction between sex and time on each ESAS-r symptom and the interaction between time and tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) ratios for each sex on total symptom burden.
RESULTS: The analysis included 358 patients (M: 171). There were no sex differences in baseline ESAS-r scores. Three months of MC therapy led to significant improvements in pain (M: – 1.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001; F: – 1.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.01), tiredness (M: – 1.7 ± 0.4, p < 0.001; F: – 1.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.05), anxiety (M: – 1.1 ± 0.4, p < 0.05; F: – 1.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.001), and well-being (M: – 1.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.05; F: – 1.4 ± 0.4, p < 0.01) in both sexes. Only F perceived improved drowsiness (- 1.1 ± 0.4, p < 0.05), nausea (- 0.9 ± 0.3, p < 0.05), lack of appetite (- 1.7 ± 0.4, p < 0.001), and shortness of breath (- 0.9 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). From baseline to 3-month follow-up, THC-dominant MC significantly reduced pain (- 1.52 ± 0.52, p < 0.05) in M, whereas in F it diminished nausea (- 2.52 ± 0.70, p < 0.01) and improved well-being (- 2.41 ± 0.79, p < 0.05). THC:CBD-balanced products significantly reduced pain (- 1.48 ± 0.49, p < 0.05), tiredness (- 1.82 ± 0.62, p < 0.05), anxiety (- 1.83 ± 0.54, p < 0.05), and improved well-being (- 2.01 ± 0.56, p < 0.01) in M. CBD-dominant products did not offer significant symptom relief in either sex.
CONCLUSION: The perceived relief of cancer symptoms from MC differs between sexes. More randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35723729/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220621065920&v=2.17.6 June 20, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Effect of harvest time on the compositional changes in essential oils, cannabinoids, and waxes of hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.)
R Soc Open Sci. 2022 Jun 15;9(6):211699. doi: 10.1098/rsos.211699. eCollection 2022 Jun.
Demand for cannabinoid is growing, with the global market expected to reach $9.69 billion by 2025. Understanding how chemical composition changes in hemp at different harvest times is crucial to maximizing this industrial crop value. Important compositional changes in three different compound classes (essential oils, cannabinoids, and lipids) from inflorescences (tops), leaves, and stems of hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Finola variety) at different harvesting stages have been investigated. Over 85% of the total extracts from the tops were cannabinoids, while leaves demonstrated the greatest quantities of wax ester and sterols. Essential oil and cannabinoid increased in tops until full flowering (third harvest), reaching 2030 µg g-1 and 39 475 µg g-1, respectively. Cannabinoids decreased at seed maturity (final harvest) to 26 969 µg g-1. This demonstrates the importance of early harvesting to maximize cannabidiol (CBD), which is highly sought after for its therapeutic and pharmacological properties. A total of 21 161 µg g-1 of CBD was extracted from the tops at full flowering (third harvest); however, a significant increase (63%) in the banned psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was observed from budding (157 µg g-1 of biomass) to the full flowering (9873 µg g-1 of biomass). Harvesting the tops after budding is preferable due to the high CBD content and low amounts of THC.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35719880/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220620065809&v=2.17.6 June 20, 2022 10:00 am
The Tennessee Department of Agriculture (TDA) and a state hemp group have partnered to support research on the fiber supply chain by the University of…
June 20, 2022 9:22 am
PubMed: Biosynthetic origins of unusual cannabimimetic phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L: A review
Phytochemistry. 2022 Jun 16:113282. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113282. Online ahead of print.
Plants of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) produce an array of more than 160 isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides, commonly referred to as phytocannabinoids. These compounds represent molecules of therapeutic importance due to their modulation of the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). While understanding of the biosynthesis of the major phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has grown rapidly in recent years, the biosynthetic origin and genetic regulation of many potentially therapeutically relevant minor phytocannabinoids remains unknown, which limits the development of chemotypically elite varieties of C. sativa. This review provides an up-to-date inventory of unusual phytocannabinoids which exhibit cannabimimetic-like activities and proposes putative metabolic origins. Metabolic branch points exploitable for combinatorial biosynthesis and engineering of phytocannabinoids with augmented therapeutic activities are also described, as is the role of phytocannabinoid remodelling to accelerate therapeutic portfolio expansion in C. sativa.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35718133/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220620065809&v=2.17.6 June 19, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Deciphering the iPBS retrotransposons based genetic diversity of nanoparticles induced in Vitro seedlings of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Jun 18. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-07596-7. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The phytochemicals contained in hemp are highly significant and can be modified or altered by employing in vitro elicitors like nanoparticles (NPs). Application of NPs type, concentration, and treatment time regulate the germination, growth, and phytohemicals.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro sterilized seeds of cannabis were augmented on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles at different concentrations (0, 200, 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 mg/L) for one month. Results revealed that supplementation of NPs resulted in reduced germination (%), root length and longer shoots and seedling fresh wt compared to control.
CONCLUSIONS: Maximum germination was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1600 mg/L TiO2NPs (92.50%) followed by 1600 mg/L AgNPs (80.00%). Supplementation of 800 mg/L AgNPs yielded longer shoots, roots, seedlings fresh weight, and chlorophyll-b contents compared to all other treatments. Whereas, maximum chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, and MDA contents were attributed to 1200 mg/L TiO2NPs. PCR results using eight iPBS-retrotransposons primers yielded a total of 101 bands with 98 polymorphic bands. Whereas, minimum (0.28) and maximum (0.42) gene diversity was associated with 2095 and 2228 primers.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35717478/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220619065924&v=2.17.6 June 18, 2022 10:00 am
The Ute Native American tribe has launched a company to turn out a wide range of products based on hemp, according to an announcement this…
June 17, 2022 12:37 pm
PubMed: Cannabis and Driving: Developing Guidelines for Safety Policies
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2022 Jun 16. doi: 10.2174/1389201023666220616160459. Online ahead of print.
Introduction – The dynamism in the regulatory frameworks concerning the consumption of cannabinoids has placed their effects on the cognitive and psychomotor skills at the center of the scientific debate. In consideration of the potential repercussions on public safety, particular attention has been focused on the impairment of driving skill, opening up the need to specifically regulate driving under the effects of cannabinoids. Pharmacokinetics – Both native cannabinoids and metabolites show a long positivity at low concentrations in the biological fluids, especially in case of chronic consumption. Qualitative positivity to cannabinoids does not itself prove the presence of detrimental effects, which require the presence of active substances at relevant concentrations. Driving Skill Impairment – Multiple studies highlight a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration-based alteration of driving skills mainly affecting automatisms, whereas skills subjected to cognitive control are preserved up to higher dosages. The evidence relating to associations with other substances, chronic consumption and other cannabinoids, on the other hand, is still burdened by a high degree of uncertainty. Regulation Policies – Different models can be adopted in the regulation of driving under the effects of cannabinoids: sanctions can be applied in case of qualitative positivity, cannabinoids concentration above a defined threshold, or in presence of a demonstrated state of cognitive alteration. Conclusion – “Per se limit” with a quantitative THC cut-off between 3.5 and 5 ng/ml can currently be considered the most balanced choice. Finally, the analysis carried out allowed to identify pitfalls in both scientific and legislative fields for the improvement of safety policies.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35713145/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220617065926&v=2.17.6 June 17, 2022 10:00 am
Despite struggles with sourcing fuel, challenging logistics, blocked ports and clogged overland routes out of the country, some hemp farmers in Ukraine are forging ahead…
June 16, 2022 5:22 am
PubMed: The Effects of Consuming <em>Cannabis</em> Flower for Treatment of Fatigue
Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Apr 13;5(1):76-84. doi: 10.1159/000524057. eCollection 2022.
OBJECTIVES: We measure for the first time how commercially available Cannabis flower products affect feelings of fatigue.
METHODS: A total of 1,224 people recorded 3,922 Cannabis flower self-administration sessions between June 6, 2016, and August 7, 2019, using the Releaf App. Usage sessions included real-time subjective changes in fatigue intensity levels prior to and following Cannabis consumption, Cannabis flower characteristics (labeled phenotype, cannabinoid potency levels), combustion method, and any potential experienced side effects.
RESULTS: On average, 91.94% of people experienced decreased fatigue following consumption with an average symptom intensity reduction of 3.48 points on a 0-10 visual analog scale (SD = 2.70, d = 1.60, p < 0.001). While labeled plant phenotypes (“C. indica,” “C. sativa,” or “hybrid”) did not differ in symptom relief, people that used joints to combust the flower reported greater symptom relief than pipe or vaporizer users. Across cannabinoid levels, tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabidiol levels were generally not associated with changes in symptom intensity levels. Cannabis use was associated with several negative side effects that correspond to increased feelings of fatigue (e.g., feeling unmotivated, couch-locked) among a minority of users (<24% of users), with slightly more users (up to 37%) experiencing a positive side effect that corresponds to increased energy (e.g., feeling active, energetic, frisky, or productive).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the majority of patients experience decreased fatigue from consumption of Cannabis flower consumed in vivo, although the magnitude of the effect and extent of side effects experienced likely vary with individuals’ metabolic states and the synergistic chemotypic properties of the plant.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35702402/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220616065854&v=2.17.6 June 15, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Anti-cancer potential of cannabis terpenes in a taxol-resistant model of breast cancer
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 15. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2021-0792. Online ahead of print.
Chemotherapeutic resistance can limit breast cancer outcomes; therefore, the exploration of novel therapeutic options is warranted. Isolated compounds found in cannabis have previously been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects, but little is known about their effects in resistant breast cancer. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of terpenes found in cannabis in in vitro chemotherapy-resistant model of breast cancer. We aimed to identify whether five terpenes found in cannabis produced anti-cancer effects, and if their effects were improved upon co-treatment with cannabinoids and flavonoids also found in cannabis. Nerolidol and β-caryophyllene produced the greatest cytotoxic effects, activated the apoptotic cascade and reduced cellular invasion. Combinations with the flavonoid kaempferol potentiated the cytotoxic effects of ocimene, terpinolene, and β-myrcene. Combinations of nerolidol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol produced variable responses ranging from antagonism and additivity to synergy, depending on concentrations used. Our results indicate that cannabis terpenes, alone or combined with cannabinoids and flavonoids, produced anti-cancer effects in chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cell lines. This study is a first step in the identification of compounds that could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of resistant breast cancer.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35704944/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220616065854&v=2.17.6 June 15, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Inhibitory Effects of Cannabinoids on Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Enzyme Activities
Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Apr 19;5(1):85-94. doi: 10.1159/000524086. eCollection 2022.
INTRODUCTION: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are two cholinergic enzymes catalyzing the reaction of cleaving acetylcholine into acetate and choline at the neuromuscular junction. Abnormal hyperactivity of AChE and BChE can lead to cholinergic deficiency, which is associated with several neurological disorders including cognitive decline and memory impairments. Preclinical studies support that some cannabinoids including cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may exert pharmacological effects on the cholinergic system, but it remains unclear whether cannabinoids can inhibit AChE and BChE activities. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of a panel of cannabinoids including CBD, Δ8-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabicitran (CBT), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN) on AChE and BChE activities.
METHODS: The inhibitory effects of cannabinoids on the activities of AChE and BChE enzymes were evaluated with the Ellman method using acetyl- and butyryl-thiocholines as substrates. The inhibition mechanism of cannabinoids on AChE and BChE was studied with enzyme kinetic assays including the Lineweaver-Burk and Michaelis-Menten analyses. In addition, computational-based molecular docking experiments were performed to explore the interactions between the cannabinoids and the enzyme proteins.
RESULTS: Cannabinoids including CBD, Δ8-THC, CBG, CBGA, CBT, CBDV, CBC, and CBN (at 200 µM) inhibited the activities of AChE and BChE by 70.8, 83.7, 92.9, 76.7, 66.0, 79.3, 13.7, and 30.5%, and by 86.8, 80.8, 93.2, 87.1, 77.0, 78.5, 27.9, and 22.0%, respectively. The inhibitory effects of these cannabinoids (with IC50 values ranging from 85.2 to >200 µM for AChE and 107.1 to >200 µM for BChE) were less potent as compared to the positive control galantamine (IC50 1.21 and 6.86 µM for AChE and BChE, respectively). In addition, CBD, as a representative cannabinoid, displayed a competitive type of inhibition on both AChE and BChE. Data from the molecular docking studies suggested that cannabinoids interacted with several amino acid residues on the enzyme proteins, which supported their overall inhibitory effects on AChE and BChE.
CONCLUSION: Cannabinoids showed moderate inhibitory effects on the activities of AChE and BChE enzymes, which may contribute to their modulatory effects on the cholinergic system. Further studies using cell-based and in vivo models are warranted to evaluate whether cannabinoids’ neuroprotective effects are associated with their anti-cholinesterase activities.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35702400/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220616065854&v=2.17.6 June 15, 2022 10:00 am
PubMed: Use of cannabis in the treatment of animals: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Anim Health Res Rev. 2022 Jun 15:1-14. doi: 10.1017/S1466252321000189. Online ahead of print.
Cannabis is used in the treatment of several human conditions; however, its use is still less explored in veterinary medicine. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of efficacy and safety of the use of cannabis for the treatment of animal disease. A literature search was performed for studies published until 16 March 2021 in five databases. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that reported the efficacy or safety of cannabis in the treatment of animal disease were included. The RoB 2 Tool was used to assess the risk of bias. A total of 2427 records were identified, of which six studies fully met the eligibility criteria. RCTs were conducted in dogs with osteoarthritis (n = 4), with epilepsy (n = 1), and with behavioral disorders (n = 1). All studies used cannabidiol (CBD) oil in monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. Studies used CBD at 2 or 2.5 mg kg-1 twice daily (n = 4), orally (n = 5), during 4 or 6 weeks (n = 3), and compared CBD with placebo (n = 5). CBD significantly reduced pain and increased activity in dogs with osteoarthritis (n = 3). Moreover, CBD significantly reduced the frequency of seizures in dogs with epilepsy (n = 1) and the aggressive behavior of dogs (n = 1). Although promising results were identified, studies were heterogeneous and presented risks of bias that required caution in the interpretation of findings. Therefore, there was some evidence to support the use of CBD in dogs with osteoarthritis to reduce pain and increased activity, but limited evidence against epilepsy and behavioral problems. In addition, CBD was well tolerated with mild adverse effects. More RCTs with high quality of evidence are needed, including greater numbers of animal subjects, additional species, and clear readout measures to confirm these findings.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35703023/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220616065854&v=2.17.6 June 15, 2022 10:00 am
Several companies have announced plans to develop CBD business in Thailand following the removal of hemp and marijuana from the country’s list of dangerous drugs…
June 15, 2022 4:35 am