PubMed: Cannabidiol reveals a disruptive strategy for 21st century epilepsy drug discovery

PubMed: Cannabidiol reveals a disruptive strategy for 21st century epilepsy drug discovery

Exp Neurol. 2022 Nov 26;360:114288. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114288. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36471511 | DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114288

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36471511/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221206152044&v=2.17.9 December 6, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Efficacy of organic fungicides against hemp powdery mildew caused by <em>Golovinomyces ambrosiae</em> in a greenhouse in Tennessee

PubMed: Efficacy of organic fungicides against hemp powdery mildew caused by <em>Golovinomyces ambrosiae</em> in a greenhouse in Tennessee

Plant Dis. 2022 Dec 5. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-22-2094-RE. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36471461 | DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-22-2094-RE

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36471461/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221206152044&v=2.17.9 December 6, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: <em>Letter to the Editor:</em> Would Cannabidiol Be a Therapeutic Alternative to Treat Monkeypox Symptoms?

PubMed: <em>Letter to the Editor:</em> Would Cannabidiol Be a Therapeutic Alternative to Treat Monkeypox Symptoms?

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0261. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36472458 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0261

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36472458/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221206152044&v=2.17.9 December 6, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: <em>Cannabis sativa</em> and Cannabidiol: A Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases?

PubMed: <em>Cannabis sativa</em> and Cannabidiol: A Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Nov 14;5(1):207-219. doi: 10.1159/000527335. eCollection 2022 Jan-Dec.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36467781 | PMC:PMC9710321 | DOI:10.1159/000527335

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36467781/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: In utero exposure to cannabidiol disrupts select early-life behaviors in a sex-specific manner

PubMed: In utero exposure to cannabidiol disrupts select early-life behaviors in a sex-specific manner

Transl Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 5;12(1):501. doi: 10.1038/s41398-022-02271-8.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36470874 | DOI:10.1038/s41398-022-02271-8

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36470874/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221206152044&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Cannabinoid non-cannabidiol site modulation of TRPV2 structure and function

PubMed: Cannabinoid non-cannabidiol site modulation of TRPV2 structure and function

Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 5;13(1):7483. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-35163-y.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36470868 | DOI:10.1038/s41467-022-35163-y

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36470868/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221206152044&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Neuroprotection of cannabidiol in epileptic rats: Gut microbiome and metabolome sequencing

PubMed: Neuroprotection of cannabidiol in epileptic rats: Gut microbiome and metabolome sequencing

Front Nutr. 2022 Nov 16;9:1028459. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.1028459. eCollection 2022.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36466385 | PMC:PMC9709218 | DOI:10.3389/fnut.2022.1028459

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36466385/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Evaluations of Skin Permeability of Cannabidiol and Its Topical Formulations by Skin Membrane-Based Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay and Franz Cell Diffusion Assay

PubMed: Evaluations of Skin Permeability of Cannabidiol and Its Topical Formulations by Skin Membrane-Based Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay and Franz Cell Diffusion Assay

Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Oct 10;5(1):129-137. doi: 10.1159/000526769. eCollection 2022 Jan-Dec.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36467778 | PMC:PMC9710319 | DOI:10.1159/000526769

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36467778/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: The Influence of Cannabidiol on the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Healthy Subjects

PubMed: The Influence of Cannabidiol on the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Healthy Subjects

Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Nov 4;5(1):199-206. doi: 10.1159/000527189. eCollection 2022 Jan-Dec.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36467779 | PMC:PMC9710314 | DOI:10.1159/000527189

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36467779/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Integration of Cannabis Extract Tetrahydrocannabinol:Cannabidiol in an Interdisciplinary Therapy Setting: A Case of Chronic Multilocular Pain Disorder

PubMed: Integration of Cannabis Extract Tetrahydrocannabinol:Cannabidiol in an Interdisciplinary Therapy Setting: A Case of Chronic Multilocular Pain Disorder

Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2022 Nov 22;5(1):220-225. doi: 10.1159/000527521. eCollection 2022 Jan-Dec.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36467780 | PMC:PMC9710317 | DOI:10.1159/000527521

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36467780/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 5, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Determination of variability of terpenes and terpenoids in Cannabis sativa by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

PubMed: Determination of variability of terpenes and terpenoids in Cannabis sativa by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

J Chromatogr A. 2022 Nov 24;1687:463669. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463669. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36463647 | DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463669

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36463647/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221205152811&v=2.17.9 December 4, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Regional differentiation based on volatile compounds via HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemical compositions comparison of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds

PubMed: Regional differentiation based on volatile compounds via HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemical compositions comparison of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds

Food Res Int. 2022 Dec;162(Pt B):112151. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2022.112151. Epub 2022 Nov 19.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36461412 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2022.112151

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36461412/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221203152058&v=2.17.9 December 3, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: A protocol for rapid generation cycling (speed breeding) of hemp (Cannabis sativa) for research and agriculture

PubMed: A protocol for rapid generation cycling (speed breeding) of hemp (Cannabis sativa) for research and agriculture

Plant J. 2022 Dec 1. doi: 10.1111/tpj.16051. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36458321 | DOI:10.1111/tpj.16051

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36458321/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221202152012&v=2.17.9 December 2, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: A Micronutrient Mixture with Collagen Peptides, Probiotics, Cannabidiol, and diet may Reduce Aging, and Development and Progression of Age-Related Alzheimer's Disease, and Improve its Treatment

PubMed: A Micronutrient Mixture with Collagen Peptides, Probiotics, Cannabidiol, and diet may Reduce Aging, and Development and Progression of Age-Related Alzheimer's Disease, and Improve its Treatment

Mech Ageing Dev. 2022 Nov 29:111757. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2022.111757. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36460123 | DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2022.111757

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36460123/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221203152058&v=2.17.9 December 2, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol Protects Striatal Neurons by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

PubMed: Cannabidiol Protects Striatal Neurons by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0090. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aggregation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a pathological trait shared by many neurodegenerative disorders. This aggregation leads to the persistent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ultimately apoptosis as a result of ER stress. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in various cellular and animal models of neurodegeneration, which has been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the role of CBD in the context of protein folding and ER stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CBD is neuroprotective against an in vitro model of ER stress. Materials and Methods: Using different exposure models, mouse striatal STHdhQ7/Q7 cells were exposed to either the ER stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) and/or CBD. Cell viabilities assays were used to investigate the effect of CBD pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment on TG-induced cell death. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure changes in ER stress regulators and UPR genes such as glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), and caspase-12. Results: Cell viability increased significantly when cells were pre-treated with CBD before TG exposure. An increase in the gene expression of pro-survival ER chaperone GRP78 and ER-resident neurotrophic factor MANF coincided with this effect and decreased ER-mediated pro-apoptotic markers such as BIM, and caspase-12 was observed. Conclusions: These data suggest that CBD pre-treatment is neuroprotective against TG-induced cell death. Understanding the role of ER stress in CBD-driven neuroprotection provides insight into the therapeutic potential of CBD and the role of ER dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders.

PMID:36454179 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0090

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36454179/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Medical marijuana legalization in Oklahoma: Effects on neonatal exposure to opiates

PubMed: Medical marijuana legalization in Oklahoma: Effects on neonatal exposure to opiates

Am J Perinatol. 2022 Nov 30. doi: 10.1055/a-1990-8311. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The US opioid epidemic has been characterized by increases in opioid misuse, overdose deaths, and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Research suggests that marijuana legalization has contributed to decreased use of opiates, although many studies had methodological weaknesses and failed to address the pregnant population. Implementation of medical cannabis laws has the potential to reduce maternal opioid use and, therefore, neonatal exposure to the drugs.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between Oklahoma’s implementation of state medical marijuana laws and the neonatal exposure to opioids.

METHODS: Electronic medical records at two sites (Oklahoma City and Lawton) were searched for results of cord, urine and meconium screens to detect amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, ethanol, opiates, phencyclidine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Two study periods were compared: 19 months before Oklahoma’s medical marijuana law took effect and 19 months after legalization began.

RESULTS: A total of 16,804 babies were born alive at the two sites during the study period. The rate of positive THC tests per 1000 liveborn infants significantly increased from 16.2 per 1000 during the pre-law period to 22.2 per 1000 during the post-law period, p = 0.004. Neonatal opioid exposure incidence showed a non-significant decrease from 7.6 positive tests per 1000 liveborn infants to 6.8 per 1000 from pre-law to post-law period, p = 0.542. The number of positive tests for THC and concomitant use of opioids doubled from the pre-law period (n = 4) to post-law (n = 9), but there were too few cases for statistical significance. Infants at the more rural site had significantly higher rates for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, and THC, with a trend toward higher rates for opiates.

CONCLUSION: Marijuana legalization was related to significant increases in positive test rates for THC, but no significant change/association was noted for neonatal exposure to opioids.

PMID:36452967 | DOI:10.1055/a-1990-8311

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36452967/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Antitumor Effects of Delta (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol on Cholangiocarcinoma Cells and Xenograft Mouse Models

PubMed: Antitumor Effects of Delta (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol on Cholangiocarcinoma Cells and Xenograft Mouse Models

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022 Nov 21;2022:6477132. doi: 10.1155/2022/6477132. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very aggressive tumor. The development of a new therapeutic drug for CCA is required. This study aims to evaluate the antitumor effect of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), and cannabinol (CBN), a minor, low-psychoactive cannabinoid, on CCA cells and xenograft mice. THC and CBN were isolated, and their identities were confirmed by comparing 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra and mass spectra with a database. Cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell apoptosis assays were performed in HuCCT1 human CCA cells treated with THC or CBN. The phosphorylation of signaling molecules in HuCCT1 cells was detected. To determine the effects of THC and CBN in an animal model, HuCCT1 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. After the tumors reached an appropriate size, the mice were treated with THC or CBN for 21 days. Tumor volumes were monitored and calculated. The 1H- and 13C-NMR data of THC and CBN were almost identical to those reported in the literature. THC and CBN significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis in HuCCT1 cells. The phosphorylation of AKT, GSK-3α/β, and ERK1/2 decreased in HuCCT1 cells treated with THC or CBN. CCA xenograft mice treated with THC showed significantly slower tumor progression and smaller tumor volumes than control mice. THC and CBN induced apoptosis in CCA by inhibiting the AKT and MAPK pathways. These findings provide a strong rationale for THC and CBN as therapeutic options for CCA.

PMID:36452140 | PMC:PMC9705094 | DOI:10.1155/2022/6477132

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36452140/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Single cannabidiol administration affects anxiety-, obsessive compulsive-, object-memory, and attention-like behaviors in mice in a sex and concentration dependent manner

PubMed: Single cannabidiol administration affects anxiety-, obsessive compulsive-, object-memory, and attention-like behaviors in mice in a sex and concentration dependent manner

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2022 Nov 28:173498. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2022.173498. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36455670 | DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2022.173498

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36455670/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221202152012&v=2.17.9 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel for analysis of homemade tetrahydrocannabinol mixtures

PubMed: Thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel for analysis of homemade tetrahydrocannabinol mixtures

Forensic Toxicol. 2022 Jan;40(1):125-131. doi: 10.1007/s11419-021-00592-9. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Various forms of cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products are sold in Japan. CBD is easily converted to mixtures of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and its isomer, ∆8-THC, using household chemicals like diluted hydrochloric acid. This ease of production increases concerns regarding production of homemade THC mixtures. It is difficult to separate ∆9-THC, ∆8-THC, and CBD using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on conventional silica gel. The selectivity of TLC on silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel (AgNO3-silica gel) differs from that of conventional silica gel. This study thus aimed to evaluate the separation ability of AgNO3-silica gel TLC.

METHODS: To evaluate potential separation ability, standards of five THC isomers (∆9-THC, ∆8-THC, a pair of diastereomers of ∆10-THC, and ∆6a,10a-THC), CBD, CBN, and ∆9-THCA were analyzed by 10% AgNO3-silica gel TLC (developed using toluene, system A) and silica gel TLC [developed using n-hexane/diethyl ether (8:2, v/v), system B]. Then, mock homemade THC mixtures, prepared by heating crystalline CBD in acidic ethanol, were analyzed using systems A and B.

RESULTS: System A showed clear separation between the five THC isomers and between ∆9-THC, ∆8-THC, CBD, and their by-products in the mock homemade THC mixture. However, system B did not separate some combinations of THC isomers and gave a single group-like spot to the THC mixture.

CONCLUSION: AgNO3-silica gel TLC shows high separation ability between THC isomers and among ∆9-THC, ∆8-THC, and CBD. It will thus be useful for analyzing homemade THC mixtures.

PMID:36454483 | DOI:10.1007/s11419-021-00592-9

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36454483/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Molecular Mechanisms Through Which Cannabidiol May Affect Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Inflammation, Tissue Regeneration, and Anabolism: A Narrative Review

PubMed: Molecular Mechanisms Through Which Cannabidiol May Affect Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Inflammation, Tissue Regeneration, and Anabolism: A Narrative Review

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0220. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating constituent of the cannabis plant, recently gained a lot of interest among athletes, since it is no longer considered as a prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The increasing prevalence of CBD use among athletes is driven by a perceived improvement in muscle recovery and a reduction in pain. However, compelling evidence from intervention studies is lacking and the precise mechanisms through which CBD may improve muscle recovery remain unknown. This highlights the need for more scientific studies and an evidence-based background. In the current review, the state-of-the-art knowledge on the effects of CBD on skeletal muscle tissue is summarized with special emphasis on the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets. More specifically, the large variety of receptor families that are believed to be involved in CBD’s physiological effects are discussed. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies that investigated the actual effects of CBD on skeletal muscle metabolism, inflammation, tissue regeneration, and anabolism are summarized, together with the functional effects of CBD supplementation on muscle recovery in human intervention trials. Overall, CBD was effective to increase the expression of metabolic regulators in muscle of obese mice (e.g., Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3). CBD treatment in rodents reduced muscle inflammation following eccentric exercise (i.e., nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB]), in a model of muscle dystrophy (e.g., interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) and of obesity (e.g., COX-2, NF-κB). In addition, CBD did not affect in vitro or in vivo muscle anabolism, but improved satellite cell differentiation in dystrophic muscle. In humans, there are some indications that CBD supplementation improved muscle recovery (e.g., creatine kinase) and performance (e.g., squat performance). However, CBD doses were highly variable (between 16.7 and 150 mg) and there are some methodological concerns that should be considered. Conclusion: CBD has the prospective to become an adequate supplement that may improve muscle recovery. However, this research domain is still in its infancy and future studies addressing the molecular and functional effects of CBD in response to exercise are required to further elucidate the ergogenic potential of CBD.

PMID:36454174 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0220

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36454174/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Paxlovid<sup>TM</sup> Information From FDA and Guidance for AES Members

PubMed: Paxlovid<sup>TM</sup> Information From FDA and Guidance for AES Members

Epilepsy Curr. 2022 Apr 4;22(3):201-204. doi: 10.1177/15357597221088415. eCollection 2022 Jun.

ABSTRACT

This American Epilepsy Society (AES) official statement provides information and preliminary guidance to Society members related to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) December 22, 2021 Emergency Use Authorization for Paxlovid™ for the oral treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adults and children (≥12 years and weighing ≥40 kg). Paxlovid is likely to be widely prescribed, and important considerations for patients on antiseizure medications (ASMs) include key contraindications and potential toxicity or dose adjustments while taking Paxlovid. This statement highlights concerns and provides information about their pharmacologic basis. Of particular concern, concomitant use of Paxlovid with the ASMs carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone is contraindicated, because they are strong inducers of the CYP3A4 isozyme that metabolizes Paxlovid and thereby could cause loss of virologic response and development of resistance. Alternate oral or intravenous COVID-19 treatments should be considered. A second concern is that Paxlovid may increase the plasma concentrations of many ASMs, because it inhibits the CYP3A4 isozyme. ASMs that are metabolized, at least in part, by CYP3A4 include cannabidiol, carbamazepine, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, ethosuximide, everolimus, felbamate, lacosamide, midazolam, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, stiripentol, tiagabine, and zonisamide. Patients receiving these medications may warrant closer monitoring while being treated with Paxlovid.

PMID:36451851 | PMC:PMC9684591 | DOI:10.1177/15357597221088415

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36451851/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221201152042&v=2.17.8 December 1, 2022 11:00 am

Honduras, a hemp laggard, in initial stages of setting framework

Honduras, a hemp laggard, in initial stages of setting framework
Honduras, a hemp laggard, in initial stages of setting framework

Playing catchup with other Central American countries, Honduras now is moving to establish a framework for industrial hemp, Stakeholders and government officials explored the promise…

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#CBD #Hemp

Honduras, a hemp laggard, in initial stages of setting framework


December 1, 2022 7:10 am

PubMed: Cadmium-resistant <em>Streptomyces</em> stimulates phytoextraction potential of <em>Crotalaria juncea</em> L. in cadmium-polluted soil

PubMed: Cadmium-resistant <em>Streptomyces</em> stimulates phytoextraction potential of <em>Crotalaria juncea</em> L. in cadmium-polluted soil

Int J Phytoremediation. 2022 Nov 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2022.2152424. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This work evaluated the competence of two strains of cadmium (Cd)-resistant Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces rapamycinicus K5PN1, an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producer, and Streptomyces cyaneus 11-10SHTh, a siderophore producer on promoting Cd phytoextraction by sunn hemp. The results showed that S. rapamycinicus improved root elongation of sunn hemp seedlings under Cd stress conditions. S. rapamycinicus and S. cyaneus were colonized on the root surface of sunn hemp at concentrations of 2.3 × 104 and 6.4 × 103 CFU g-1 root fresh weight, respectively. The results of pot-culture experiments showed that S. rapamycinicus increased the root and shoot lengths, and dry biomass of sunn hemp planted in high Cd-contaminated soil. The Cd concentration in the leaves of sunn hemp inoculated with S. cyaneus (73.82 ± 2.20 mg kg-1 plant dry wt) was higher than that of plants with S. rapamycinicus inoculation and the uninoculated control. The phytoextraction of Cd by sunn hemp was significantly increased with Cd-resistant Streptomyces inoculation. In conclusion, both strains of Cd-resistant Streptomyces had potential on enhancing Cd phytoextraction efficiency of sunn hemp. Our study suggests the application of Cd-resistant Streptomyces can improve Cd phytoextraction by sunn hemp for restoration of Cd-polluted sites.

PMID:36448248 | DOI:10.1080/15226514.2022.2152424

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36448248/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 30, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Ice Flavor-Related Discussions on Twitter: Content Analysis

PubMed: Ice Flavor-Related Discussions on Twitter: Content Analysis

J Med Internet Res. 2022 Nov 30;24(11):e41785. doi: 10.2196/41785.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently restricted characterizing flavors in tobacco products. As a result, ice hybrid-flavored e-cigarettes, which combine a cooling flavor with fruit or other flavors (eg, banana ice), emerged on the market. Like menthol, ice-flavored e-cigarettes produce a cooling sensory experience. It is unclear if ice hybrid-flavored e-cigarettes should be considered characterizing flavors or menthol, limiting regulatory action. Monitoring the public’s conversations about ice-flavored e-cigarettes on Twitter may help inform the tobacco control community about these products and contribute to the US FDA policy targets in the future.

OBJECTIVE: This study documented the themes pertaining to vaping and ice flavor-related conversations on Twitter. Our goal was to identify key conversation trends and ascertain users’ recent experiences with ice-flavored e-cigarette products.

METHODS: Posts containing vaping-related (eg, “vape,” “ecig,” “e-juice,” or “e-cigarette”) and ice-related (ie, “Ice,” “Cool,” “Frost,” and “Arctic”) terms were collected from Twitter’s streaming application programming interface from January 1 to July 21, 2021. After removing retweets, a random sample of posts (N=2001) was selected, with 590 posts included in the content analysis. Themes were developed through an inductive approach. Theme co-occurrence was also examined.

RESULTS: Many of the 590 posts were marked as (or consisted of) marketing material (n=306, 51.9%), contained positive personal testimonials (n=180, 30.5%), and mentioned disposable pods (n=117, 19.8%). Other themes had relatively low prevalence in the sample: neutral personal testimonials (n=45, 7.6%), cannabidiol products (n=41, 7%), negative personal testimonials (n=41, 7%), “official” flavor description (n=37, 6.3%), ice-flavored JUUL (n=19, 3.2%), information seeking (n=14, 2.4%), and comparison to combustible tobacco (n=10, 1.7%). The most common co-occurring themes in a single tweet were related to marketing and disposable pods (n=73, 12.4%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer insight into the public’s experience with and understanding of ice-flavored e-cigarette products. Ice-flavored e-cigarette products are actively marketed on Twitter, and the messages about them are positive. Public health education campaigns on the harms of flavored e-cigarettes may help to reduce positive social norms about ice-flavored products. Future studies should evaluate the relationship between exposure to personal testimonials of ice-flavored vaping products and curiosity, harm perceptions, and experimentation with these products among priority populations.

PMID:36449326 | DOI:10.2196/41785

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36449326/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 30, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Longitudinal Relationship between the Introduction of Medicinal Cannabis and Polypharmacy: An Australian Real-World Evidence Study

PubMed: Longitudinal Relationship between the Introduction of Medicinal Cannabis and Polypharmacy: An Australian Real-World Evidence Study

Int J Clin Pract. 2022 Nov 7;2022:8535207. doi: 10.1155/2022/8535207. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies recommend medicinal cannabis (MC) as a potential treatment for chronic pain (CP) when conventional therapies are not successful; however, data from Australia is limited. This real-world evidence study explored how the introduction of MC related to concomitant medication use over time. Long-term safety also was examined.

METHODS: Data were collected by the Emerald Clinics (a network of seven clinics located across Australia) as part of routine practice from Jan 2020 toJan 2021. Medications were classified by group: antidepressants, benzodiazepines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and total number of medications. Adverse events (AEs) were collected at each visit and subsequently coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 23 into the system organ class (SOC) and preferred term (PT). A total of 535 patients were analyzed.

RESULTS: The most common daily oral dose was 10 mg for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 15 mg for cannabidiol (CBD). With the introduction of MC, patients’ total number of medications consumed decreased over the course of one year; significant reductions in NSAIDs, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants were observed (p < .001). However, the number of prescribed opioid medications did not differ from baseline to the end of one year (p = .49). Only 6% of patients discontinued MC treatment during the study. A total of 600 AEs were reported in 310 patients during the reporting period and 97% of them were classified as nonserious. Discussion. Though observational in nature, these findings suggest MC is generally well-tolerated, consistent with the previous literature, and may reduce concomitant use of some medications. Due to study limitations, concomitant medication reductions cannot be causally attributed to MC. Nevertheless, these data underscore early signals that warrant further exploration in randomized trials.

PMID:36448002 | PMC:PMC9663249 | DOI:10.1155/2022/8535207

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36448002/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 30, 2022 11:00 am

Korean, Japanese partners to make, distribute advanced oral CBD product

Korean, Japanese partners to make, distribute advanced oral CBD product
Korean, Japanese partners to make, distribute advanced oral CBD product

A Korean pharmaceutical maker said it will partner with a Japanese company to complete development of a CBD “film” for oral intake. CTC Bio, Gyeonggi-do…

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Korean, Japanese partners to make, distribute advanced oral CBD product


November 30, 2022 5:15 am

PubMed: Cannabis use among pregnant women under different legalization frameworks in the United States

PubMed: Cannabis use among pregnant women under different legalization frameworks in the United States

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2022 Nov 28:1-6. doi: 10.1080/00952990.2022.2136035. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cannabis use in pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, yet its use among pregnant women in the United States has increased significantly.Objectives: This cross-sectional study explored how cannabis use in pregnant women varied between different cannabis legalization frameworks, that is, permitted use of cannabidiol (CBD)-only, medical cannabis, and adult-use cannabis.Methods: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2017 to 2020 was utilized with respondents classified by their state’s policies into CBD-only, medical, and adult-use groups. Outcome measures included prevalence of use and usage characteristics (frequency, method of intake, and reason for use) among pregnant women. Logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate the association between legal status and prevalence of use.Results: The unweighted dataset included 1,992 pregnant women. Recent cannabis use was reported by (weighted proportions): 2.4% (95%CI: 0-4.4) of respondents in the CBD-only group, 7.1% (95%CI: 4.0-10.1) in the medical group and 6.9% (95%CI: 3.0-10.9) in the adult-use group. Compared to the CBD-only group, respondents in the medical and adult-use groups were 4.5-fold (adjusted; 95%CI: 1.4-14.7; p = .01) and 4.7-fold (adjusted; 95%CI: 1.3-16.2; p = .02) more likely to use cannabis. Across all groups, smoking was the most common method of intake and over 49% of users reported using partially or entirely for adult-use purposes.Conclusions: The increased use with legalization motivates further research on the impacts of cannabis as a therapeutic agent during pregnancy and supports the need for increased screening and patient counseling regarding the potential effects of cannabis use on fetal development.

PMID:36443912 | DOI:10.1080/00952990.2022.2136035

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36443912/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: A cross-sectional survey exploring the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of Australian pharmacists toward medicinal cannabis

PubMed: A cross-sectional survey exploring the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of Australian pharmacists toward medicinal cannabis

Int J Clin Pharm. 2022 Nov 29. doi: 10.1007/s11096-022-01519-z. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Australian pharmacists currently dispense a wide range of prescription-only cannabis-based medicines. Recent regulatory changes will expand the role of pharmacists, allowing certain low-dose cannabidiol products to be supplied without a prescription in pharmacies. This harmonises Australia with many other countries where cannabidiol products are readily available to consumers.

AIM: To examine Australian pharmacists’ experience, knowledge and attitudes towards medicinal cannabis and their preparedness to supply over-the-counter low-dose cannabidiol products.

METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a 51-item on-line questionnaire that was informed by previous surveys of health professionals and assessed for face validity. Australian pharmacists were recruited to complete the survey between May and December 2021, primarily through professional pharmacy organisations. Pharmacists were included in the final dataset if they completed the demographic characteristics section and at least one additional section of the questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and relational statistical tests.

RESULTS: There were 272 attempts to complete this survey and 217 responses included in the final dataset. Over half of the respondents (60.0%, 130/217) had dispensed at least one medicinal cannabis prescription during their career and 58.5% (127/217) had received at least one medicinal cannabis enquiry in the last fortnight. Only around half (53.9%, 117/217) felt comfortable supplying medicinal cannabis products and fewer (39.3%, 79/201) were confident discussing cannabis-related enquiries. More than half of the respondents (58.7%, 118/201) supported the provision of low-dose cannabidiol products through pharmacies. Two-thirds (67.8%, 80/118) of respondents achieved relatively low scores (< 60%) in the knowledge component of the survey. Most respondents (94.2%, 178/189) endorsed a need for further training in this area.

CONCLUSION: Australian pharmacists tended to support medicinal cannabis availability and improved access to low-dose cannabidiol products via pharmacies. However, results highlight a need for improved training and education of pharmacists around cannabis-based medicines.

PMID:36446995 | DOI:10.1007/s11096-022-01519-z

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36446995/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Maternal and Fetal Exposure to (-)-Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol and Its Major Metabolites in Pregnant Mice Is Differentially Impacted by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP)

PubMed: Maternal and Fetal Exposure to (-)-Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol and Its Major Metabolites in Pregnant Mice Is Differentially Impacted by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP)

Drug Metab Dispos. 2022 Nov 29:DMD-AR-2022-001110. doi: 10.1124/dmd.122.001110. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

(-)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary pharmacological active constituent of cannabis. 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH) are respectively the active and nonactive circulating metabolites of THC in humans. While previous animal studies reported that THC could be a substrate of mouse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we have shown, in vitro, that only THC-COOH is a weak substrate of human BCRP, but not of P-gp. To confirm these findings and to investigate the role of P-gp and/or Bcrp in the maternal-fetal disposition of THC and its metabolites, we administrated 3 mg/kg THC retro-orbitally to FVB wild-type (WT), P-gp -/-, Bcrp -/- or P-gp-/- /Bcrp-/- pregnant mice on gestation-day 18 and estimated the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the cannabinoids in the maternal plasma, maternal brain, placenta, and fetus, as well as the tissue/maternal plasma AUC geometric mean ratios (GMRs) using a pooled data bootstrap approach. We found that the dose-normalized maternal plasma AUCs of THC in P-gp-/- and P-gp-/- /Bcrp-/- mice, and the placenta-to-maternal plasma AUC GMR of THC in Bcrp-/- mice were 279%, 271%, and 167% of those in WT mice, respectively. Surprisingly, the tissue-to-maternal plasma AUC GMRs of THC and its major metabolites in the maternal brain, placenta, or fetus in P-gp -/-, Bcrp -/- or P-gp-/- /Bcrp-/- mice were 28-78% of those in WT mice. This study revealed that P-gp and Bcrp do not play a role in limiting maternal brain and fetal exposure to THC and its major metabolites in pregnant mice. Significance Statement This study systematically investigated whether P-gp and/or Bcrp in pregnant mice can alter the disposition of THC, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH. Surprisingly, except for Bcrp, which limits placental (but not fetal) exposure to THC, we found that P-gp-/- , Bcrp-/- , and/or P-gp-/- /Bcrp-/- significantly decreased exposure to THC and/or its metabolites in maternal brain, placenta, or fetus. The mechanistic basis for this decrease is unclear and needs further investigation. If replicated in humans, P-gp or BCRP based drug-cannabinoid interactions are not of concern.

PMID:36446608 | DOI:10.1124/dmd.122.001110

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36446608/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Comparing the extraction methods, chemical composition, phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of edible oils from Cannabis sativa and Silybum marianu seeds

PubMed: Comparing the extraction methods, chemical composition, phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of edible oils from Cannabis sativa and Silybum marianu seeds

Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 29;12(1):20609. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-25030-7.

ABSTRACT

In the study the cold-pressed, natural (unfiltered, unrefined) vegetable oils: hemp and milk thistle seed oils were tested for their chemical composition and antioxidant properties. The physico-chemical parameters, content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. Solid phase extraction and simple extraction with the use of methanol, ethanol, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol were used to obtain the extracts for the analysis of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in oils. The composition of phenolic compounds was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and spectrophotometric test with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant property of extracts was established by means of the following methods: with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, ABTS•+ (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant parameter) and CUPRAC (cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity). Moreover the influence of chlorogenic acid on the inhibition of lipid peroxidation process in the hemp and milk thistle seed oils was also investigated. The tested oils showed different antioxidant properties which was related to the their different chemical composition. The main phenolic compounds present in hemp seed oil were vanillic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids, (-)epicatechin, catechin, kaempferol and procyanidin B2, whereas in milk thistle seed oil-catechins, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, p-coumaric acid, phloridzin, quercetin, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol, and syringic acid. The methanolic extracts of hemp and milk thistle seed oils showed the highest antiradical activity, whereas the ethanolic extracts revealed the best reducing properties. The obtained antioxidant parameters for hemp seed oil were: the IC50 = 3.433 ± 0.017 v/v (DPPH test), the percent of ABTS•+ inhibition = 93.301 ± 1.099%, FRAP value = 1063.883 ± 39.225 µmol Fe2+, CUPRAC value = 420.471 ± 1.765 µmol of Trolox. Whereas the antioxidant parameters for milk thistle seed oil were: the IC50 = 5.280 ± 0.584 v/v (DPPH test), 79.59 ± 3.763% (ABTS test), 2891.08 ± 270.044 µmol Fe2+ (FRAP test), 255.48 ± 26.169 µmol of Trolox (CUPRAC assay). Chlorogenic acid effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation process in hemp and milk thistle seed oils.

PMID:36446937 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-25030-7

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36446937/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221130152322&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Medicinal cannabis for patients with chronic non-cancer pain: analysis of safety and concomitant medications

PubMed: Medicinal cannabis for patients with chronic non-cancer pain: analysis of safety and concomitant medications

Int J Pharm Pract. 2022 Nov 29:riac073. doi: 10.1093/ijpp/riac073. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the incidence of adverse events (AEs) reported by patients when initiating medicinal cannabis treatment for chronic pain, and the association of cannabis constituents, dose and concomitant medicines with AE incidence.

METHODS: Patient demographics, cannabis products and AE data were collected as part of the Cannabis Access Clinics Observational Study, and concomitant medicines were obtained from patient health summaries provided by referring doctors. Cannabis products were grouped by their constituents as either cannabidiol-only or containing both cannabidiol and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

KEY FINDINGS: From a total of 275 patients, each had a median of six concomitant medicines, with opioids (n = 179; 65%) the most common. A total of 35.6% patients took 10 or more other medicines, and they were associated with a 3.6 times higher likelihood to report the AE of fatigue (P = 0.048). Patients who received concomitant gabapentinoids were 2.4 times more likely to report dizziness (P = 0.036), patients on tricyclic antidepressants were 1.8 times more likely to report somnolence (P = 0.034) and 3.4 times more likely to report anxiety (P = 0.04), when compared with patients who were not prescribed those classes of medications. Those patients who were prescribed products containing both cannabidiol and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol were 1.5 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have experienced an AE when compared with those prescribed only cannabidiol.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that certain concomitant medications and cannabis constituents may be associated with AE incidence when initiating medicinal cannabis. These potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions require further study to develop guidance for prescribers and pharmacists.

PMID:36445409 | DOI:10.1093/ijpp/riac073

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36445409/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Hexahydrocannabinol on the Light Cannabis Market: The Latest "New" Entry

PubMed: Hexahydrocannabinol on the Light Cannabis Market: The Latest "New" Entry

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Nov 23. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0253. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hexahydrocannabinols (HHCs), referred to as (9R)-HHC and (9S)-HHC diastereoisomers, are poorly studied cannabinoids naturally found in small concentrations in the pollen and the seeds of the hemp plants. Aim: In this study, for the first time, we describe the finding of (9R)-HHC and (9S)-HHC in two commercialized hemp derived products. Methods: The achievement of reference standards by semisynthetic or isolation approach allows us to develop and validate a gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of HHCs in hemp-derived resin. Results: The two analyzed samples showed percentage of 42.5 and 41.5 for (9R)-HHC and of 23.6 and 23.6 for (9S)-HHC. Conclusions: Despite the lack of in-depth studies about HHCs activity, potency, toxicity, and safety, these cannabinoids are emerging on the light-cannabis (hemp) market probably because legislations still do not clearly regulate them. Since analytical assay for hemp-derived products usually include only Δ9-THC, THC-A, CBD, and CBD-A, a thorough investigation could be carried out to reveal the possible addition of “new” compounds that might be a matter of safety.

PMID:36445181 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0253

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36445181/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Construction of hemp seed protein isolate-phosphatidylcholine stablized oleogel-in-water gel system and its effect on structural properties and oxidation stability

PubMed: Construction of hemp seed protein isolate-phosphatidylcholine stablized oleogel-in-water gel system and its effect on structural properties and oxidation stability

Food Chem. 2023 Mar 15;404(Pt A):134520. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.134520. Epub 2022 Oct 6.

ABSTRACT

Rice bran wax was added to hemp seed oil (HSO) to prepare oleogel, and hemp seed protein isolate (HPI)-phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as the emulsifier to obtain an oleogel-in-water (Og/W) gel system. The effect of HPI concentration on the construction of gel system was studied. Microscopic observations found that the oil droplets were encapsulated by the emulsifier. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the increase in HPI concentration promoted the interaction between PC and protein, but didn’t affect the crystal structure of gel. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that when the HPI concentration was 8 %, the sample formed a dense gel network and had good thermal stability. At this time, the oil holding capacity of gel was 98.81 ± 0.08 %, and the gel hardness was 109.55 ± 1.74 g. After 30 days of storage, the retention rate of Δ9-THC reached 96.3 %, and the peroxide value was 4.98 mmol/kg.

PMID:36444032 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.134520

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36444032/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis use, risk behaviours and harms in Brazil: A comprehensive review of available data indicators

PubMed: Cannabis use, risk behaviours and harms in Brazil: A comprehensive review of available data indicators

Drug Alcohol Rev. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1111/dar.13571. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

ISSUES: Cannabis use and related health/social outcome indicator data for Brazil-where non-medical cannabis is generally illegal-are limited.

APPROACH: Towards a comprehensive overview of relevant indicators, we searched primary databases by combining MeSH-index terms related to cannabis, geographic location and subtopic terms (e.g., use, health, mortality) focusing on cannabis use and key outcome indicators in Brazil since 2010. In addition, relevant ‘grey literature’ (e.g., survey reports) was identified. Key indicator data were mainly narratively summarised.

KEY FINDINGS: Overall, cannabis use has increased somewhat since pre-2010, with (past-year) use rates measured at 2-3% for general population adults, yet 5% or higher among youth and/or (e.g., post-secondary) student populations. For key risk behaviours, the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol-positivity among motor-vehicle drivers has been measured at <2%. While the prevalence of cannabis use disorder appears to have decreased, the relative proportion of treatment provided for cannabis-related problems increased. National- and local-based studies indicated an association of cannabis use with mental health harms, including depression and suicidality. Although some non-representative and/or local studies contain information, other monitoring data, including cannabis-related risks and harms (e.g., cannabis-related driving, mortality, hospitalisations), are limited in availability.

IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cannabis use in Brazil is comparably low (e.g., relative to elsewhere in the Americas). Data on numerous key cannabis-related indicators is absent, or limited in scope for Brazil. Considering ongoing evolutions in cannabis control and its status as the most common illicit drug, more comprehensive surveillance of cannabis use and related outcomes is advised.

PMID:36443987 | DOI:10.1111/dar.13571

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36443987/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 29, 2022 11:00 am

History made in Costa Rica, as first hemp authorization is granted

History made in Costa Rica, as first hemp authorization is granted
History made in Costa Rica, as first hemp authorization is granted

An agriculture conglomerate has received the first authorization to grow and process hemp in Costa Rica under a recently signed resolution from the country’s agriculture…

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History made in Costa Rica, as first hemp authorization is granted


November 29, 2022 6:38 am

PubMed: Uncovering the secrets of industrial hemp in food and nutrition: The trends, challenges, and new-age perspectives

PubMed: Uncovering the secrets of industrial hemp in food and nutrition: The trends, challenges, and new-age perspectives

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022 Nov 28:1-20. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2149468. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp is a valuable crop with a wide range of use, from applications in foods and textiles to pharmaceuticals. Over recent years, the use of hemp as food and food ingredients has drastically increased. The growth is driven by numerous health benefits hemp possesses and its wide range of applications in the food industry. This review provides the scientific literature concerning the benefits of industrial hemp in the food industry. The relevant historical context of use, recent applications in the food industry, health benefits, various development challenges, and the global market outlook for hemp-based food products have been analyzed. Evidence suggests that today hemp is widely consumed as food or an ingredient in the food. Hemp-based foods are marketed as having various health benefits, although their reception by target consumers and success varies. Besides, scientific research on hemp-derived foods has dramatically increased over recent years. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the health benefits of hemp-based foods. Therefore, there is a promising growth trend in producing novel foods from industrial hemp. Nevertheless, due to health concerns related to THC, there is a general need for regulatory compliance when integrating hemp into foods to ensure product safety before use.

PMID:36440859 | DOI:10.1080/10408398.2022.2149468

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36440859/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221128152151&v=2.17.8 November 28, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels: An update on cannabidiol and cannabigerol

PubMed: Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels: An update on cannabidiol and cannabigerol

Front Physiol. 2022 Nov 10;13:1066455. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.1066455. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Phytocannabinoids, found in the plant, Cannabis sativa, are an important class of natural compounds with physiological effects. These compounds can be generally divided into two classes: psychoactive and non-psychoactive. Those which do not impart psychoactivity are assumed to predominantly function via endocannabinoid receptor (CB) -independent pathways and molecular targets, including other receptors and ion channels. Among these targets, the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are particularly interesting due to their well-established role in electrical signalling in the nervous system. The interactions between the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), and Nav channels were studied in detail. In addition to CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), is another non-psychoactive molecule implicated as a potential therapeutic for several conditions, including pain via interactions with Nav channels. In this mini review, we provide an update on the interactions of Nav channels with CBD and CBG.

PMID:36439273 | PMC:PMC9691960 | DOI:10.3389/fphys.2022.1066455

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36439273/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221128152151&v=2.17.8 November 28, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Antitumorigenic Effect of Cannabidiol in Lung Cancer: What Do We Know So Far?-A Mini Review

PubMed: Antitumorigenic Effect of Cannabidiol in Lung Cancer: What Do We Know So Far?-A Mini Review

Iran Biomed J. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.52547/ibj.3732. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apart from the chemotherapeutic agents in routine use, factors targeting novel molecular pathways are in clinical trials and provide hope for terminal lung cancer patients. The endocannabinoid system has recently become a popular field of study. Many experimental studies have shown that CBD and THC could be used outside of palliative care, as they play a major role in lung cancer cell apoptosis. The objective of this review is to evaluate the antitumorigenic mechanisms of CBD in lung cancer cells.

METHODS: We searched the databases MEDLINE, clinicaltrials.gov, CENTRAL, and google scholar using specific terms. A total of 246 studies were screened, and nine studies were included in the review. All the selected studies were conducted in vitro, and four of which also had an in vivo component. Included studies were assessed in our review using the ToxRTool.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The most common cell line used in all of the studies was A549; however, some studies included other cell lines, including H460 and H358. We concluded that CBD has direct antineoplastic effects on lung cancer cells by various mechanisms mediated by cannabinoid receptors or independent of them. All studies referred to an in vitro model; hence, further research is required for this data to have any clinical application.

PMID:36437760 | DOI:10.52547/ibj.3732

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36437760/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221128152151&v=2.17.8 November 28, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Pharmacodynamic synergism contributes to the antiseizure action of cannabidiol and clobazam

PubMed: Pharmacodynamic synergism contributes to the antiseizure action of cannabidiol and clobazam

Exp Neurol. 2022 Nov 25:114286. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114286. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The management of refractory epilepsy involves treatment with more than one antiseizure medication (ASM). Combination of ASMs with distinct mechanisms of action are hypothesized to improve overall treatment effectiveness. In clinical trials, concomitant use of cannabidiol (CBD) and clobazam (CLB) was associated with increased seizure reduction and bidirectional elevation in levels of their active metabolites, 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol (7-OH-CBD) and nor-clobazam (n-CLB). Using isobolographic analysis, we investigated whether CBD and CLB interacted pharmacodynamically. In the mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, brain tissue levels of CBD and CLB corresponding to seizure prevention in 50% of animals (brain Effective Exposure, bEE50) were 7.9 μM and 1.6 μM, respectively. In the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, 7-OH-CBD displayed a 5-fold greater potency than CBD (b-EE50, 8.7 μM vs 47.3 μM). Isobolographic analysis performed on combination of CBD/CLB at 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3 ratios based on equi-effective bEE50 values revealed synergism at all doses with combination indices (CI) of 0.43, 0.62 and 0.75 respectively. These outcomes were independent of pharmacokinetic interaction between CBD and CLB. These findings identify pharmacodynamic synergism as an important factor underlying enhanced antiseizure effect during concomitant CBD and CLB use.

PMID:36442674 | DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114286

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36442674/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221129152141&v=2.17.8 November 28, 2022 11:00 am

‘Still a lot of misconceptions but young people are embracing hemp’

‘Still a lot of misconceptions but young people are embracing hemp’
‘Still a lot of misconceptions but young people are embracing hemp’

INTERVIEW – Caren Kershner has been an activist in the Colorado hemp movement since 2012, when the U.S. state legalized all forms of cannabis. An…

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#CBD #Hemp

‘Still a lot of misconceptions but young people are embracing hemp’


November 28, 2022 10:55 am

PubMed: Structure of Waste Hemp Stalks and Their Sound Absorbing Properties

PubMed: Structure of Waste Hemp Stalks and Their Sound Absorbing Properties

Polymers (Basel). 2022 Nov 10;14(22):4844. doi: 10.3390/polym14224844.

ABSTRACT

To broaden the application fields of waste hemp stalks, the macromolecular, supramolecular, and morphological structures of waste hemp stalks were analyzed, and the relationship between these properties and the sound absorption properties of the hemp stalks was explored. Then, waste hemp stalk/polycaprolactone sound-absorbing composite materials were prepared by the hot pressing method. The influence of hemp stalk length and mass fraction, and the density and thickness of the composite materials on the sound absorption properties of composites prepared with the hot pressing temperature set to 140 °C, the pressure set to 8 MPa, and the pressing time set to 30 min was investigated. The results showed that, when the sound energy acts on the hemp stalk, the force between the chain segments, the unique hollow structure, and the large specific surface, act together to attenuate the sound energy and convert it into heat and mechanical energy in the process of propagation, to produce a good sound absorption effect. When the hemp stalk length and mass fraction were set to 6 mm and 50%, respectively, and the density and thickness of the material were set to 0.30 g/cm3 and 1.5 cm, respectively, the average sound absorption coefficient of the waste hemp stalk/polycaprolactone sound-absorbing composite material was 0.44, the noise reduction coefficient was 0.42, the maximum sound absorption coefficient was 1.00, and the sound-absorbing band was wide. The study provided an experimental and theoretical basis for the development of waste hemp stalk/polycaprolactone sound-absorbing composite materials, and provided a new idea for the recycling of the waste hemp stalk.

PMID:36432971 | DOI:10.3390/polym14224844

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36432971/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: The Influence of the Technological Process on Improving the Acceptability of Bread Enriched with Pea Protein, Hemp and Sea Buckthorn Press Cake

PubMed: The Influence of the Technological Process on Improving the Acceptability of Bread Enriched with Pea Protein, Hemp and Sea Buckthorn Press Cake

Foods. 2022 Nov 16;11(22):3667. doi: 10.3390/foods11223667.

ABSTRACT

The current consumption trends of plant based functional products have encouraged researchers and industry to study the production of protein enriched bakery products as a source of protein. In the context of the circular economy, the press cakes remaining after extraction of juices/oil from plants such as sea buckthorn or hemp can be valorized as they are rich in proteins, fibers and many bioactive compounds. Their use in bread making is a good solution to enrich the nutritional value of bread. Pea protein concentrate, hemp and sea buckthorn ingredients from press cakes by-products were added to whole wheat flour in different percentages and combinations (2% pea protein concentrate; 1% pea + 2% sea buckthorn ingredients; 1% pea + 2% hemp ingredients). Bread samples were obtained through three technological methods: one phase baking process (dough), two phases (sponge and dough) and one phase with dried sourdough added directly into the dough. A control sample (100% wheat whole flour) was considered. The mixtures of whole wheat flour and plant protein ingredients were rheologically tested. The bread samples were physicochemically analyzed (protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy value) and sensory characteristics were evaluated (texture, color and overall acceptability). The changes in the physicochemical characteristics, rheology behavior, microstructure and sensory quality were evaluated and compared. The energy from protein varied from 17.26 to 19.34% which means that all the samples can be considered “a source of protein”. Hardness decreased in samples with sponge and dried sourdough which reflect the importance of technology in keeping the freshness of the product. The most appreciated were the samples with pea protein concentrate, with hemp ingredient obtained through an indirect bread making process and the sample with sea buckthorn ingredient prepared through a direct bread making process using dried sourdough.

PMID:36429258 | DOI:10.3390/foods11223667

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36429258/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Utilization of industrial hemp by-product defatted seed flour: effect of its incorporation on the properties and quality characteristics of "tsoureki," a rich-dough baked Greek product

PubMed: Utilization of industrial hemp by-product defatted seed flour: effect of its incorporation on the properties and quality characteristics of "tsoureki," a rich-dough baked Greek product

J Sci Food Agric. 2022 Nov 26. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.12351. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A rich-dough baked Greek product named “tsoureki” was prepared using non-gluten hemp seed flour at ratios of 0:100, 10:90, 30:70, and 50:50. The effects of hemp flour addition on the properties of “tsoureki”, including physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, sorption phenomena), structural properties, textural properties, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and sensorial characteristics, as well as the macroscopic structure and morphological characteristics were studied.

RESULTS: Hemp flour addition affected dough rheology, showing tan δ values < 1, a decrease in both G’ and G” values, while both flow behavior and consistency indices were also significantly affected, which might have an influence on the final baked goods. The GAB model satisfactorily described sorption data, while both hemp addition and temperature had a significant effect. A significantly higher hardness of 11.55N, a lower specific volume of 2.65 cm3 /g, and a lower porosity of 0.676 were observed at high hemp additions. The hemp flour level influenced the color of the crumb and crust, and the total color difference (ΔE) increased significantly with the increase in hemp flour. Hemp flour additions were detectable by the naked eye, with an obvious color difference between control and hemp-containing samples. Moreover, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were increased, as were some organoleptic characteristics, such as the bitter aftertaste. Concurrently, overall acceptability decreased significantly.

CONCLUSION: Overall, the incorporation of gluten-free defatted hemp seed flour in “tsoureki” formulations seems to be a promising alternative for improving quality of such rich-dough baked products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:36433711 | DOI:10.1002/jsfa.12351

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36433711/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Effects of Dietary Rapeseed (<em>Brassica napus</em>), Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em>) and Camelina (<em>Camelina sativa</em>) Seed Cakes Supplementation on Yolk and Albumen Colour and Nutritional Value of Yolk Lipids in Estonian Quail Eggs

PubMed: Effects of Dietary Rapeseed (<em>Brassica napus</em>), Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em>) and Camelina (<em>Camelina sativa</em>) Seed Cakes Supplementation on Yolk and Albumen Colour and Nutritional Value of Yolk Lipids in Estonian Quail Eggs

Animals (Basel). 2022 Nov 10;12(22):3110. doi: 10.3390/ani12223110.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing commercial diets with rapeseed, hempseed and camelina seed cakes on the yolk and albumen colour and nutritional value of yolk lipids in Estonian quail eggs. A total of 585 eggs were used to evaluate egg weight, yolk and albumen pH and colour, proximate yolk composition, cholesterol content and fatty acid composition in the yolk lipids of three Estonian quail groups each fed a diet supplemented with 10% rapeseed, hemp or camelina seed cakes. The higher (p &lt; 0.01 and p &lt; 0.05, respectively) lightness (L*) of the yolk was detected in the group of quail fed the diet supplemented with rapeseed and camelina cakes compared to the hempseed addition. Meanwhile, the albumen lightness in the rapeseed group was higher (p &lt; 0.01) in comparison to the camelina group. A lower (p &lt; 0.001) yolk negative a* value was estimated in the hemp group than in the groups fed rapeseed and camelina seed cake supplements, while the rapeseed group demonstrated lower (p &lt; 0.001) albumen yellowness (b*) and colour saturation (C) in comparison to the other groups. The highest and lowest proportions of total saturated (SFAs)and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids, respectively, were found in the yolk lipids of quails fed a mixture supplemented by hemp cake. A higher (p &lt; 0.05) proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was only found in the hemp group compared to the camelina group. The highest and lowest (p &lt; 0.001) n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were found in the yolk lipids of quail receiving mixtures supplemented with rapeseed and camelina cakes, respectively. The yolk of the quail from the rapeseed group showed more favourable lower and higher (p &lt; 0.01 and p &lt; 0.05, respectively) atherogenic index (AI) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) ratio compared to the hemp and camelina groups. The lower yolk cholesterol content was found in the eggs of the quail fed the diet supplemented with rapeseed cake compared to the eggs of the quail which were fed the diets containing more n-3 PUFAs from the addition of hemp and camelina cakes (p &lt; 0.05 and p &lt; 0.01, respectively).

PMID:36428338 | DOI:10.3390/ani12223110

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36428338/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Texturized Vegetable Protein as a Source of Protein Fortification of Wheat Buns

PubMed: Texturized Vegetable Protein as a Source of Protein Fortification of Wheat Buns

Foods. 2022 Nov 15;11(22):3647. doi: 10.3390/foods11223647.

ABSTRACT

Increasing interest in plant-based proteins is particularly relevant in the food service sector. For specific groups, e.g., older adults, it may be challenging to ensure the consumption of protein of sufficient quality. One way of doing this could be through the fortification of a staple food such as bread. This study examined wheat buns, in which 0%, 20%, 35% and 50% of the flour was replaced with three different milled texturized vegetable proteins (TVP) of different plant protein combinations. Sensory and baking qualities were evaluated through sensory profiling and measurements of rising ability, baking loss, protein content and colour. An expert assessment and a robustness test were conducted to evaluate potential use in the food service sector. By substituting 35% of the wheat flour with milled TVP, it was possible to increase the protein content of the buns by 83% (up to 25% of DM) and still maintain an acceptable quality. The different TVPs showed that pea and faba bean or pea, faba bean and quinoa were more suitable in bread fortification than pea, faba bean and hemp. The study demonstrates the potential for producing quality bread for people who need a high protein intake in all their meals.

PMID:36429239 | DOI:10.3390/foods11223647

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36429239/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Industrial Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.) Inflorescences as Novel Food: The Effect of Different Agronomical Practices on Chemical Profile

PubMed: Industrial Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.) Inflorescences as Novel Food: The Effect of Different Agronomical Practices on Chemical Profile

Foods. 2022 Nov 16;11(22):3658. doi: 10.3390/foods11223658.

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effect of several agronomical practices on the chemical composition of hemp inflorescences, a potential novel food that needs to be further studied, was observed. Here, the case study of inflorescences from Ferimon cultivars is discussed and submitted to different agronomical practices (irrigation and fertilizers) in different years, and the inflorescences harvested in different periods were analyzed by a multimethodological approach. Targeted and untargeted methodologies allowed cannabinoids, total phenolic content, metabolite profile and antioxidant activity to be determined. The biomass and inflorescence yields were also reported. The whole data set was submitted to ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis. The statistic results allowed us to observe that irrigation was responsible for the (-)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) increment. THC, cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), succinate, and fructose resulted as higher in full female flowering than in the period of seed maturity. On the other hand, nitrogen supplementation led to an increase of iso-leucine, valine, and threonine. The obtained results underlined both the potential food application of hemp inflorescences, due to the rich chemical profile, and the strong effect of agronomical practices, mainly irrigation and harvesting, on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of its metabolite profile.

PMID:36429250 | DOI:10.3390/foods11223658

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36429250/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Structural, functional properties, and volatile profile of hemp protein isolate as affected by extraction method: Alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation vs salt extraction

PubMed: Structural, functional properties, and volatile profile of hemp protein isolate as affected by extraction method: Alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation vs salt extraction

Food Chem. 2022 Nov 19;405(Pt B):135001. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.135001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The utilization of industrial hemp in food is gaining popularity. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the impact of alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation (AE-IEP) and salt extraction (SE) dialysis on structural, functional properties and the volatile profile of hemp protein isolate (HPI). A higher protein content (97.21%) in SE extracted HPI (SE-HPI) was obtained than the AE-IEP extracted HPI (93.37%). In particular, protein subunit composition, structural properties were strongly influenced by the extraction methods. For example, SE-HPI exhibited a larger percentage of albumin (46.53%) and a lower amount of β-sheet (52.65%) than its counterpart (albumin 20.92%, β-sheet 54.46%). Consequently, SE-HPI showed the higher solubility, emulsion activity, and thermal stability. Interestingly, the volatile profile of the proteins showed that SE-HPI exhibited a lower number (21) of volatile compounds when compared to its counterpart (25). This study highlights the importance of establishing the relationships between extraction methods and functional attributes of HPI.

PMID:36435111 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.135001

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36435111/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221127152105&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Development of nanoparticle loaded microneedles for drug delivery to a brain tumour resection site

PubMed: Development of nanoparticle loaded microneedles for drug delivery to a brain tumour resection site

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2022 Nov 23:S0939-6411(22)00275-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.016. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Systemic drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) has been historically impeded by the presence of the blood brain barrier rendering many therapies inefficacious to any cancer cells residing within the brain. Therefore, local drug delivery systems are being developed to overcome this shortfall. Here we have manufactured polymeric microneedle (MN) patches, which can be anchored within a resection cavity site following surgical removal of a tumour such as isocitrate dehydrogenase wild type glioblastoma (GBM). These biodegradable MN patches have been loaded with polymer coated nanoparticles (NPs) containing cannabidiol (CBD) or olaparib (OLA) and applied to an in vitro brain simulant and ex vivo rat brain tissue to assess drug release and distance of penetration. MN patches loaded with methylene blue dye were placed into a cavity of 0.6% agarose to simulate brain tissue. The results showed that clear channels were generated by the MNs and the dye spread laterally throughout the agarose. When loaded with CBD-NPs, the agarose showed a CBD concentration of 12.5 µg/g at 0.5 cm from the MN insertion site. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography of ex vivo brain tissue following CBD-NP/MN patch insertion showed successful delivery of 59.6 µg/g into the brain tissue. Similarly, OLA-NP loaded MN patches showed delivery of 5.2 µg/g OLA into agarose gel at 0.5 cm distance from the insertion site. Orbitrap secondary ion mass spectrometry (OrbiSIMS) analysis confirmed the presence of OLA and the MN patch at up to 6 mm away from the insertion site following its application to a rat brain hemisphere. This data has provided insight into the capabilities and versatility of MN patches for use in local brain drug delivery, giving promise for future research.

PMID:36435313 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.016

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36435313/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221127152105&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: A randomized, controlled trial of ZYN002 cannabidiol transdermal gel in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (CONNECT-FX)

PubMed: A randomized, controlled trial of ZYN002 cannabidiol transdermal gel in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (CONNECT-FX)

J Neurodev Disord. 2022 Nov 25;14(1):56. doi: 10.1186/s11689-022-09466-6.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling and may therefore respond to cannabidiol therapy.

DESIGN: CONNECT-FX was a double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial assessing efficacy and safety of ZYN002, transdermal cannabidiol gel, for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in children and adolescents with FXS.

METHODS: Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of ZYN002 (250 mg or 500 mg daily [weight-based]) or placebo, as add-on to standard of care. The primary endpoint assessed change in social avoidance (SA) measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition FXS (ABC-CFXS) SA subscale in a full cohort of patients with a FXS full mutation, regardless of the FMR1 methylation status. Ad hoc analyses assessed efficacy in patients with ≥ 90% and 100% methylation of the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, in whom FMR1 gene silencing is most likely.

RESULTS: A total of 212 patients, mean age 9.7 years, 75% males, were enrolled. A total of 169 (79.7%) patients presented with ≥ 90% methylation of the FMR1 promoter and full mutation of FMR1. Although statistical significance for the primary endpoint was not achieved in the full cohort, significant improvement was demonstrated in patients with ≥ 90% methylation of FMR1 (nominal P = 0.020). This group also achieved statistically significant improvements in Caregiver Global Impression-Change in SA and isolation, irritable and disruptive behaviors, and social interactions (nominal P-values: P = 0.038, P = 0.028, and P = 0.002). Similar results were seen in patients with 100% methylation of FMR1. ZYN002 was safe and well tolerated. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were mild or moderate. The most common treatment-related TEAE was application site pain (ZYN002: 6.4%; placebo: 1.0%).

CONCLUSIONS: In CONNECT-FX, ZYN002 was well tolerated in patients with FXS and demonstrated evidence of efficacy with a favorable benefit risk relationship in patients with ≥ 90% methylation of the FMR1 gene, in whom gene silencing is most likely, and the impact of FXS is typically most severe.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The CONNECT-FX trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03614663).

PMID:36434514 | DOI:10.1186/s11689-022-09466-6

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36434514/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221127152105&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Alleviation of opioid withdrawal by cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: A systematic review of observational and experimental human studies

PubMed: Alleviation of opioid withdrawal by cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: A systematic review of observational and experimental human studies

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Nov 18;241:109702. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109702. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While six U.S. states have already officially authorized cannabinoids to substitute opioids and treat opioid use disorder, the therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids remain unclear, especially when weighted against their adverse effects.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies examining the association between opioid withdrawal and cannabis use or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. We searched multiple databases from inception to July 30, 2022, and assessed study quality.

RESULTS: Eleven studies were identified, with a total of 5330 participants, of whom 64 % were male. Nine observational studies examined the association between cannabis use and opioid withdrawal. Two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) investigated the withdrawal-alleviating effects of dronabinol, a synthetic form of THC. Four observational studies found an association between cannabis use and the alleviation of opioid withdrawal; one reported exacerbation of opioid withdrawal symptoms; and four reported no association. RCTs reported that THC alleviated opioid withdrawal, albeit with dose-dependent increases in measures of abuse liability, dysphoria, and tachycardia. There was high heterogeneity in measurements of opioid withdrawal and the type and dose of opioid at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS: Although there is preliminary evidence that cannabis and its main psychoactive constituent, THC, may alleviate opioid withdrawal, these effects are likely to have a narrow therapeutic window. Further, the potential of cannabinoids to alleviate opioid withdrawal is determined by complex interactions between patient characteristics and pharmacological factors. Collectively, these findings have clinical, methodological, and mechanistic implications for treating opioid withdrawal during cannabinoid use, and for efforts to alleviate opioid withdrawal using non-opioid therapeutics.

PMID:36434879 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109702

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36434879/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221127152105&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Effects of Gibberellin Pre-Treatment on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiology Characteristics in Industrial Hemp under Drought Stress Condition

PubMed: Effects of Gibberellin Pre-Treatment on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiology Characteristics in Industrial Hemp under Drought Stress Condition

Life (Basel). 2022 Nov 16;12(11):1907. doi: 10.3390/life12111907.

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous gibberellins (GAs) on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) under drought stress. Seeds of two industrial hemp cultivars i.e., ‘Yunma 1’, (YM) and ‘Bamahuoma’, (BM) were treated with different concentrations of GA3 solution (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mg/L) at 20 °C for 8 h. The effect of pre-treatment was assessed on germination characteristics and physiological indexes on subsequent exposure to drought stress using 20% (m/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) for 7 days. The results revealed that seed germination in hemp was sensitive to drought stress, as the germination indexes (germination rate and germination potential) decreased significantly, and seedling growth (hypocotyl length and radicle length) was impeded under 20% PEG-6000 condition. GA3 pre-treatment affected germination rate, germination potential, hypocotyl length and radicle length. With increasing GA3 concentration, these indexes first increased and then decreased. For seedling physiology characteristics in hemp, GA3-pretreatment remarkedly increased the osmotic regulating substances (soluble sugar and soluble protein contents) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, superoxide dismutase and POD, peroxidase), while sharply decreased the lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) in seedlings grown under PEG-6000 induced drought stress. These results suggested that seeds pre-treated with GA3 could enhance the drought tolerance of hempseeds, and the optimal effect of GA3 for seed pre-treatment of YM and BM could be obtained when the concentration of GA3 solution reached 400 mg/L and 600 mg/L, respectively.

PMID:36431042 | DOI:10.3390/life12111907

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36431042/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol and hemp oils: Potential applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery

PubMed: Cannabidiol and hemp oils: Potential applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery

J Am Dent Assoc. 2022 Dec;153(12):1111-1113. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2022.08.009. Epub 2022 Sep 26.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36435527 | DOI:10.1016/j.adaj.2022.08.009

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36435527/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221127152105&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Antioxidant Properties of Hemp Proteins: From Functional Food to Phytotherapy and Beyond

PubMed: Antioxidant Properties of Hemp Proteins: From Functional Food to Phytotherapy and Beyond

Molecules. 2022 Nov 16;27(22):7924. doi: 10.3390/molecules27227924.

ABSTRACT

As one of the oldest plants cultivated by humans, hemp used to be banned in the United States but returned as a legal crop in 2018. Since then, the United States has become the leading hemp producer in the world. Currently, hemp attracts increasing attention from consumers and scientists as hemp products provide a wide spectrum of potential functions. Particularly, bioactive peptides derived from hemp proteins have been proven to be strong antioxidants, which is an extremely hot research topic in recent years. However, some controversial disputes and unknown issues are still underway to be explored and verified in the aspects of technique, methodology, characteristic, mechanism, application, caution, etc. Therefore, this review focusing on the antioxidant properties of hemp proteins is necessary to discuss the multiple critical issues, including in vitro structure-modifying techniques and antioxidant assays, structure-activity relationships of antioxidant peptides, pre-clinical studies on hemp proteins and pathogenesis-related molecular mechanisms, usage and potential hazard, and novel advanced techniques involving bioinformatics methodology (QSAR, PPI, GO, KEGG), proteomic analysis, and genomics analysis, etc. Taken together, the antioxidant potential of hemp proteins may provide both functional food benefits and phytotherapy efficacy to human health.

PMID:36432024 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27227924

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36432024/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Selected Properties of Two Alternative Plant Fibers: Canola and Sweet Clover Fibers

PubMed: Selected Properties of Two Alternative Plant Fibers: Canola and Sweet Clover Fibers

Materials (Basel). 2022 Nov 8;15(22):7877. doi: 10.3390/ma15227877.

ABSTRACT

Identifying sustainable resources of natural fibers is essential due to their high demand in industrial applications such as automotive and biomedical materials. Two alternative fibers obtained from canola and sweet clover stalks were characterized for their properties using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle, and tensile test. Hemp and flax fibers, both in use as industrial fibers, were also characterized as conventional fibers. Results showed that all the fibers had the same chemical elements (carbon, oxygen, magnesium, and potassium) and chemical bonds. The crystallinity index for the alternative fibers ranged from 62 to 71%, which was close but lower than the conventional fibers (82% for hemp and 80% for flax). The thermal stability of the alternative fibers was around 220 °C, close to the conventional fibers (230 °C). The alternative fibers had contact angles of less than 90°, showing high surface energy. Since the alternative fibers had a low Young’s modulus and tensile strength (5.57-8.52 GPa and 57.45-71.26 MPa, respectively), they are suitable for some specific applications in the biomedical industry. In contrast, conventional fibers are suitable where a higher stiffness and strength is required.

PMID:36431363 | DOI:10.3390/ma15227877

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36431363/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am

PubMed: Natural Hemp-Ginger Extract and Its Biological and Therapeutic Efficacy

PubMed: Natural Hemp-Ginger Extract and Its Biological and Therapeutic Efficacy

Molecules. 2022 Nov 9;27(22):7694. doi: 10.3390/molecules27227694.

ABSTRACT

The prevention and treatment of skin diseases remains a major challenge in medicine. The search for natural active ingredients that can be used to prevent the development of the disease and complement treatment is on the rise. Natural extracts of ginger and hemp offer a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. This study evaluates the effectiveness of hemp and ginger extract as a supportive treatment for skin diseases. It reports a synergistic effect of hemp and ginger extract. The contents of cannabinoids and components of ginger are determined, with the highest being CBD (587.17 ± 8.32 µg/g) and 6-gingerol (60.07 ± 0.40 µg/g). The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus (156.5 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (625.2 µg/mL) and Candida albicans (78.3 µg/mL) was also analyzed. Analysis of WM-266-4 cells revealed the greatest decrease in metabolic activity in cells exposed to the extract at a concentration of 1.00 µg/mL. Regarding the expression of genes associated with cellular processes, melanoma aggressiveness, resistance and cell survival, a significant difference was found in the expression of ABCB5, CAV1 and S100A9 compared with the control (cells not exposed to the extract).

PMID:36431795 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27227694

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36431795/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1NqsX9BbHlDygQ8TcgAlJilHgPpiuKQtyIr–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20221126152109&v=2.17.8 November 26, 2022 11:00 am