PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis

PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis

medRxiv. 2023 Feb 2:2023.02.01.23285341. doi: 10.1101/2023.02.01.23285341. Preprint.


BACKGROUND: In this review, we provide an updated assessment of available evidence on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cannabidiol (CBD) and explore the impact of different factors on PK outcomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review and meta-regression analysis was pre-registered (PROSPERO: CRD42021269857). We systematically searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, and Web of Science Core Collection up to November 19, 2022. Trials of CBD in healthy adults were included if they reported at least one of the PK parameters of interest, including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, and T 1/2 , in serum or plasma. Studies of patient populations or CBD co-administration with other medications were excluded. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After Studies with no Control Group was used. Random-effects multivariable meta-regression analysis was conducted.

RESULTS: A total of 112 trial arms from 39 studies were included; 26 trial arms had a “Good” quality, 70 “Fair,” and 16 “Poor.” Eight arms used inhalation CBD, 29 oromucosal, 73 oral, and 2 intravenous. CBD formulations could be categorized to nanotech (n=14), oil-based (n=21), alcohol-based (n=10), water-based (n=12), Sativex (n=17), and Epidiolex (n=22). For single-dose studies, CBD doses ranged between 2-100mg in inhalation, 5-50mg in oromucosal, and 0.42-6000mg in oral administration. Sixty-six trial arms had only male participants or a higher number of males than females. The duration of the PK session was between 4h-164h. A higher CBD dose was associated with higher Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf. Compared to oral administration, oromucosal administration was associated with lower Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf. Fed status was associated with higher Cmax and AUC0-t when compared to the fasting status. A higher ratio of female participants was associated with lower Tmax in oral administration and higher Cmax.

CONCLUSION: As expected, CBD dose, route of administration, and diet were major determinants of CBD pharmacokinetics with oral routes providing higher bioavailability and nanotechnology formulations a faster onset. Though CBD appeared to have a faster onset and longer duration in females, more studies are required to delineate the role of biological sex. Factors that influence CBD PK have implications for medication development and appropriate dosing in clinical practice.

PMID:36778355 | PMC:PMC9915832 | DOI:10.1101/2023.02.01.23285341–a3-xbLzPoB9xM&fc=20220928170152&ff=20230213152325&v=2.17.9.post6+86293ac February 13, 2023 11:00 am