NOVEL COMPOSITIONS COMBINING HEMP DERIVATIVES AND AT LEAST ONE PEPTIDE AND USE THEREOF
January 22, 2022 10:59 am
Oral CBD Found to Prevent COVID-19 Infection in Humans
New research found cannabidiol (CBD) effectively blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells. The study was published Thursday in the peer-reviewed journal Science Advances.
A team of 33 researchers at the University of Chicago and the University of Louisville found people taking 100 milligrams-per-milliliter of high-purity CBD returned positive COVD-19 tests at a lower rate than control groups who did not take CBD.
Research was conducted on three different groups: humans, human lung carcinoma cells, and mice.
Scientists hoped to determine if the cannabinoid would regulate the antiviral inflammatory response.
Initially, researchers pretreated lung cells with CBD two hours prior to infection with the virus.
After 48 hours, researchers found “CBD potently inhibited viral replication under non-toxic conditions.”
The study went on to test three SARS-CoV-2 variants and concluded their ability to infect cells was also inhibited by CBD.
Combining CBD with THC at a one-to-one ratio suppressed the efficacy of CBD in combating the virus.
Trials were then conducted with mice to determine if an equivalent effect could be found. Mice were treated with CBD for a week before being exposed to SARS-CoV-2. They were then treated for an additional 4 days with CBD.
The findings provided an important insight into the cannabinoid’s effectiveness. “CBD treatment significantly inhibited viral replication in lungs and nasal turbinates … During this period, the mice showed no signs of clinical disease,” the study stated.
“These results establish the pre-clinical efficacy of CBD as an anti-viral drug for SARS-CoV-2 during early stages of infection.”
Finally, researchers analyzed 1,212 patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative.
Patients with medically-similar backgrounds were selected for the study.
The research team chose individuals with a history of seizure-related conditions, and subdivided them into those using CBD to treat their symptoms and those who did not use CBD.
Patients using high-potency CBD had significantly lower COVID-19 infection rates than patients from the non-CBD control group.
“Our results suggest that CBD and its metabolite 7-OH-CBD can block SARS-CoV-2 infection at early and even later stages of infection,” the study stated.
This research adds to other recent studies linking cannabis to treatment for the novel coronavirus.
While these findings are clinically significant and a vital step in furthering the fight against COVID-19, the study’s authors advise against using non-medical formulations of CBD as a preventative or treatment therapy at the present time.
January 22, 2022 1:08 am
By Richard Rose For U.S. hemp it’s time to get real, time for action, not platitudes. Only legal three years now, acreages harvested are falling, a…
January 21, 2022 12:55 pm
PubMed: Effect of Hempseed Cake (Cannabis sativa L.) Incorporation on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Reconstructed Potato Chips
Foods. 2022 Jan 13;11(2):211. doi: 10.3390/foods11020211.
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) cake is a by-product after cold-pressing of oil from the hempseed, which is rich in protein and fiber. This study investigated the effect of hempseed cake incorporation on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of reconstructed potato chips. Varying levels of hempseed cake (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were added, and the results showed that the addition of hempseed cake at 20% level significantly increased the protein and total dietary fiber content from 2.74 ± 0.62 g/100 g to 9.66 ± 0.28 g/100 g and from 2.76 ± 0.31 g/100 g to 13.57 ± 0.42 g/100 g, respectively. In addition, a 20% reduction in lipid content was observed in the 20% hempseed cake addition group. Furthermore, lightness value (L*) was significantly reduced from 72.23 ± 1.22 to 46.40 ± 1.76, while the hardness was enhanced with a higher level of hempseed cake supplementation in the potato chips sample. Compared with the control (no hempseed cake), the supplement of 20% cake increased the total phenolic content from 0.19 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g. The ABTS radical scavenging rate was also significantly enhanced with the increased levels of hemp cake. However, the peroxide value and TBARS results showed that the addition of hempseed cake accelerated the lipid oxidation in the sample, possibly due to the highly unsaturated fatty acid residues in the hempseed cake. The results suggested that more research is needed for the incorporation of hempseed cake in potato chips.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35053943/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220122055946&v=2.17.5 January 21, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: In Vitro and Clinical Evaluation of Cannabigerol (CBG) Produced via Yeast Biosynthesis: A Cannabinoid with a Broad Range of Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Health-Boosting Properties
Molecules. 2022 Jan 13;27(2):491. doi: 10.3390/molecules27020491.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a minor non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) at low levels (<1% per dry weight) that serves as the direct precursor to both cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consequently, efforts to extract and purify CBG from C. sativa is both challenging and expensive. However, utilizing a novel yeast fermentation technology platform, minor cannabinoids such as CBG can be produced in a more sustainable, cost-effective, and timely process as compared to plant-based production. While CBD has been studied extensively, demonstrating several beneficial skin properties, there are a paucity of studies characterizing the activity of CBG in human skin. Therefore, our aim was to characterize and compare the in vitro activity profile of non-psychoactive CBG and CBD in skin and be the first group to test CBG clinically on human skin. Gene microarray analysis conducted using 3D human skin equivalents demonstrates that CBG regulates more genes than CBD, including several key skin targets. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to pro-inflammatory inducers to trigger cytokine production and oxidative stress. Results demonstrate that CBG and CBD reduce reactive oxygen species levels in HDFs better than vitamin C. Moreover, CBG inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor α) release from several inflammatory inducers, such as ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), chemical, C. acnes, and in several instances does so more potently than CBD. A 20-subject vehicle-controlled clinical study was performed with 0.1% CBG serum and placebo applied topically for 2 weeks after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation. CBG serum showed statistically significant improvement above placebo for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduction in the appearance of redness. Altogether, CBG’s broad range of in vitro and clinical skin health-promoting activities demonstrates its strong potential as a safe, effective ingredient for topical use and suggests there are areas where it may be more effective than CBD.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35056807/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220122055946&v=2.17.5 January 21, 2022 11:00 am
Commodities platform Canxchange has launched a new electronic trading system the company said will bring greater transparency, liquidity and efficiency to the growing global cannabis…
January 20, 2022 1:46 pm
PubMed: Untargeted Metabolomics Combined with Solid Phase Fractionation for Systematic Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Hemp with Methane Mitigation Potential
Metabolites. 2022 Jan 13;12(1):77. doi: 10.3390/metabo12010077.
This study systematically evaluates the presence of methane mitigating metabolites in two hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties, Futura 75 and Finola. Hemp metabolites were extracted with methanol and fractionated using Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Extracts, fractions, and the remaining pulp were screened for their methane mitigating potential using an in vitro model of rumen fermentation. The bioactive metabolites were identified with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). When incubated with a standard feed (maize silage), the extract of Futura 75 significantly reduced methane production compared to that of control (without added extract) and without negative effects on feed degradability and volatile fatty acid patterns. The compounds responsible for the methane mitigating effect were assigned to flavonoid glycosides. However, none of the fractions of Futura 75 or the pulp exhibited similar effect on methane emission. Butyric acid concentration in the fermentation inoculum was significantly increased, which could indicate why methane production was higher, when incubated with the fractions and the pulp. The extract of Finola did not show a similar significant effect, however, there was a numerical tendency towards lower methane production. The difference in methane mitigating properties between Cannabis sativa L. Futura 75 and Finola, could be related to the content of bioactive flavonoids.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35050199/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220121055933&v=2.17.5 January 20, 2022 11:00 am
A Q&A with Brandon Barksdale, CEO of Dalwhinnie Enterprises LLC
Dalwhinnie Enterprises is a cannabis brand that started in Ridgeway, Colorado. Based in the San Juan Mountains in Western Colorado, the company includes brands like Dalwhinnie Farms Cannabis, Shift Cannabis, Ridgway Hemp Company and the Dalwhinnie Farms Boutique in Aspen, Colorado.
Brandon Barksdale has about a decade of experience in cannabis. He has worked for small startups and large multi-state operators. Most recently, he has worked with CohnReznick’s Advisory Practice. At CohnReznick, he worked alongside the Dalwhinnie team, helping them launch their boutique in Aspen. Since joining the team as their new CEO, Barksdale has shifted his focus to expansion, scalability and operational excellence, using things like GMPs and other certifications to improve quality and consistency.
We caught up with Barksdale to learn about his experience, his new role, entrepreneurship, social equity and what it means to be a minority leader in the cannabis space.
Brandon Barksdale: The majority of my background is driven around transforming businesses cross functionally, specifically in operations and finance. When it comes to the cannabis industry, it still lacks maturity; so being able to apply key performance indicators, benchmarking, controls and analytics can drive the industry, and more specifically, our organization, to operational excellence.
While I was in the professional service space, I was an advisory leader within our cannabis industry group. I was able to be involved and work with organizations at differing levels of maturity, guiding corporate strategy and functional and operational improvement before fully jumping in to lead this organization. Dalwhinnie was the perfect opportunity to use my previous experience to instill value to the company as it continues to scale and grow.
Barksdale: Simply put, I was eager to roll up my sleeves and drive a single organization through its growth lifecycle. When you’re working with and cycling through multiple clients, you’re supporting them from a strategic perspective and providing value and direction but the execution is left to the operational teams internally to follow through. No matter how detailed the plan or deeply you are involved you are still third-party. During scope changes and ramping up and down there’s always some momentum that gets lost. I want to focus on one company, to really tie myself to its DNA, so that I can better be in the driving seat toward success and operational excellence.
Dalwhinnie stands out because of their unwavering focus on quality and the integrity of the brand. To that end, I want everyone within the organization to succeed and to nurture a healthy company ecosystem that allows for professional development, training and being an industry leader. We have a really big opportunity here to set the standard for what quality looks like going forward and what it means to really care about the product that you’re putting out into the marketplace.
Barksdale: There is no doubt that growing at a high elevation with different seasonalities is a challenge. However, every region on Earth presents its own benefits and challenges as it relates to cultivation. You can use the comparison to different regions of wines. Wine from Bordeaux and wine from Napa are going to have different profiles because of all the unique factors of climate, water, humidity, aging practices, etc.
This is one of the things that will make the future of cannabis very interesting. There are multiple elements and variables that help tell the story of the product through its experience of growth. Just like there are tons of wine regions and varietals, there are hundreds of cannabis strains and exponentially more crosses where one can discuss multiple facets of what makes that particular product unique. It is one of the things that will continue to evolve in the cannabis market and one of the most exciting components—knowing that we are still on the way to creating a unique and original marketplace!
Barskdale: Every cannabis wholesaler, and most markets, are feeling the pressure of price volatility and retail is one of the best-known ways to help stabilize an organization. Our strategy is to stay as nimble and creative as we can, focusing on continuing to build out the success of our flagship Aspen dispensary as well as partnering and entertaining retail expansion opportunities. Our strategy is not to ignore that fact, but to act as perceptively as we can to broaden our retail footprint.
Barksdale: When I came onboard with Dalwhinnie, I hit the ground running. I had some history with Dalwhinnie and the family of companies so I was lucky to have a head start and insight toward necessary changes. Short term goals included attention to production expansion initiatives, operational changes that moved us closer to excellence, and fine-tuning our GMPs. My eye is also focused on company culture, performance management, and constantly pushing the envelope on quality. While always of importance, we want to continue as a pioneer on cultivation and manufacturing standards as it relates to quality in organics.
Barksdale: Mentioned as a short-term goal, I want to move toward GMP and GACP manufacturing standards and create a continual cycle of improvement as we move through our expansion and growth plans. In the future, multi-state operations and partnerships are also a big part of our strategic direction. We aim to continue to provide an elevated cannabis retail experience at our flagship location and to expand our retail footprint in the marketplace.
Barksdale: We are at a turning point in the industry where substances are becoming legal, yet so many people are still suffering from nonviolent, non-serious offenses related to cannabis. It is unavoidably apparent and it is something that deserves significant attention and commitment. Every company that is operating in this space should take a level of responsibility to help address or support reparations in some fashion whether that be through jobs, access, and/or partnerships.
There should be an obligation to support some type of social equity improvement project as it relates to the cannabis industry. Some legacy states and now new states coming online, are attempting to course correct by making it a part of the compliance or access components for licenses.
There is still a lot of work to be done. I am working through the strategies that work for us as a company. I am actively exploring how to incorporate opportunities into our operating and business model.
As a women-owned company and myself being a minority leader, it is on the forefront of our priority list to come up with a comprehensive plan and commitment to supporting social and equities in this space.
The post A Q&A with Brandon Barksdale, CEO of Dalwhinnie Enterprises LLC appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.
January 19, 2022 8:04 pm
Is Tilray Stock a Buy Post Fiscal Q2 Results?
Canadian cannabis giant Tilray (NASDAQ:TLRY) announced its fiscal second quarter of 2022 results last week. The company reported net revenue of $155 million in Q2 which was an increase of 20% year over year. Tilray attributed these gains to its expansion in verticals that include alcohol as well as hemp-based wellness.
Despite an uptick in sales, Tilray’s gross margin reduced by 7% to $32.8 million as the Canadian cannabis market continues to wrestle with oversupply issues resulting in lower-priced products. Alternatively, Tilray claimed its cost-reduction program is running ahead of schedule and it expects to save $100 million by 2023, up from its earlier forecast of savings of $80 million.
Tilray reported a net income of $6 million in Q2, compared to a year-ago loss of $89 million. The fiscal second quarter was also the 11th consecutive quarter where Tilray reported an adjusted EBITDA. This figure stood at $13.8 million in Q2.
Tilray stock rose by 15% in the two trading days following its Q2 results.
Tilray explained its Q2 results were solid as it has successfully built a cannabis and lifestyle brand. Further, the company continues to benefit from its scale, global distribution capabilities as well as operational excellence allowing it to increase sales and maintain profitability despite macro-economic headwinds.
Last year, Tilray completed its merger with Aphria making the combined entity the largest cannabis producer in Canada in terms of market share and sales. Tilray maintained its leadership position in the country despite market saturation and rising competitive challenges.
The company enjoys strong brand recognition and is focused on ensuring an adept pricing environment. It also believes marketing adjustments will allow Tilray to aggressively capture market share going forward.
Germany is the largest medical cannabis market in Europe where Tilray has a 20% share. It’s well-positioned to capture the adult use cannabis market as well in Europe, if and when cannabis is legalized in this region.
Tilray, similar to most other producers aggressively acquired companies in the past. Its acquisition of the U.S.-based SweetWater Brewing and Manitoba Harvest provides it a foothold in the world’s largest cannabis market. These two companies have invested in product innovation to enhance awareness and distribution.
Further, SweetWater and Manitoba Harvest are profitable and provide Tilray an opportunity to launch THC-based products in the U.S. when pot is legalized at the federal level.
During its earnings call, Tilray disclosed its new parent name called Tilray Brands. It reflects the company’s evolutions from a Canadian licensed producer to a global consumer packaged goods company with a leading portfolio of cannabis and lifestyle CPG brands.
Tilray aims to post annual sales of $4 billion by 2024 which is quite optimistic given analysts expect revenue to grow to $980 million in fiscal 2022 and $1.2 billion in fiscal 2023. In order for Tilray to reach its lofty goals, it will have to acquire other licensed producers resulting in shareholder dilution.
Germany is expected to legalize marijuana at the federal level, making it the largest country to do so in terms of population. Tilray already has an EU GMP-certified facility operating in Germany which can increase production capacity to accommodate demand from the adult use segment.
While Tilray’s stock gained pace, following its Q2 results, investors should understand that it was estimated to report revenue of $171 million in the quarter. Despite the cost synergies enjoyed by Tilray, the adult-use market in Canada is crowded as well as highly fragmented and should consolidate in the upcoming years which will allow companies to improve the bottom line.
Tilray stock is valued at a market cap of $3.2 billion which suggests its forward price to sales multiple is over 3x. Unlike most cannabis producers in the U.S. Tilray continues to post an adjusted loss making it a high-risk bet at current multiples.
January 19, 2022 5:15 pm
Ripple Sleep QuickDissolves, Sleep QuickGummies
Ripple has incorporated a precise dose of cannabinol (CBN) and THC into the new line of products, allowing consumers to experience the benefits of an unadulterated cannabinoid product without any added sleep aids such as melatonin or valerian root.
#CBD #Hemp https://www.preparedfoods.com/articles/126512-ripple-sleep-quickdissolves-sleep-quickgummies January 19, 2022 4:00 pm
PubMed: Geotemporospatial and causal inference epidemiological analysis of US survey and overview of cannabis, cannabidiol and cannabinoid genotoxicity in relation to congenital anomalies 2001-2015
BMC Pediatr. 2022 Jan 19;22(1):47. doi: 10.1186/s12887-021-02996-3.
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids including cannabidiol have recognized genotoxic activities but their significance has not been studied broadly epidemiologically across the teratological spectrum. We examined these issues including contextual space-time relationships and formal causal inferential analysis in USA.
METHODS: State congenital anomaly (CA) rate (CAR) data was taken from the annual reports of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network 2001-2005 to 2011-2015. Substance abuse rates were from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health a nationally representative longitudinal survey of the non-institutionalized US population with 74.1% response rate. Drugs examined were cigarettes, monthly and binge alcohol, monthly cannabis and analgesic and cocaine abuse. Early termination of pregnancy for abortion (ETOPFA) rates were taken from the published literature. Cannabinoid concentrations were from Drug Enforcement Agency. Ethnicity and income data were from the US Census Bureau. Inverse probability weighted (IPW) regressions and geotemporospatial regressions conducted for selected CAs.
RESULTS: Data on 18,328,529 births from an aggregated population of 2,377,483,589 for mid-year analyses 2005-2013 comprehending 12,611 CARs for 62 CAs was assembled and ETOPFA-corrected (ETOPFACAR) where appropriate. E-Values for ETOPFACARs by substance trends were elevated for THC (40 CAs), cannabis (35 CAs), tobacco (11 CAs), cannabidiol (8 CAs), monthly alcohol (5 CAs) and binge alcohol (2 CAs) with minimum E-Values descending from 16.55, 1.55×107, 555.10, 7.53×1019, 9.30 and 32.98. Cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, chromosomal, limb reductions, urinary, face and body wall CAs particularly affected. Highest v. lowest substance use quintile CAR prevalence ratios 2.84 (95%C.I. 2.44, 3.31), 4.85 (4.08, 5.77) and 1.92 (1.63, 2.27) and attributable fraction in exposed 0.28 (0.27, 0.28), 0.57 (0.51, 0.62) and 0.47 (0.38, 0.55) for tobacco, cannabis and cannabidiol. Small intestinal stenosis or atresia and obstructive genitourinary defect were studied in detail in lagged IPW pseudo-randomized causal regressions and spatiotemporal models confirmed the causal role of cannabinoids. Spatiotemporal predictive modelling demonstrated strongly sigmoidal non-linear cannabidiol dose-response power-function relationships (P = 2.83×10-60 and 1.61×10-71 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Data implicate cannabinoids including cannabidiol in a diverse spectrum of heritable CAs. Sigmoidal non-linear dose-response relationships are of grave concern. These transgenerational genotoxic, epigenotoxic, chromosomal-toxic putatively causal teratogenic effects strongly indicate tight restrictions on community cannabinoid penetration.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35042455/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220120055848&v=2.17.5 January 19, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Incidence of inpatient cases with mental disorders due to use of cannabinoids in Germany: a nationwide evaluation
Eur J Public Health. 2022 Jan 19:ckab207. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckab207. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Quantitative (e.g. increasing recreational cannabinoid use) and qualitative (e.g. increasing availability and use of synthetic cannabinoids and cannabis preparations with increased tetrahydrocannabinol content) changes in cannabinoid use may be associated with changes in the prevalence of cannabinoid-related mental and behavioural disorders and, accordingly, changes in the need for medical care. We aimed to investigate if there are changes in the number of inpatient cases (ICs) due to cannabinoid-related disorders in Germany.
METHODS: Data were obtained from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis) and comprised type and number of hospital main diagnoses (according to ICD-10) of all ICs in Germany in the period 2000-18. Linear trend analysis of absolute and relative annual frequencies (AFs) of ICs with diagnoses related to the use of cannabinoids (DRUCs), and, as controls, alcohol-related psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was performed.
RESULTS: Absolute AFs of ICs with DRUCs increased statistically significantly (P<0.0001, trend analysis) in Germany between 2000 and 2018 and corresponding relative AFs increased considerably (4.8-fold increase when comparing 2000 and 2018). Specifically, absolute AFs of ICs with cannabinoid intoxications (P<0.0001), harmful use (P=0.0005), dependence syndrome (P< 0.0001), withdrawal state (P<0.0001), psychotic disorders (P< 0.0001) and residual and late-onset psychotic disorder (P<0.0001) statistically significantly increased. Absolute AFs of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders slightly, but statistically significantly decreased (P=0.008), and alcohol dependence did not statistically significantly change (P=0.844).
CONCLUSIONS: Our evaluation demonstrates increasing numbers of ICs with mental and behavioural disorders due to use of cannabinoids in Germany and emphasizes the need for adequate prevention of such disorders.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35043164/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220120055848&v=2.17.5 January 19, 2022 11:00 am
Costa Rica’s president said he is studying a bill that would legalize medical marijuana and industrial hemp, giving no clear indication if he will sign…
January 19, 2022 6:59 am
The Moroccan government last year passed a law that could give impoverished farmers in the country’s Central Rif a chance to give up illegal cannabis…
January 18, 2022 7:00 am
PubMed: Cannabis Vapor Exposure Alters Neural Circuit Oscillatory Activity in a Neurodevelopmental Model of Schizophrenia: Exploring the Differential Impact of Cannabis Constituents
Schizophr Bull Open. 2021 Nov 20;3(1):sgab052. doi: 10.1093/schizbullopen/sgab052. eCollection 2022 Jan.
Cannabis use is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and worsens the course of the disorder. To understand how exposure to cannabis changes schizophrenia-related oscillatory disruptions, we investigated the impact of administering cannabis vapor containing either Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or balanced THC/cannabidiol (CBD) on oscillatory activity in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rat model of schizophrenia. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent lesion or sham surgeries on postnatal day 7. In adulthood, electrodes were implanted targeting the cingulate cortex (Cg), the prelimbic cortex (PrLC), the hippocampus (HIP), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Local field potential recordings were obtained after rats were administered either the “THC-only” cannabis vapor (8-18% THC/0% CBD) or the “Balanced THC:CBD” cannabis vapor (4-11% THC/8.5-15.5% CBD) in a cross-over design with a 2-week wash-out period between exposures. Compared to controls, NVHL rats had reduced baseline gamma power in the Cg, HIP, and NAc, and reduced HIP-Cg high-gamma coherence. THC-only vapor exposure broadly suppressed oscillatory power and coherence, even beyond the baseline reductions observed in NHVL rats. Balanced THC:CBD vapor, however, did not suppress oscillatory power and coherence, and in some instances enhanced power. For NVHL rats, THC-only vapor normalized the baseline HIP-Cg high-gamma coherence deficits. NHVL rats demonstrated a 20 ms delay in HIP theta to high-gamma phase coupling, which was not apparent in the PrLC and NAc after both exposures. In conclusion, cannabis vapor exposure has varying impacts on oscillatory activity in NVHL rats, and the relative composition of naturally occurring cannabinoids may contribute to this variability.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35036917/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220118055848&v=2.17.5 January 17, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Gramene: A Resource for Comparative Analysis of Plants Genomes and Pathways
Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2443:101-131. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2067-0_5.
Gramene is an integrated bioinformatics resource for accessing, visualizing, and comparing plant genomes and biological pathways. Originally targeting grasses, Gramene has grown to host annotations for over 90 plant genomes including agronomically important cereals (e.g., maize, sorghum, wheat, teff), fruits and vegetables (e.g., apple, watermelon, clementine, tomato, cassava), specialty crops (e.g., coffee, olive tree, pistachio, almond), and plants of special or emerging interest (e.g., cotton, tobacco, cannabis, or hemp). For some species, the resource includes multiple varieties of the same species, which has paved the road for the creation of species-specific pan-genome browsers. The resource also features plant research models, including Arabidopsis and C4 warm-season grasses and brassicas, as well as other species that fill phylogenetic gaps for plant evolution studies. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework for genome comparison and the use of ontologies to integrate structural and functional annotation data. This chapter outlines system requirements for end-users and database hosting, data types and basic navigation within Gramene, and provides examples of how to (1) explore Gramene’s search results, (2) explore gene-centric comparative genomics data visualizations in Gramene, and (3) explore genetic variation associated with a gene locus. This is the first publication describing in detail Gramene’s integrated search interface-intended to provide a simplified entry portal for the resource’s main data categories (genomic location, phylogeny, gene expression, pathways, and external references) to the most complete and up-to-date set of plant genome and pathway annotations.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35037202/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220118055848&v=2.17.5 January 17, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Marijuana toxicosis in 2 donkeys
J Vet Diagn Invest. 2022 Jan 17:10406387211064269. doi: 10.1177/10406387211064269. Online ahead of print.
Marijuana toxicosis is typically seen by companion animal veterinarians. However, with increased marijuana availability, there is a greater potential for toxicosis in other species. Herein we describe a case of suspected marijuana toxicosis in a female and a male American Mammoth donkey, aged 8 y and 20 y, respectively, fed cannabis buds. Both cases were presented because of depression and lethargy. However, the jenny had ataxia, mild colic, tachycardia, tachypnea, and decreased tongue tone. Plasma samples from the jenny on presentation and 3 d following hospitalization were submitted to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to be screened for cannabinoids using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). A single serum sample from the jack was taken on presentation and submitted to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell University for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol analysis using HPLC-MS/MS. THC was detected in all samples. Clinical signs were noted 24-36 h after ingestion, which included mild-to-moderate neurologic deficits, mild colic, tachycardia, tachypnea, and decreased tongue tone. Both donkeys recovered uneventfully within 24 h of peak effects. Utilizing a cannabinoid screening assay in collaboration with a veterinary diagnostic laboratory may be useful when an equine practitioner suspects marijuana toxicosis in a patient.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35037522/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220118055848&v=2.17.5 January 17, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Tobacco Hornworm as an Insect Model System for Cannabinoid Pre-clinical Studies
J Vis Exp. 2021 Dec 29;(178). doi: 10.3791/63228.
With increased attention on cannabinoids in medicine, several mammalian model organisms have been used to elucidate their unknown pharmaceutical functions. However, many difficulties remain in mammalian research, which necessitates the development of non-mammalian model organisms for cannabinoid research. The authors suggest the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta as a novel insect model system. This protocol provides information on preparing the artificial diet with varying amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), setting up a cultivation environment, and monitoring their physiological and behavioral changes in response to CBD treatment. Briefly, upon receiving hornworm eggs, the eggs were allowed 1-3 days at 25 °C on a 12:12 light-dark cycle to hatch before being randomly distributed into control (wheat germ-based artificial diet; AD), vehicle (AD + 0.1% medium-chain triglyceride oil; MCT oil) and treatment groups (AD + 0.1% MCT + 1 mM or 2 mM of CBD). Once the media was prepared, 1st instar larvae were individually placed in a 50 mL test tube with a wooden skewer stick, and then the test tube was covered with a cheesecloth. Measurements were taken in 2-day intervals for physiological and behavioral responses to the CBD administration. This simple cultivation procedure allows researchers to test large specimens in a given experiment. Additionally, the relatively short life cycles enable researchers to study the impact of cannabinoid treatments over multiple generations of a homogenous population, allowing for data to support an experimental design in higher mammalian model organisms.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35037649/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220118055848&v=2.17.5 January 17, 2022 11:00 am
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) said a CBD-based treatment for opioid use disorder can be used in clinical trials, Ananda Scientific Inc., the…
January 17, 2022 10:55 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol and substance use disorder: Dream or reality
Neuropharmacology. 2022 Jan 12:108948. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2022.108948. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major constituents of Cannabis sativa L. that lacks psychotomimetic and rewarding properties and inhibits the rewarding and reinforcing effects of addictive drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine (METH), and morphine. Additionally, CBD’s safety profile and therapeutic potential are currently evaluated in several medical conditions, including pain, depression, movement disorders, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, ischemia, and substance use disorder. There is no effective treatment for substance use disorders such as addiction, and this review aims to describe preclinical and clinical investigations into the effects of CBD in various models of opioid, psychostimulant, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine abuse. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of CBD on drug abuse disorders are reviewed.
METHODS: The current review considers and summarizes the preclinical and clinical investigations into CBD’s effects in various models of drug abuse include opioids, psychostimulants, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine.
RESULTS: Several preclinical and clinical studies have proposed that CBD may be a reliable agent to inhibit the reinforcing and rewarding impact of drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: While the currently available evidence converges to suggest that CBD could effectively reduce the rewarding and reinforcing effects of addictive drugs, more preclinical and clinical studies are needed before CBD can be added to the therapeutic arsenal for treating addiction.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35032495/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220116055948&v=2.17.5 January 15, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Antioxidant and Anti-apoptotic Effects of Cannabidiol in Model of Ischemic Stroke in Rats
Brain Res Bull. 2022 Jan 11:S0361-9230(22)00004-1. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.
One of the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids of cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD), which has attracted much attention for its neuroprotective roles. The present study was designed to assess whether pretreatment of CBD can attenuate two of the destructive processes of cerebral ischemia, including oxidative stress and cell death. The male rats were randomly divided into 6 main groups (control, MCAO, vehicle, and CBD-treated groups). Using stereotaxic surgery, a cannula was inserted into the right lateral ventricle of the rat brain. CBD was injected at doses of 50, 100 and 200ng/rat for five consecutive days. After pretreatment, middle cerebral artery (MCA) was blocked for 60min using the intraluminal filament technique. 24h after reperfusion, each main group was considered for measurement of infarct volume, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), p53 gene expression, pathological alterations, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, and caspase-3 proteins. The results revealed that CBD at dose of 100ng/rat reduced the infarction volume and MDA level in cortical and striatal areas of rat brain compared with vehicle group. In addition, the CBD at dose of 100ng/rat elevated the activity of SOD enzyme in cortex and striatum. The increase in the activity of CAT was also seen at dose of 100ng/rat in cortex. Furthermore, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly diminished by the dose of 100ng/rat CBD in cortex. Moreover, a decrease in expression of cytosolic cytochrome C was observed by CBD at doses of 100 and 200ng/rat in cortex. CBD at doses 100 and 200ng/rat also reduced the expression of caspase-3 in cortical and striatal areas, respectively. P53 was downregulated following administration of CBD at dose of 100ng/rat. Moreover, histological analysis showed the decrease in the percentage of pyknotic neurons in 100 and 200ng/rat CBD-received groups. CBD played the anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidant roles in cerebral ischemia by affecting the pathways of intrinsic apoptosis, endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35031355/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220116055948&v=2.17.5 January 15, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Healing of a Chronic Pressure Injury in a Patient Treated With Medical Cannabis for Pain and Sleep Improvement: A Case Report
Wound Manag Prev. 2021 Oct;67(10):42-47.
BACKGROUND: A small body of evidence suggests medical cannabis may facilitate wound healing, but the exact mechanism of this effect is unclear.
PURPOSE: This case report describes a patient with a pressure injury (PI) who received cannabis oil treatment for pain management and sleep improvement.
METHODS: A 37-year-old woman with multiminicore disease, scoliosis, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and epilepsy presented to the Neurology Centre of Toronto with chronic pain and sleep disturbance, including difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. She also had a 5-year history of a PI between her right iliac crest and right rib cage that had progressively worsened. The patient received a medical cannabis oil protocol that used a combination of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol.
RESULTS: Cannabis oil was effective in treating pain and sleep difficulties. Unexpectedly, during the first 2 weeks of treatment, the PI started to heal and was almost completely closed at the 2-month follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Although it is unknown if the observed healing of this refractory PI was indirectly or directly related to the cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol treatment, the potential relationships among pain, sleep disturbance, cannabis treatment, and healing should be explored.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35030093/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220115055956&v=2.17.5 January 14, 2022 11:00 am
INTERVIEW: Jamie Campbell Petty is Executive Director at the Midwest Hemp Council, which she co-founded with partners in 2018 to lobby for Indiana hemp legislation…
January 14, 2022 6:59 am
More Research Links Cannabis to Treatment for Novel Coronavirus
Compounds found in cannabis prevented the novel coronavirus, the virus that causes COVID-19, from penetrating healthy human cells. The findings were published in the Journal of Nature Products.
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), two compounds commonly found in cannabis, have potential to fight the virus that causes COVID-19. During a chemical screening, researchers from Oregon State University bound spike proteins found on the virus and blocked a step the pathogen uses to infect people.
The research was conducted in a laboratory setting and did not involve human trials. The compounds effectively combat the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant and the beta variant.
“Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2,” the study’s authors said.
Cannabis, also known as hemp, is used in a variety of products ranging from food to fiber to fuel. Its versatility extends into healthcare.
It’s currently being researched as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, appetite loss, Crohn’s disease, cancer, and many other illnesses.
This is not the first research to have linked cannabinoids as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus.
Eybna Technologies CEO Nadav Eyal published research last year detailing the effectiveness of a cannabis terpene formulation, NT-VRL, in treating or preventing infection from the disease that causes COVID-19.
“We came up with a formulation containing 30 different terpenes,” Eyal said. “The NFT-VRL formulation blocked the penetration of the coronavirus to the cells.”
Terpenes are hydrocarbons found in the essential oils of plants such as cannabis. They are responsible for each plant’s unique smell and taste. Eyal’s research has linked these compounds to therapeutic effects as well.
“We were able to show that terpenes by themself are not just smell and taste, but they are actually effective and have their own medical value. So this was important for the conversation of how we can basically take the cannabis plant and make it into a real medicine,” said Eyal.
Eybna’s research is now undergoing human trials. To hear more about this discovery, listen to Eyal’s interview on Episode 71 of Cannabis Tech Talks or read his profile in the winter issue of Cannabis & Tech Today.
January 13, 2022 11:53 pm
Could CBGA and CBDA Be Effective in Preventing and Treating COVID-19?
A new promising study shows that cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) can be effective in both preventing and treating COVID-19. CBGA and CBDA were found to be equally effective against the alpha and the beta variant of the virus, which could provide synergy with the vaccination efforts in the global fight against the pandemic.
Research led by Richard B. van Breemen from Oregon State’s Global Hemp Innovation Center, College of Pharmacy, and Linus Pauling Institute was published in the Journal of Natural Products on January 10, 2022.
The scientists found that CBGA and CBDA prevented the infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as well as prevented entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells.
CBGA and CBDA were not the only effective cannabinoid precursors detected in this study. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) also demonstrated potentially high effectiveness, but its legal status as a controlled substance prevented scientists from acquiring sufficient quantities to examine its full potential.
The other observed compounds – Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) showed only weak or no potential in this study.
So far, we have witnessed numerous results of previous studies in human and animal models, compared to the recorded clinical practice using CBD formulations to treat COVID-19. Before this groundbreaking study, one of the latest findings published in October 2021 in Phytotherapy Research show the potential effects of CBD in counteracting SARS-CoV-2 hyper-inflammation in the gut. The newest findings show that multiple cannabinoids in complex mixtures from plant extracts could act independently to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. The scientists led by Professor van Breemen believe that there could even be enhanced effectiveness in using the mixtures when compared to individual compounds.
Cell entry inhibitors could be used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and shorten the course of COVID-19 infections by preventing virus particles from infecting human cells. The infection of host cells by SARS-CoV-2 begins with the attachment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 protein to the human cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), abundant in human lungs, arteries, heart, kidneys, and intestines. When cell entry inhibitors bind to the spike proteins, those proteins are prevented from binding to the ACE2 enzyme. The scientific approach of blocking virus-receptor interactions has also been useful in examining solutions for other viruses, including HIV type 1 and hepatitis C.
The binding of the viral spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the host cell receptor ACE2 is seen as a critical step during the infection. For that reason, cell entry inhibitors as CBDA and CBGA could potentially be life-saving solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic. The spike protein is the same target used in COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapy.
The group of scientists from the Oregon State University, including professor van Breemen, have developed an advanced method of the magnetic microbead affinity selection screening (MagMASS), described in their earlier paper published in the Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry.
During the screening of botanical extracts using MagMASS, extracts of Cannabis Sativa L. produced several hits, with the best results identified with CBGA, THCA-A, and CBDA. Excluding THC-A because of its controlled status, CBDA and CBGA were found to block infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the spike protein. What is most important, both CBDA and CBGA prevented virus entry into cells even when the scientists used the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus.
The scientists established that the concentrations needed to block infection by 50% of viruses are high but might be achievable. It has already been found that CBDA administered orally to human volunteers at 0.063 mg/kg showed greater bioavailability than CBD. In beagle dogs, oral administration of CBDA at 1 mg/kg was well tolerated, was two-fold more bioavailable than CBD. There is no scientific data for the bioavailability of CBGA yet, but the scientists in this study are optimistic the needed concentration can be achieved.
As explained by professor van Breemen in an interview for Vice magazine, when fighting COVID-19, it could be effective to consume CBDA and CBGA in the form of a dietary supplement like a pill or an oil or a gummy just after one gets exposed to a positive person and before becoming severely ill.
However, because of the higher bioavailability when inhaling the compounds compared to oral intake, as well as their properties in high temperatures, the best way to consume CBDA and CBGA would be to inhale.
”The active compounds we’ve discovered in hemp are cannabidiolic acid, CBD-A, CBG-A, and THC-A. ‘A’ stands for an acid group, a carboxylic acid — this group can be removed upon treatment. So if these hemp products containing these compounds are smoked or vaped, the heat exposure could cause the chemical decomposition or conversion of CBD-A to CBD, CBG-A to CBG, and THC-A to THC. So, we know that CBD, CBG, and THC are not active against the virus. So, we would recommend in favor of an oral administration of these compounds instead of smoking them, inhaling them from vaping,” said professor van Breemen.
One of the primary concerns of the scientists trying to find a solution in the ongoing pandemic is the spread of viral variants, of which there are many, with some of the most concerning and widespread being the alpha variant (B.1.1.7) and beta variant (B.1.351), both observed in this study. These variants are well known for evading antibodies against early lineage SARS-CoV-2, which is particularly concerning because current vaccination strategies rely on the early lineage spike RBD as an antigen. The scientists hope that this trend will extend to other existing and future variants.
With the widespread use of cannabinoids, resistant variants could still arise, but the combination of vaccination and CBDA/CBGA treatment should create a more challenging environment for the virus, the scientists emphasize.
In addition to promoting public knowledge about CBD and other cannabinoids, at Ilesol Pharmaceuticals, we strongly believe in the importance of providing scientific evidence prior to claiming any possible health benefits, and we, therefore, do not advise our customers or readers of our blog to use any product in the treatment of any illness before it has been approved by the international drug regulatory agencies.
The post Could CBGA and CBDA Be Effective in Preventing and Treating COVID-19? appeared first on ilesol.
January 13, 2022 6:27 pm
PubMed: Cannabidiol Promotes Adipogenesis of Human and Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells via PPARγ by Inducing Lipogenesis but Not Lipolysis
Biochem Pharmacol. 2022 Jan 10:114910. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2022.114910. Online ahead of print.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Human exposure to CBD can be through recreational marijuana use, commercially available CBD-containing products, and medical treatments. Previous studies found that cannabidiol may activate the master regulator of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here we investigated the effects of CBD on adipogenesis in human and mouse multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs). We tested the effects of CBD on nuclear receptor activation and adipogenic potential to demonstrate the mechanism of CBD effects and employed the in vitro MSC differentiation models to assess adipogenic effects of CBD.Using transient transfection assays, we demonstrated that CBD activated mouse and human PPARγ, but not its heterodimeric partner, the retinoid ‘X’ receptor, RXR. Our results showed that CBD increased lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic genes in mouse and human MSCs in vitro. Adipogenic differentiation induced by CBD was significantly decreased by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907, supporting the hypothesis that CBD promoted differentiation via PPARγ. Taken together, our results indicate that in humans and in mice, CBD induced adipogenic differentiation in MSCs through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35026188/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220114055939&v=2.17.5 January 13, 2022 11:00 am
Two compounds present in industrial hemp show the ability to prevent the virus that causes covid-19 from entering human cells, according to researchers in Oregon….
January 13, 2022 7:44 am
Cannabis in Latam: Perspectives for 2022
By Esteban Rossi I., Ph.D., Analyst, New Frontier Data
As a rule, forecasts for the cannabis industry oscillate between deep-seated beliefs in continuous market growth versus skepticism towards regulatory progress. Despite their limitations, the value of predictions lies mostly in the effort we put it to making them. By anticipating the future, analysts must examine their assumptions and choose the likeliest path ahead. Here, New Frontier Data’s analysis highlights some advances and challenges expected for 2022, drawing from observations from industry leaders and empirical data from our proprietary Equio cannabis business intelligence platform.
The Signal and the Noise
In 2022, New Frontier Data will continue to monitor market activity and document the evolution of both mature and emerging markets. Still, most of the world’s future legal markets do not yet formally exist, or remain inchoate pending forthcoming regulations. Arguably, the information overload of the digital era means that both sound and unsound perspectives get equal traction on the media, particularly for new sectors like cannabis. For investors mining for promising opportunities, New Frontier Data recommends focusing on fundamentals: finding good products primed for a specific market should be the main concern. Ideally, target companies should be located in jurisdictions where sales can be tracked, and consumers studied. Fortunately, the global market is expanding to the point that increasing numbers of jurisdictions can provide sufficient data to adequately assess investment opportunities.
Last year, Mexico provided perhaps the most obvious example of noise trumping signal. True to its recent history, Mexico’s Senate again postponed discussing its adult-use bill until the end of the legislative period. At the last hour, Senator Ricardo Monreal announced that they needed to reschedule. Unnamed sources suggested that the legislators did not feel comfortable with the text, and that the U.S. government is unprepared for a fully legal cannabis market south of its border. Thus, Mexican legislators seemed blinkered to the opportunity for its regulated adult-use market to lead policy among the global markets. Industry experts are hopeful that President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador will acknowledge Mexico’s opportunities to seize industrial advantages while leveraging a large consumer market.
In 2022, we will continue to observe progress in line with well-known global trends, namely: legislative advances, continued public support for cannabis reform and growing consumer markets. New jurisdictions worth watching closely include Latam markets in Panama (Ley 242) and Argentina, and European developments in Germany, Malta, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. Regulators in Panama must soon publish guidelines for its medical-use program, while consumers and stakeholders in Argentina look forward to the consolidation of the home cultivation regime, the research framework for medical use and the approval of a hemp bill.
In Europe, as a handful of small countries took steps to regulate personal use, a newly formed coalition government in Germany roiled market speculation. Also, we should see advances from Swiss pilot trials in the next few months. In the best-case scenario, one of the jurisdictions will succeed in establishing an adult-use market to urge policy reforms and industry forward; at the least, the sprouting policy efforts should shape the continent’s paths of least resistance toward incremental reforms.
In parallel to those legislative milestones, consumer markets will continue to expand. Retailers on both sides of the Atlantic, along with incumbent players seasoned in grey markets, will expectedly reap the benefits of these trends. While overly restrictive regulations in Latin America limited access to cannabis products, consumers turned to the grey market to purchase tinctures, edibles, and flower. Consequently, local purveyors surreptitiously flourished in tandem with the legal market. Whatever challenges they present for regulators in places like Canada and Colombia, the realities of the internet and online retail render it effectively impossible to prohibit high-THC products.
Agency and Friction
Recent accomplishments in the cannabis industry stem from decades of efforts by users which led to court rulings and new legislation. Nevertheless, the industry needs to accept and endure the friction which comes with change. In Ecuador, for example, the government continues to criminalize possession, thereby causing consumers to face petty criminal charges while straining the legal system. Cannabis advocates would benefit from marshaling some demonstrated political will: Regulating home cultivation while eliminating petty offenses costs relatively little to implement while leading to substantial savings for bureaucracies and state budgets.
Last year, the Spanish cannabis industry found itself at odds with its government. Despite having a generally cannabis-friendly culture and decades of cultivation experience, the ministry of interior framed cannabis in terms of organized crime, and launched a task force against it. While laws are required and some cannabis growers crossed beyond legal boundaries, draconian measures have a problematic history, and alternative approaches demonstrably exist. Given that the Spanish cannabis industry is estimated at nearly $6 billion USD, it would seem wise for industry representatives to collaborate with the government and pay reasonable taxes. Otherwise, a considerable amount of knowledge and wealth will be needlessly missed, and returned to the realm of bad actors.
Bureaucratic resistance has also been observed in other places. In Colombia, regulators still have failed to establish guidelines for flower exports, though Decree 811 to mandate such was signed in July 2020. In the U.S., prospects to expand access to financial services and ease the tax burden of cannabis business stalled in Congress. In Chile, patients continued to struggle in securing access to generic formulations, though it appears that the new administration of president-elect Gabriel Boric will support cannabis reform. Lastly, in Mexico, civil society organizations monitored proposed changes to the adult-use bill, and played a vital role informing the public.
The vision, grit, and persistence of cannabis associations continue to help inspire like-minded reform movements in other countries. While during the near-term patchwork solutions seem likeliest to drive further reforms and the global market’s evolution during 2022, public acceptance and the embrace of innovative efforts should keep paving a progressive path forward.
#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/cannabis-in-latam-perspectives-for-2022/ January 12, 2022 3:47 pm
Brewing giant Anheuser-Busch InBev said it will continue to develop CBD-infused non-alcoholic drinks in Canada after its joint venture with cannabis producer Tilray was dissolved…
January 12, 2022 1:30 pm
PubMed: Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiles of bZIP Genes in Cannabis sativa L
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Jan 11. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0153. Online ahead of print.
Background: The bZIP gene family plays roles in biotic and abiotic stress, secondary metabolism, and other aspects in plants. They have been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Artemisia annua, and other plants, but their roles in Cannabis sativa have not been determined. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide identification and expression profile of the bZIP gene family in C. sativa. Results: A total of 51 members of the bZIP gene family were identified based on the C. sativa genome and numbered in order from CsbZIP1 to CsbZIP51. Their phylogenetic relationships, cis-elements in promoter region, gene structures and motif compositions, physicochemical properties, chromosome locations, and expression profiles, were analyzed. The results showed that the 51 CsbZIPs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and could be clustered into 11 subfamilies. Furthermore, CsbZIPs located in the same subfamilies presented similar intron/exon organization and motif composition. The expression levels of CsbZIPs in various tissues (flowers, bracts, vegetative leaves, stems, and seeds) were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of CsbZIPs were higher in flowers and bracts. The 51 CsbZIPs were explored, and their structure, evolution, and expression pattern in different tissues of C. sativa were characterized synthetically. The findings indicated that CsbZIPs are essential for the growth and development of C. sativa. Conclusions: These results provide a theoretical basis for subsequent research on hemp bZIP transcription factors and the cultivation of high-cannabidiol and low-tetrahydrocannabinol high-quality cannabis varieties.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35020417/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220113055906&v=2.17.5 January 12, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabis Legalization and Detection of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Injured Drivers
N Engl J Med. 2022 Jan 13;386(2):148-156. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa2109371.
BACKGROUND: The effect of cannabis legalization in Canada (in October 2018) on the prevalence of injured drivers testing positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unclear.
METHODS: We studied drivers treated after a motor vehicle collision in four British Columbia trauma centers, with data from January 2013 through March 2020. We included moderately injured drivers (those whose condition warranted blood tests as part of clinical assessment) for whom excess blood remained after clinical testing was complete. Blood was analyzed at the provincial toxicology center. The primary outcomes were a THC level greater than 0, a THC level of at least 2 ng per milliliter (Canadian legal limit), and a THC level of at least 5 ng per milliliter. The secondary outcomes were a THC level of at least 2.5 ng per milliliter plus a blood alcohol level of at least 0.05%; a blood alcohol level greater than 0; and a blood alcohol level of at least 0.08%. We calculated the prevalence of all outcomes before and after legalization. We obtained adjusted prevalence ratios using log-binomial regression to model the association between substance prevalence and legalization after adjustment for relevant covariates.
RESULTS: During the study period, 4339 drivers (3550 before legalization and 789 after legalization) met the inclusion criteria. Before legalization, a THC level greater than 0 was detected in 9.2% of drivers, a THC level of at least 2 ng per milliliter in 3.8%, and a THC level of at least 5 ng per milliliter in 1.1%. After legalization, the values were 17.9%, 8.6%, and 3.5%, respectively. After legalization, there was an increased prevalence of drivers with a THC level greater than 0 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.68), a THC level of at least 2 ng per milliliter (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.45), and a THC level of at least 5 ng per milliliter (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.18). The largest increases in a THC level of at least 2 ng per milliliter were among drivers 50 years of age or older (adjusted prevalence ratio, 5.18; 95% CI, 2.49 to 10.78) and among male drivers (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.60 to 3.74). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: After cannabis legalization, the prevalence of moderately injured drivers with a THC level of at least 2 ng per milliliter in participating British Columbia trauma centers more than doubled. The increase was largest among older drivers and male drivers. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.).
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35020985/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220113055906&v=2.17.5 January 12, 2022 11:00 am
Top Five Insurances Cannabis Businesses Need in 2022
Cannabis remains one of the fastest growing industries with no signs of slowing down. According to a recent article in Forbes Magazine, the legal cannabis market is poised to grow 20-30% per year to the tune of $50 billion by 2026.With great opportunity comes numerous risks. Claims and lawsuits against cannabis businesses are increasing in frequency and magnitude. As an insurance broker who specializes in the cannabis industry and works with a wide variety of cannabis, hemp and CBD businesses in every state where cannabis laws are established, our recent analysis has unveiled the top five insurances your cannabis business needs in 2022.
General liability is the most essential coverage your business needs to protect you from a variety of claims including personal injury, bodily harm, property damage and other situations that may arise including slander, libel, copyright infringement and more.
Since general liability is not always required to obtain a cannabis license, many businesses are tempted to forgo the expense. This is one of the biggest mistakes you can make as one single lawsuit has the potential to cripple your business. With a comprehensive, cannabis-specific general liability insurance policy in place, your insurance company, not you, will pay medical expenses and property damage claims from third parties, in addition to hefty legal fees and fines.
If you own a dispensary, grow operation, warehouse, testing facility or any other type of cannabis business with inventory, you need to protect your assets from potential loss or damage. Property & casualty (P&C) insurance safeguards your business against common and costly perils such as a fire, lightning, explosion/implosion, and even less common – but still possible – risks like riots, strikes and terrorism.
P&C insurance not only pays for damages to your business property resulting from a covered loss but it also covers the contents within your place of business, including office furniture, computers, inventory and other assets essential to your business operations. There are policies that will also provide the funds required to keep your business afloat until the damages from the loss are repaired. Any cannabis business with a physical property and location(s) should have a comprehensive property and casualty P&C policy in place.
Recently, we’ve seen a dramatic influx of product liability claims, and in particular, product recalls. Lawsuits have ranged from a single plaintiff seeking damages for personal injuries to class action lawsuits where a defective product is tied to an entire group of claimants.
As a cannabis business owner, you can be sued for any damage resulting from products that cause harm to others, this includes false advertising, mislabeled or defective products. No matter where you are in the supply chain, your business could be held liable. The process of defending litigation or reaching a settlement agreement can completely drain a company’s resources. You’ll have to deal with regulatory compliance, producing and distributing product warnings, recalling products, claim investigation, product testing and additional risk assessment.
Product liability insurance is often overlooked, especially by small to mid-size businesses. However, your cannabis business needs this type of coverage if you sell any goods or products that end up in the hands of the public. In fact, your business may be contractually obligated to have product liability insurance. One such lawsuit is enough to fold a business due to costly legal fees and fines, as well reputation damage beyond repair.
Product liability insurance is designed to protect your cannabis company from claims that can happen anywhere along the supply chain, including product contamination, mislabeled products, false advertising or defective products. With proper coverage, your insurance company will pay for damages and legal expenses if you are sued, up to your policy limits. Your product liability policy will also cover any medical expenses for those who are harmed by your business. Making sure your insurance policy includes product liability insurance should be a top priority in 2022.
Cyber fraud and data breaches are two of the greatest risks facing cannabis companies in 2022. With so much cash pouring into the space, cannabis businesses of all sizes are bulls-eye targets for cybercriminals. Even the smallest of cannabis businesses are at risk of data breaches because they are part of a larger interconnected network of seed to sale vendors. These types of crimes can have detrimental effects on your business in numerous ways. In the case of a data breach resulting in the disclosure of a third party’s private information, the third party could sue your business. The SEC could also find your company negligent in cyber fraud cases and impose significant fines.
By forgoing cyber defense & data breach insurance, your business will be solely responsible for expensive legal bills, significant revenue losses and hefty fines and penalties from regulators. Cyber defense & data breach insurance is a must-have coverage in 2022, and beyond, to protect your business from cybercrimes.
If you are looking to secure venture capital or funding from investors in 2022, and/or attract and retain qualified leadership, you need directors & officers (D&O) Insurance. D&O protects corporate directors and officers, as well as their spouses and estates, from being personally liable in the event your company is sued by investors, employees, vendors, competitors, customers, or other parties, for actual or alleged wrongful acts in managing the company. In the event of litigation, your D&O insurance will cover legal fees, fines, settlements and other expensive costs.
D&O is often the most overlooked coverage because many cannabis businesses are independently run, and no one foresees the potential for operational failures and mismanagement. However, businesses with any sort of vision for growth should make D&O a top priority. It not only protects your current executives and board members but is critical in attracting leading talent in the space, as well as drawing in new investors to scale up your business. In fact, we’re seeing more prospective investors and board members requiring D&O insurance prior to engaging with a company to ensure they are fully protected in the event of litigation.
When it comes to mitigating risk in this business, the stakes are sky high. Cannabis companies that have not incorporated risk management into their business/operational plans will need to in 2022. It all boils down to the THREE P’s: being “Proactive, Prepared and Protected.”
The post Top Five Insurances Cannabis Businesses Need in 2022 appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.
January 11, 2022 4:52 pm
PubMed: Examining the Use of Antidepressants for Adolescents with Depression/Anxiety Who Regularly Use Cannabis: A Narrative Review
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 4;19(1):523. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010523.
Depression and anxiety disorders are two of the most common and growing mental health concerns in adolescents. Consequently, antidepressant medication (AD) use has increased widely during the last decades. Several classes of antidepressants are used mainly to treat depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders by targeting relevant brain neurochemical pathways. Almost all randomized clinical trials of antidepressants examined patients with no concomitant medications or drugs. This does not address the expected course of therapy and outcome in cannabis users. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance globally. Substantial changes in its regulation are recently taking place. Many countries and US states are becoming more permissive towards its medical and recreational use. The psychological and physiological effects of cannabis (mainly of its major components, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)) have been extensively characterized. Cannabis use can be a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms, but some constituents or mixtures may have antidepressant and/or anxiolytic potential. The aim of this literature review is to explore whether simultaneous use of AD and cannabis in adolescence can affect AD treatment outcomes. Based on the current literature, it is reasonable to assume that antidepressants are less effective for adolescents with depression/anxiety who frequently use cannabis. The mechanisms of action of antidepressants and cannabis point to several similarities and conjunctions that merit future investigation regarding the potential effectiveness of antidepressants among adolescents who consume cannabis regularly.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35010782/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220112055923&v=2.17.5 January 11, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Tribute to Professor Raphael Mechoulam, The Founder of Cannabinoid and Endocannabinoid Research
Molecules. 2022 Jan 5;27(1):323. doi: 10.3390/molecules27010323.
During the last 60 years the relevance for human health and disease of cannabis (Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica) ingredients, like the psychoactive compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, 120+ cannabinoids and 440+ non-cannabinoid compounds, has become apparent […].
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35011553/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220112055923&v=2.17.5 January 11, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Case report: Medical cannabis-warfarin drug-drug interaction
J Cannabis Res. 2022 Jan 10;4(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s42238-021-00112-x.
AIM: A case of an 85-year-old patient with concurrent use of warfarin and medical cannabis containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) is described. Warfarin continues to be a cornerstone of anticoagulation treatment despite the recent addition of FDA-approved anticoagulant agents. It is well known that warfarin has numerous drug interactions; however, much remains unknown about its interaction with THC and CBD. A literature review was conducted to identify documented cases of possible interactions between cannabis and warfarin. The case reports we identified noted that cannabis may potentially increase warfarin’s effect. Therefore, we aimed to determine why an effect was not seen on our patient’s warfarin dose despite daily use of medical cannabis.
CASE: This case report describes an 85-year-old patient who despite starting an oromucosal medical cannabis regimen of THC and CBD (which provided 0.3 mg of THC and 5.3 mg CBD once daily and an additional 0.625 mg of THC and 0.625 mg CBD once daily as needed) had minimal INR fluctuations from October 2018 to September 2019.
CONCLUSION: Despite the introduction and use of medical cannabis therapy, with both THC and CBD components, an elderly patient with concurrent warfarin use did not see major INR fluctuations, in contrast to published literature. The potential for warfarin and THC/CBD interactions may be dependent on route of administration and dose of the cannabis product.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35012687/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220112055923&v=2.17.5 January 11, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: THC and CBD Fingerprinting of an Elite Cannabis Collection from Iran: Quantifying Diversity to Underpin Future Cannabis Breeding
Plants (Basel). 2022 Jan 4;11(1):129. doi: 10.3390/plants11010129.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) has a rich history of human use, and the therapeutic importance of compounds produced by this species is recognized by the medical community. The active constituents of cannabis, collectively called cannabinoids, encompass hundreds of distinct molecules, the most well-characterized of which are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), which have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. As a first step to establish a cannabis breeding program, we initiated this study to describe the HPLC-measured quantity of THC and CBD biochemistry profiles of 161 feral pistillate cannabis plants from 20 geographical regions of Iran. Our data showed that Iran can be considered a new region of high potential for distribution of cannabis landraces with diverse THC and CBD content, predominantly falling into three groups, as Type I = THC-predominant, Type II = approximately equal proportions of THC and CBD (both CBD and THC in a ratio close to the unity), and Type III = CBD-predominant. Correlation analysis among two target cannabinoids and environmental and geographical variables indicated that both THC and CBD contents were strongly influenced by several environmental-geographical factors, such that THC and CBD contents were positively correlated with mean, min and max annual temperature and negatively correlated with latitude, elevation, and humidity. Additionally, a negative correlation was observed between THC and CBD concentrations, suggesting that further studies to unravel these genotype × environment interactions (G × E interactions) are warranted. The results of this study provide important pre-breeding information on a collection of cannabis that will underpin future breeding programs.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35009133/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220112055923&v=2.17.5 January 11, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Geographical variation in hospitalization for psychosis associated with cannabis use and cannabis legalization in the United States: Submit to: Psychiatry Research
Psychiatry Res. 2022 Jan 4;308:114387. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114387. Online ahead of print.
The 2017 National Inpatient Sample database was utilized to investigate the association between cannabis legalization in the United States and hospitalizations for psychosis associated with cannabis use. We compared the odds of hospital discharges for psychosis associated with cannabis use in adults between the Pacific census division (where most states legalized recreational cannabis use) and other divisions using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. We calculated a score for each census division representing cannabis legality as the population-weighted sum of state scores: 1=illegal or cannabidiol/low potency cannabis; 2= medical marijuana; and 3=recreational and medical marijuana legalized. Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r) quantified the relationship between scores and the proportion of hospitalizations with psychosis associated with cannabis. In 2017, there were an estimated 129,070 hospital discharges for psychosis associated with cannabis use. The Pacific census division had significantly higher odds of discharges than other divisions (adjusted odds ratio 1.55; 95% confidence interval 1.25 – 1.93). There was a significant correlation between the cannabis legality score and proportion of hospital discharges for psychosis associated with cannabis use (r = 0.67, p<0.05). In conclusion, we observed a higher proportion of hospital discharges for psychosis associated with cannabis use in areas with more liberal cannabis legalization laws.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35016118/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220112055923&v=2.17.5 January 11, 2022 11:00 am
Local officials in west-central Italy say they are progressing with plans to build a sustainable hemp supply chain model that can transform the agriculture of…
January 11, 2022 10:23 am
Bayou City Hemp Co. Introduces Ranch Water CBD Seltzer
Handcrafted in Houston, the Mixer Elixir Ranch Water seltzer is a non-alcoholic, zero-calorie, and zero-sugar sparkling water.
#CBD #Hemp https://www.preparedfoods.com/articles/126470-bayou-city-hemp-co-introduces-ranch-water-cbd-seltzer January 10, 2022 4:10 pm
Legal Cannabis Strongly Positioned for Another Milestone Year in 2022
By John Kagia, Chief Knowledge Officer, New Frontier Data
The cannabis industry enters the new year facing a complex set of global dynamics to set foundations for another milestone year in the emerging global cannabis economy.
In New Frontier Data’s upcoming report, 22 for 2022: Cannabis Industry Assertions & Predictions, we explore 22 key issues shaping the market in the year ahead, offer predictions on how they will play out, and analyze what impacts they are likely to have on the market.
In the U.S. — which is projected to account for 86% of global legal cannabis sales in 2022 — we analyze the respective impacts that launching three major East Coast adult-use markets (i.e., New York, New Jersey, and Virginia) will have across the legal cannabis landscape and on the national conversation in America.
Those three states should generate nearly $11 billion in sales by 2025, accounting for nearly one-quarter of all legal U.S. sales. New York and Virginia will be especially influential, with New York City (as a cultural mecca and the nation’s most-visited tourist destination) playing an unprecedented role in exposing American and international travelers to legally regulated cannabis. Likewise, with the U.S. Capitol sitting adjacent to Virginia (and its congressional lawmakers and staff living within an immediate commute), regulated adult-use cannabis in the Old Dominion will provide new access and acceptance of legal cannabis businesses, making real and tangible an industry which for many had previously remained an oft-misunderstood abstraction.
The potential influence of legal cannabis on congressional lawmakers is particularly noteworthy given the lack of progress toward federal reforms in 2021. Deep partisan divisions within Congress regarding how the federal government should regulate cannabis were compounded by an increasingly acrimonious political climate despite generally broadening agreement that the status quo is untenable.
The Democrats’ Cannabis Administration & Opportunity Act and the Republicans’ States Reform Act shared some core principals including descheduling cannabis (versus legalizing it), granting states with autonomy for regulating their respective markets (or keeping cannabis illegal), creating a federal excise tax, investing in research about related health effects of cannabis, and expunging nonviolent cannabis offender records. However, with significant differences remaining toward fundamental issues including excise tax rates, oversight agencies, which cannabis offenders should be eligible for release and records expungement, and how large a federal role will play in stimulating the new industry though grants and development programs, the prospects for the parties’ reaching consensus before the November midterm elections appear dim.
Meanwhile, such slow movement toward a coherent national policy will continue to constrict entry of major non-cannabis companies to the industry, though New Frontier Data expects 2022 to see one or two major CPG companies join the growing ranks of alcohol, tobacco, and pharma companies making substantive investments into the space, especially Canada’s fully regulated market.
Last year saw a dramatic rebound for the industry’s capital raises, after the COVID-19 pandemic’s disruptions drove a steep decline in capital inflows in 2020. With continued strong growth expected going into 2022, the industry is poised for record capital inflows. Nevertheless, New Frontier Data is closely monitoring the broader economic climate, tracking economic headwinds which have gathered strength over the last few months. While cannabis consumer demand has largely proven to be recession-proof in retaining stability (and in some cases, increasing demand) during economic contractions, an economic downturn would constrict the capital markets, slowing investment into each business expansion, M&A, and innovation.
A slowdown in investment activity would be especially challenging for high-growth, capital-intensive businesses which may be generating revenue but still require significant capital infusions to fund their operations and growth.
The end of 2021 saw dramatic developments in Europe, as Luxembourg, Germany, and Malta, respectively, announced intentions to legalize adult-use cannabis. While the final forms of each market remain to be seen, the global impact of Germany’s announcement, in particular, will reverberate well into the new year. As Europe’s largest and most influential economy, Germany’s legal market increase pressure on other major European powers to liberalize their cannabis policies. Furthermore, the German announcement is already attracting interest from many American companies which previously ignored the European market as they raced to build scale in large, existing domestic markets.
With Germany now in play, New Frontier Data expects several U.S. companies to announce partnerships, investments, and M&A with European players to establish footholds across the country’s estimated $14.5 billion cannabis market opportunity.
Other themes explored in 22 for 2022: Cannabis Industry Assertions & Predictions the impact of increased wholesale taxes in California’s market growth, the evolution of the consumer product landscape and its influence on consumer preferences and behavior, challenges in regulating issues (e.g., product testing and impaired driving), the impact of the FDA’s delay in releasing regulations governing CBD on the U.S. hemp market (including on the acreage under cultivation expected for 2022), and outlooks for delta-8 THC and other minor cannabinoids amid tightening state regulations. New Frontier Data is also monitoring the expansion of legalization into more conservative U.S. states where, despite strong public support, conservative lawmakers are working to stop or slow the establishment of the industry.
With another year of explosive growth forecast for legal state markets, green shoots among emerging adult-use markets in Europe (and medical markets worldwide), and the increasing global normalization and acceptance of cannabis, look to have the market well positioned for another year of record growth, even absent U.S. federal reforms. Still, the broader, pandemic-disrupted economic climate could prove to remain the wild card which slows the industry’s expansion by constricting investments for building capacity, expanding markets, and fueling innovation for the industry’s near-term growth.
The post Legal Cannabis Strongly Positioned for Another Milestone Year in 2022 appeared first on New Frontier Data.
#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/strongly-positioned-for-growth%E2%80%AF2022-poised-for-more-milestones-in-legal-cannabis%E2%80%AF/ January 10, 2022 1:31 pm
An amendment that puts tight restrictions on hemp production in Portugal goes against European Union law and puts the country’s nascent industry in peril, stakeholders…
January 10, 2022 1:21 pm
PubMed: Cannabinoids Block Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2 and the Emerging Variants
J Nat Prod. 2022 Jan 10. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.1c00946. Online ahead of print.
As a complement to vaccines, small-molecule therapeutic agents are needed to treat or prevent infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, which cause COVID-19. Affinity selection-mass spectrometry was used for the discovery of botanical ligands to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cannabinoid acids from hemp (Cannabis sativa) were found to be allosteric as well as orthosteric ligands with micromolar affinity for the spike protein. In follow-up virus neutralization assays, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid prevented infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Importantly, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid were equally effective against the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant B.1.1.7 and the beta variant B.1.351. Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35007072/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220111060003&v=2.17.5 January 10, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) Peptides WVSPLAGRT and IGFLIIWV Exert Anti-inflammatory Activity in the LPS-Stimulated Human Hepatic Cell Line
J Agric Food Chem. 2022 Jan 10. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07520. Online ahead of print.
WVSPLAGRT (H2) and IGFLIIWV (H3) are two transepithelial transported intestinal peptides obtained from the hydrolysis of hempseed protein with pepsin, which exert antioxidant activity in HepG2 cells. Notably, both peptides reduce the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production levels in HepG2 cells via the modulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways, respectively. Due to the close link between inflammation and oxidative stress and with the objective of fostering the multifunctional behavior of bioactive peptides, in this study, the molecular characterization of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of H2 and H3 was carried out in HepG2 cells. In fact, both peptides were shown to modulate the production of pro (IFN-γ: -33.0 ± 6.7% H2, p = 0.011; -13.1 ± 2.0% H3, p = <0.0001; TNF: -17.6 ± 1.7% H2, p = 0.0004; -20.3 ± 1.7% H3, p = <0.0001; and IL-6: -15.1 ± 6.5% H3, p = 0.010)- and anti (IL-10: +9.6 ± 3.1% H2, p = 0.010; +26.0 ± 2.3% H3, p = < 0.0001)-inflammatory cytokines and NO (-9.0 ± 0.7% H2, p = <0.0001; -7.2 ± 1.8% H3, p = <0.0001) through regulation of the NF-κB and iNOS pathways, respectively, in HepG2 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35007086/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220111060003&v=2.17.5 January 10, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Combined ionic liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide based dynamic extraction of six cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L
Green Chem. 2021 Nov 18;23(24):10079-10089. doi: 10.1039/d1gc03516a. eCollection 2021 Dec 13.
The potential of supercritical CO2 and ionic liquids (ILs) as alternatives to traditional extraction of natural compounds from plant material is of increasing importance. Both techniques offer several advantages over conventional extraction methods. These two alternatives have been separately employed on numerous ocassions, however, until now, they have never been combined for the extraction of secondary metabolites from natural sources, despite properties that complement each other perfectly. Herein, we present the first application of an IL-based dynamic supercritical CO2 extraction of six cannabinoids (CBD, CBDA, Δ9-THC, THCA, CBG and CBGA) from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Various process parameters were optimized, i.e., IL-based pre-treatment time and pre-treatment temperature, as well as pressure and temperature during supercritical fluid extraction. In addition, the impact of different ILs on cannabinoid extraction yield was evaluated, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, choline acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate. This novel technique exhibits a synergistic effect that allows the solvent-free acquisition of cannabinoids from industrial hemp, avoiding further processing steps and the additional use of resources. The newly developed IL-based supercritical CO2 extraction results in high yields of the investigated cannabinoids, thus, demonstrating an effective and reliable alternative to established extraction methods. Ultimately, the ILs can be recycled to reduce costs and to improve the sustainability of the developed extraction process.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35002535/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220111060003&v=2.17.5 January 10, 2022 11:00 am
France Lifts THC Limit to 0.3%
With the New Year, the THC limit in France is lifted up to 0.3%. On the 31st of December 2021, a new decree on cannabis cultivation and the sale of CBD in France was published in the Official Journal of the French Republic.
The document issued by the Ministry of Health allows the import, export, and industrial and commercial use of Cannabis Sativa L. varieties with THC content not exceeding 0.3%. The set limit is in line with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).
The new CAP is entering into force on January 1st, 2023. The document allows the European farmers to receive Direct Payments for hemp varieties registered in the EU Catalogue with the maximum level of THC of 0.3 %. This will bring to a potential enlargement of the number of hemp varieties accepted under the EU Catalogue.
The new French decree comes as good news for CBD producers since it lifts the THC limit in final products to 0.3%, but shopowners could find themselves in a new round of concerns because of the definite ban on selling whole flowers and leaves directly to consumers.
According to the new decree, the flowers and leaves can be used only for the production of hemp extracts. The sale and consumption of raw flowers or leaves in all their forms, alone or in a mixture with other ingredients is prohibited.
The new decree replaces the one from 22 August 1990. While the president of the Industrial Union for the Valorization of Hemp Extracts (L’UIVEC) Ludovic Rachou welcomes the document, saying it will pave the way for more ‘made in France’ products, it was met with a lot of criticism from the members of the French green party.
Julien Bayou, national secretary of the Europe Écologie les Verts (EELV) condemned the banning of the sale of CBD flowers and leaves, calling the decision “stupid, absurd, the worst kind of nonsense”, and a real New Year’s gift to drug dealers.
January 10, 2022 10:14 am
PubMed: Long-term use of cannabidiol-enriched medical cannabis in a prospective cohort of children with drug-resistant developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
Seizure. 2022 Jan 4;95:56-63. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: We report our findings regarding effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched medical cannabis as add-on therapy in children with drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) after a median follow-up of 20 months.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of CBD-enriched medical cannabis oil added to standard antiseizure medications in children with drug-resistant DEE seen at a single center.
RESULTS: Between October 2018 and March 2020, 59 patients were enrolled. Mean age at enrollment was 10.5 years (range, 2-17 years). Median treatment duration was 20 months (range, 12-32). Median age at first seizure was 8 months (range, 1 day – 10 years). At the end of follow-up, 78% of the children had a ≥ 50% decrease in seizure frequency and 47.5% had a > 75% decrease. Seven patients (11.9%) were seizure free. The number of seizures was reduced from a median of 305/month to 90/month, amounting to a mean reduction of 57% and a median reduction of 71% (p < 0.0001). Adverse effects were mostly mild or moderate. CBD was discontinued in 17 patients (28.8%) due to lack of response to treatment, increased seizure frequency, intolerance to the drug, or poor compliance.
CONCLUSION: In children with drug-resistant DEEs, long-term treatment of CBD-enriched medical cannabis as an adjuvant therapy to antiseizure therapy was found to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Sustained reductions in seizure frequency and improvement of aspects of daily living were observed compared to our preliminary findings.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34999381/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220110060040&v=2.17.5 January 9, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Identification of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairment using functional brain imaging
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Jan 8. doi: 10.1038/s41386-021-01259-0. Online ahead of print.
The primary cannabinoid in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes intoxication and impaired function, with implications for traffic, workplace, and other situational safety risks. There are currently no evidence-based methods to detect cannabis-impaired driving, and current field sobriety tests with gold-standard, drug recognition evaluations are resource-intensive and may be prone to bias. This study evaluated the capability of a simple, portable imaging method to accurately detect individuals with THC impairment. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 169 cannabis users, aged 18-55 years, underwent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) before and after receiving oral THC and placebo, at study visits one week apart. Impairment was defined by convergent classification by consensus clinical ratings and an algorithm based on post-dose tachycardia and self-rated “high.” Our primary outcome, PFC oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), was increased after THC only in participants operationalized as impaired, independent of THC dose. ML models using fNIRS time course features and connectivity matrices identified impairment with 76.4% accuracy, 69.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 10% false-positive rate using convergent classification as ground truth, which exceeded Drug Recognition Evaluator-conducted expanded field sobriety examination (67.8% accuracy, 35.4% PPV, and 35.4% false-positive rate). These findings demonstrate that PFC response activation patterns and connectivity produce a neural signature of impairment, and that PFC signal, measured with fNIRS, can be used as a sole input to ML models to objectively determine impairment from THC intoxication at the individual level. Future work is warranted to determine the specificity of this classifier to acute THC impairment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03655717.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34999737/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220110060040&v=2.17.5 January 9, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabidiol inhibits methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via modulation of the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2022 Jan 8. doi: 10.1007/s00213-021-06051-y. Online ahead of print.
RATIONALE: Adaptive alteration of dopamine (DA) system in mesocorticolimbic circuits is an extremely intricate and dynamic process, which contributes to maintaining methamphetamine (METH)-related disorders. There are no approved pharmacotherapies for METH-related disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has received attention for its therapeutic potential in treating METH-related disorders. However, the major research obstacles of CBD are the yet to be clarified mechanisms behind its therapeutic potential. Recent evidence showed that DA system may be active target of CBD. CBD could be a promising dopaminergic medication for METH-related disorders.
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of the DA receptor D1 (DRD1)-methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway in DA release induced by METH. Investigating the intervention effects of CBD on the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway could help clarify the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic potential of CBD in METH-related disorders.
RESULTS: METH (400 μM) significantly increased DA release from primary neurons in vitro, which was blocked by CBD (1 μM) pretreatment. METH (400 μM) significantly increased the expression levels of DRD1, BDNF, and TrkB, but decreased the expression of MeCP2 in the neurons, whereas CBD (1 μM) pretreatment notably inhibited the protein changes induced by METH. In addition, DRD1 antagonist SCH23390 (10 μM) inhibited the DA release and protein change induced by METH in vitro. However, DRD1 agonist SKF81297 (10 μM) induced DA release and protein change in vitro, which was also blocked by CBD (1 μM) pretreatment. METH (2 mg/kg) significantly increased the DA level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats with activation of the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway, but these changes were blocked by CBD (40 or 80 mg/kg) pretreatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that METH induces DA release via the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Furthermore, CBD significantly inhibits DA release induced by METH through modulation of this pathway.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34997862/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220109055852&v=2.17.5 January 8, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Adulteration of low-THC products with synthetic cannabinoids: Results from drug checking services
Drug Test Anal. 2022 Jan 7. doi: 10.1002/dta.3220. Online ahead of print.
Since late 2019, low-THC preparations adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have been frequently observed in Switzerland. The unawareness of users concerning the presence of SCs and the typically higher potency and toxicity of SCs, when compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can result in increased health risks. In Switzerland, low-THC (<1%) cannabis products, except hashish, are legal. These products can act as carrier materials for SCs. In this study, cannabis samples and user self-reports received through three drug checking services were collected and analysed, to gain deeper insight into this new phenomenon. Samples were collected from January 2020 to July 2021. Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the qualitative screening and semi-quantification of SCs, while gas chromatography with flame ionization detector was applied for the quantification of THC and cannabidiol levels. Reported adverse effects were compared between users who consumed adulterated (SC-group) and non-adulterated (THC-group) products. Of a total 94 samples, 50% contained up to three different SCs. MDMB-4en-PINACA was most often detected. All adulterated cannabis flowers contained ≤1% THC. Adulterated hashish also typically presented low THC-levels (median: 0.8%). The SC-group was associated with higher numbers of adverse events (p = 0.041). Furthermore, psychologic (p = 0.0007) and cardiologic (p = 0.020) adverse effects were more profound in the SC-group than in the THC-group. Drug checking services enabled the timely detection and monitoring of new and potentially dangerous trends. Furthermore, due to user-reports, additional valuable information was gained on adverse events associated with the consumption of novel SCs.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34997693/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220109055852&v=2.17.5 January 8, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Analysis of cannabidiol (CBD) and THC in nonprescription consumer products: Implications for patients and practitioners
Epilepsy Behav. 2022 Jan 5;127:108514. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108514. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Cannabidiol products remains largely unregulated in the US. Unlike the Rx formulation of CBD [EpidiolexR], little information is available regarding labeling accuracy (does the product contain what the label says it does), lot to lot variability, nor long-term product stability. Understanding these properties are fundamental if these products are to be used in patients with epilepsy, where product variability of traditional AEDs has been suspected to result in inadequate seizure control. Therefore, we analyzed commercial CBD products, including oils, aqueous products (i.e., beverages), and various Other products for cannabinoid content vs label claims and stability under United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standards.
METHOD: Samples were diluted and analyzed by HPLC for CBD, THC, and CBN concentrations in order to assess product label accuracy. Products with <90% of label claim CBD were denoted over-labeled, products with >110% of label claim CBD were denoted under-labeled, and products between 90% and 110% of label claim CBD were denoted appropriately labeled, per USP standards.
RESULTS: Among commercial CBD Oils (n = 11), mean CBD concentration vs label claim was 91.56% [95% CI, 66.02-117.10%], although 18.18% of oils (n = 2) made nonspecific label claims of “hemp extract” in lieu of CBD. Among all oils, 36.36% (n = 4) were appropriately labeled, another 36.4% (n = 4) of all oils were under-labeled, maximum 128.3% label claim, and finally, 9.09% (n = 1) of oils were over-labeled. The remaining 18.18% (n = 2) of oils lacked specific CBD label claims, minimum of 0.3 mg CBD per 1-ml “dose”. THC was detected in 54.55% (n = 6) of oils with a maximum concentration of 0.2% w/v and a minimum concentration of 0.036% w/v. Cannabinol was detectable in only 9.1% (n = 1) of products at a concentration of 0.00465% w/v. Among aqueous products (n = 21) tested, only 66.67% (n = 14) gave specific CBD label claims, with mean CBD concentration vs label claim of 59.93% [95% CI, 38.24-81.63%]. Only 7.14% (n = 1) of aqueous products with a label claim were appropriately labeled, 14.29% (n = 2) were found to be under-labeled, and 78.57% (n = 11) over-labeled. THC was detected in 23.81% (n = 5) of aqueous products tested with a maximum THC concentration of 0.0005% w/v, and a minimum concentration of 0.0002% w/v. Cannabinol was detected in 9.52% (n = 2) of aqueous products, both at a concentration of 0.0015% w/v. “Other” products (n = 7) tested ranged from chocolate bars to transdermal patches. Some 42.86% (n = 3) gave specific CBD label claims, with mean CBD concentration vs label claim of 67.01% [95% CI, 0.87-133.14%]. Among these three “Other” products with specific label claims, 33% (n = 1) was appropriately labeled, and 66.67% (n = 2) were over-labeled, with CBD concentrations vs label claim ranging from a minimum of 39.30% to a maximum of 101.99%. The remaining 57.14% (n = 5) of “Other” products tested made nonspecific CBD label claims, denoting CBD content in terms of “full spectrum hemp extract” or “activated cannabinoids”. One such product was labeled with a “40-50-mg CBD” range instead of a single, specific value. Tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in 71.43% (n = 5) of Other products tested with a maximum concentration of 0.0046% w/w, and a minimum concentration of 0.0008% w/w. Cannabinol was detected in 14.3% (n = 1) of Other products at a concentration of 0.0001% w/w.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that commercial CBD products, especially aqueous beverages, can show inconsistent labeling, vary largely from their label claims should they make them, and show lot-to-lot variability making dosing unpredictable.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34998268/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220109055852&v=2.17.5 January 8, 2022 11:00 am
Italian hemp farmers can get up to $300 per hectare of hemp grown under a funding program recently set in motion. The Italian government earmarked…
January 7, 2022 12:44 pm
PubMed: Channelopathy of Dravet Syndrome and Potential Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol
J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2021 Dec 20;13:11795735211048045. doi: 10.1177/11795735211048045. eCollection 2021.
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a channelopathy, neurodevelopmental, epileptic encephalopathy characterized by seizures, developmental delay, and cognitive impairment that includes susceptibility to thermally induced seizures, spontaneous seizures, ataxia, circadian rhythm and sleep disorders, autistic-like behaviors, and premature death. More than 80% of DS cases are linked to mutations in genes which encode voltage-gated sodium channel subunits, SCN1A and SCN1B, which encode the Nav1.1α subunit and Nav1.1β1 subunit, respectively. There are other gene mutations encoding potassium, calcium, and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels related to DS. One-third of patients have pharmacoresistance epilepsy. DS is unresponsive to standard therapy. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis, has been introduced for treating DS because of its anticonvulsant properties in animal models and humans, especially in pharmacoresistant patients. However, the etiological channelopathiological mechanism of DS and action mechanism of CBD on the channels are unclear. In this review, we summarize evidence of the direct and indirect action mechanism of sodium, potassium, calcium, and HCN channels in DS, especially sodium subunits. Some channels’ loss-of-function or gain-of-function in inhibitory or excitatory neurons determine the balance of excitatory and inhibitory are associated with DS. A great variety of mechanisms of CBD anticonvulsant effects are focused on modulating these channels, especially sodium, calcium, and potassium channels, which will shed light on ionic channelopathy of DS and the precise molecular treatment of DS in the future.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34992485/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220108055912&v=2.17.5 January 7, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: The chemical composition of ethanolic extracts from six genotypes of medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) and their selective cytotoxic activity
Chem Biol Interact. 2022 Jan 4:109800. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109800. Online ahead of print.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for medical purposes has been legalized again in many countries in recent years. Currently, only two major cannabinoids (Δ9-THC and CBD) are considered in the legislation and medication, which is not sufficient in case of dried plant material or resulting extract. Other substances (mainly terpenes/terpenoids), or their specific combinations, could influence the resulting therapeutic effect for specific oncology diagnosis and specific patients. Six different genotypes (Conspiracy Kush, Jilly Bean, Jack Cleaner 2, Jack Skellington, Nordle and Nurse Jackie) were cultivated indoor at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Ethanol extracts taken from the inflorescences were assayed for their content of main cannabinoids and terpenes/terpenoids. The extracts were used for in vitro cytotoxicity studies on hepatocarcinoma human cell lines Hep-G2 and colorectal carcinoma human cell lines Caco-2 and Ht-29. Healthy lung fibroblast MRC-5 and healthy intestinal cells FHs 74 Int were used to compare selectivity of cytotoxicity. The average content of Δ9-THC in extracts was 59.1 ± 2.43%, and of CBD 1.84 ± 0.17%. The content of main cannabinoids in the Nurse Jackie genotype extract was significantly greater than that of the other genotypes. Overall, more than 60 different terpenes/terpenoids were identified in the extracts. The major terpenes/terpenoids detected in most genotypes were limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, β-caryophyllene, trans-α-bergamotene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene oxide, guaiol, γ-eudesmol, β-eudesmol and α-bisabolol. Differences in the terpene composition of individual genotypes were caused by minor terpenoids, such as β-ocimene, isopulegol acetate, β-elemene, β-selinene and spathulenol. All extracts were highly cytotoxic to Ht-29 colorectal carcinoma cells and showed positive selectivity compared to healthy FHs 74 Int colon cells. The Jack Cleaner 2 extract was cytotoxic to all cell lines tested at the lowest concentrations (8.48 ± 2.4-16.14 ± 0,07 μg/mL), but was positively selective only for colorectal cancer cells, especially Ht-29 and to a lesser extent for Caco-2. Similarly, the Nordle extract showed positive selectivity for Ht-29 and Caco-2 only. Jilly Bean was unique in this study, in that its extract functioned on all cell lines at the highest concentrations (20.13 ± 3.05-49.88 ± 1.5 μg/mL), whilst also being highly positively selective in all carcinoma lines (Ht-29, Caco-2 and Hep-G2 hepatocarcinoma) compared to healthy cell lines (FHs 74 Int and MRC-5). The results suggest that Δ9-THC and CBD are responsible for the in vitro cytotoxicity of the extracts, but observed differences in selectivity reveal their synergies with other substances. According to chemical analysis, higher concentrations of myrcene, β-elemene, β-selinene and α-bisabolol oxide found in the Jilly Bean genotype may positively affect the selectivity of cytotoxic activity. It is therefore vital that similar studies are performed on other cell lines, in order to be able to recommend these cannabis genotypes for preclinical and clinical studies, which are still lacking.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34995571/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220109055852&v=2.17.5 January 7, 2022 11:00 am
PubMed: Cannabis sativa L. (var. indica) Exhibits Hepatoprotective Effects by Modulating Hepatic Lipid Profile and Mitigating Gluconeogenesis and Cholinergic Dysfunction in Oxidative Hepatic Injury
Front Pharmacol. 2021 Dec 21;12:705402. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.705402. eCollection 2021.
Cannabis sativa L. is a crop utilized globally for recreational, therapeutic, and religious purposes. Although considered as an illicit drug in most countries, C. sativa until recently started gaining attention for its medicinal application. This study sought to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of C. sativa on iron-mediated oxidative hepatic injury. Hepatic injury was induced ex vivo by incubating hepatic tissues with Fe2+, which led to depleted levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and ENTPDase activities, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Induction of hepatic injury also caused significant elevation of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels while concomitantly elevating the activities of ATPase, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, amylase, and lipase. Treatment with the hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), and ethanol extracts of C. sativa leaves significantly (p < 0.05) reversed these levels and activities to almost near normal. However, there was no significant effect on the HDL-C level. The extracts also improved the utilization of glucose in Chang liver cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of phenolics in all extracts, with the ethanol extract having the highest constituents. Cannabidiol (CBD) was identified in all the extracts, while Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) was identified in the hexane and DCM extracts only. Molecular docking studies revealed strong interactions between CBD and Δ-9-THC with the β2 adrenergic receptor of the adrenergic system. The results demonstrate the potential of C. sativa to protect against oxidative-mediated hepatic injury by stalling oxidative stress, gluconeogenesis, and hepatic lipid accumulation while modulating cholinergic and purinergic activities. These activities may be associated with the synergistic effect of the compounds identified and possible interactions with the adrenergic system.
#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34992528/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220108055912&v=2.17.5 January 7, 2022 11:00 am
Hemp Industry Stakeholders Back Carbon Credit Research as Prices for CO2e Skyrocket