CannaSearch Daily on CBD + Hemp

Hemp policies in Virgin Islands to be reviewed after warning causes confusion on CBD

HempToday®: Hemp policies in Virgin Islands to be reviewed after warning causes confusion on CBD
Regulators in the U.S. Virgin Islands have warned licensed hemp retailers to stop selling food and drinks containing CBD, raw flowers and pre-rolls under threat of punishment – leading to […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/hemp-policies-in-virgin-islands-to-be-reviewed-after-warning-causes-confusion-on-cbd/
July 10, 2024 8:28 am

Argentine company says it will make first shipments of hemp to Europe, Australia

HempToday®: Argentine company says it will make first shipments of hemp to Europe, Australia
A government-held company said it will make Argentina’s first export shipments of hemp to three countries, where it sold a total 730 kilos of high-CBD, low-THC flowers. Cannava S.E., owned […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/argentine-company-says-it-will-make-first-shipments-of-hemp-to-europe-australia/
July 9, 2024 8:27 am

Recriminalization of hemp, pot would wipe out Thai cannabis market worth billions

HempToday®: Recriminalization of hemp, pot would wipe out Thai cannabis market worth billions
More signals surfaced last week indicating Thailand is likely to reverse course on cannabis by shutting down a combined legal CBD and marijuana market projected to reach billions in value. […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/recriminalization-of-hemp-pot-would-wipe-out-thai-cannabis-market-worth-billions/
July 8, 2024 6:08 am

French health agency assigns long list of hemp substances to dangerous drugs list

HempToday®: French health agency assigns long list of hemp substances to dangerous drugs list
French health officials have issued an urgent warning to consumers to avoid products containing synthetic hemp-derived intoxicants, and declared an exhaustive list of substances as narcotics. The National Agency for […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/french-health-agency-assigns-long-list-of-hemp-intoxicants-to-dangerous-drugs-list/
July 3, 2024 7:43 am

Intoxicating hemp products are blocked in four more states as crackdowns continue

HempToday®: Intoxicating hemp products are blocked in four more states as crackdowns continue
Intoxicating hemp products are being removed from the market in South Dakota, Louisiana, Iowa and Nebraska as a result of recent legislative and legal developments. In South Dakota, a federal […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/intoxicating-hemp-products-are-blocked-in-four-more-states-as-crackdowns-continue/
July 2, 2024 6:36 am

Oregon law aims to crack down on marijuana grows that hide behind hemp licenses

HempToday®: Oregon law aims to crack down on marijuana grows that hide behind hemp licenses
Oregon law agencies hope updated rules on inspections and policing of the state’s cannabis industry will prevent illicit marijuana growers from operating under cover of hemp licenses. The new rules […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/oregon-law-aims-to-crack-down-on-marijuana-grows-that-hide-behind-hemp-licenses/
June 28, 2024 8:58 am

Better tracking of global trade in hemp can help developing nations, UN study says

HempToday®: Better tracking of global trade in hemp can help developing nations, UN study says
Inconsistencies in trade data are hampering global business in hemp products, holding back the economic and environmental benefits for developing nations, according to a new global study. A more systematic […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/better-tracking-of-global-trade-in-hemp-can-help-developing-nations-un-study-says/
June 26, 2024 7:10 am

PubMed: Exploring the safety of cannabidiol (CBD): A comprehensive in vitro evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of a CBD isolate and extract from Cannabis sativa L

PubMed: Exploring the safety of cannabidiol (CBD): A comprehensive in vitro evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of a CBD isolate and extract from Cannabis sativa L

Biomed Pharmacother. 2024 Jun 21;177:116969. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116969. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), a naturally occurring cyclic terpenoid found in Cannabis sativa L., is renowned for its diverse pharmacological benefits. Marketed as a remedy for various health issues, CBD products are utilized by patients as a supplementary therapy or post-treatment failure, as well as by healthy individuals seeking promised advantages. Despite its widespread use, information regarding potential adverse effects, especially genotoxic properties, is limited. The present study is focused on the mutagenic and genotoxic activity of a CBD isolate (99.4 % CBD content) and CBD-rich Cannabis sativa L extract (63.6 % CBD content) in vitro. Both CBD samples were non-mutagenic, as determined by the AMES test (OECD 471) but exhibited cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells (∼IC50(4 h) 26 µg/ml, ∼IC50(24 h) 6-8 µg/ml, MTT assay). Noncytotoxic concentrations induced upregulation of genes encoding metabolic enzymes involved in CBD metabolism, and CBD oxidative as well as glucuronide metabolites were found in cell culture media, demonstrating the ability of HepG2 cells to metabolize CBD. In this study, the CBD samples were found non-genotoxic. No DNA damage was observed with the comet assay, and no influence on genomic instability was observed with the cytokinesis block micronucleus and the γH2AX and p-H3 assays. Furthermore, no changes in the expression of genes involved in genotoxic stress response were detected in the toxicogenomic analysis, after 4 and 24 h of exposure. Our comprehensive study contributes valuable insights into CBD’s safety profile, paving the way for further exploration of CBD’s therapeutic applications and potential adverse effects.

PMID:38908200 | DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116969

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38908200/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240623022133&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 22, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Is adjunctive Cannabidiol effective in controlling seizures for adult patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome? – A single centre long term follow up study

PubMed: Is adjunctive Cannabidiol effective in controlling seizures for adult patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome? – A single centre long term follow up study

Epilepsy Behav. 2024 Jun 21;157:109904. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2024.109904. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Epileptic encephalopathies are a disabling and life-limiting cause of childhood-onset epilepsy. Lennox Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a characteristic example. In spite of the development of multiple medical and surgical therapies, many patients with these conditions remain treatment refractory Cannabidiol was licenced by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in December 2019 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox Gastaut syndrome [TA 615]. As the largest complex epilepsy centre in the Midlands, we describe our findings from a single centre retrospective study in 50 adults (aged 16 and over) with LGS- associated epilepsy. Our outcome measure was the efficacy of Cannabidiol on seizures of differing types over a 6-24-month period. Patients were treated with adjunctive Cannabidiol (with Clobazam, as per NICE recommendations). Each patient’s usual anti-seizure medications (ASMs) were continued. Patients with a Vagal Nerve Stimulator (VNS) in situ remained on this treatment. Gradual titration of Cannabidiol from 1 mg/kg/day up to 10 mg/ kg/ day reduced the frequency of both focal and generalised seizures with ≥ 50 % seizure reduction in 76 % of the cohort. No patients became seizure free. Cannabidiol was well tolerated; 94 % of the cohort remained on the drug at last follow up.

PMID:38908033 | DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2024.109904

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38908033/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240622202329&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 22, 2024 10:00 am

Canadian hemp fields shrink for fourth straight year, reaching modern-day low

HempToday®: Canadian hemp fields shrink for fourth straight year, reaching modern-day low
Licensed hemp fields in Canada continued to shrink, with 11,861 hectares (29,309 acres) recorded in 2023, down from 13,589 hectares (33,579 acres) in 2022, according to government statistics. The 2023 […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/canadian-hemp-fields-shrink-for-fourth-straight-year-reaching-modern-day-low/
June 21, 2024 10:18 am

PubMed: Hempseed protein-derived short- and medium-chain peptides and their multifunctional properties

PubMed: Hempseed protein-derived short- and medium-chain peptides and their multifunctional properties

Adv Food Nutr Res. 2024;110:275-325. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2024.01.002. Epub 2024 Mar 22.

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the growing knowledge about the high nutritional value and potential functionality of hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, has sparked a surge in interest in exploring the worthwhile attributes of hempseed proteins and peptides. This trend aligns with the increasing popularity of hemp-based food, assuming a vital role in the global food chain. This chapter targets the nutritional and chemical composition of hempseed in terms of short- and medium-chain bioactive peptides. The analytical approaches for their characterization and multifunctional properties are summarized in detail. Moreover, the processing, functionality, and application of various hempseed protein products are discussed. In the final part of the chapter-for evaluating their propensity to be transported by intestinal cells-the transepithelial transport of peptides within hempseed protein hydrolysate is highlighted.

PMID:38906589 | DOI:10.1016/bs.afnr.2024.01.002

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38906589/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240622062914&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Potential of cannabidiol as acne and acne scar treatment: novel insights into molecular pathways of pathophysiological factors

PubMed: Potential of cannabidiol as acne and acne scar treatment: novel insights into molecular pathways of pathophysiological factors

Arch Dermatol Res. 2024 Jun 21;316(7):428. doi: 10.1007/s00403-024-03131-9.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), which is derived from hemp, is gaining recognition because of its anti-inflammatory and lipid-modulating properties that could be utilized to treat acne. We conducted experiments to quantitatively assess the effects of CBD on acne-related cellular pathways. SEB-1 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to various CBD concentrations. CBD exhibited a concentration-dependent impact on cell viability and notably reduced SEB-1 viability; furthermore, it induced apoptosis and a significant increase in the apoptotic area at higher concentrations. Additionally, CBD remarkably reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CXCL8, IL-1α, and IL-1β. Additionally, it inhibited lipid synthesis by modulating the AMPK-SREBP-1 pathway and effectively reduced hyperkeratinization-related protein keratin 16. Simultaneously, CBD stimulated the synthesis of elastin, collagen 1, and collagen 3. These findings emphasize the potential of CBD for the management of acne because of its anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and lipid-inhibitory effects. Notably, the modulation of the Akt/AMPK-SREBP-1 pathway revealed a novel and promising mechanism that could address the pathogenesis of acne.

PMID:38904694 | DOI:10.1007/s00403-024-03131-9

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38904694/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240621142538&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The effects of a brand-specific, hemp-derived cannabidiol product on physiological, biochemical, and psychometric outcomes in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

PubMed: The effects of a brand-specific, hemp-derived cannabidiol product on physiological, biochemical, and psychometric outcomes in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2024 Dec;21(1):2370430. doi: 10.1080/15502783.2024.2370430. Epub 2024 Jun 21.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phyto-cannabinoid derived from the Cannabis sativa plant. CBD exhibits various interactions at receptor sites, prompting the research of its potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, psychological, and pain-relieving effects. This study aimed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, and psychometric effects of a brand-specific, hemp-derived CBD product in healthy adults over a 12-week observation period.

METHODS: 54 healthy males and females (age = 25 ± 7y; BMI = 24.82 ± 3.25 kg/m2) recruited from a large Southeastern University completed the study. Participants arrived at the laboratory after > 8 h of fasting, and > 48 h without alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise. Following baseline measurements (height, weight, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood work), participants were stratified by sex and randomized to either CBD or placebo groups. Products were administered double-blinded, with both given in liquid form containing medium-chain triglyceride oil, while the CBD product specifically contained 50 mg/mL of CBD. Participants were instructed to consume 1 mL of their product twice daily and were given enough product to last until their next laboratory visit. Data were collected at baseline and on days 30 ± 3, 60 ± 3, and 90 ± 3. Blood was drawn for analysis of immune and inflammatory biomarkers. Chronic pain among participants was calculated using urine samples according to the foundational pain index (FPI). Self-reported psychometric questionnaires were utilized (Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Profile of Mood States,10-item Likert scale for perceived pain) to assess stress, sleep quality, mood state, and body discomfort. To determine overall wellbeing, participants completed a daily survey indicating if they missed work or school due to illness. Change from baseline was calculated for each measure, and mixed effects models were used to determine differences between groups over time while adjusting for baseline values (α = 0.05). Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

RESULTS: There were no Group-by-Time interactions or Group or Time main effects for immune or inflammatory biomarkers (p > 0.05). Analyses revealed no Group-by-Time interactions or main effects observed for perceived stress, sleep quality, overall mood disturbance, and all the profile of mood state subscales (p > 0.05), except “vigor-activity.” A Time main effect was found for the sub-score for “vigor-activity” (p = 0.007; Pre CBD = 19.5 ± 5.2, Post CBD = 17.3 ± 5.3; Pre PL = 19.0 ± 5.7, Post PL = 17.9 ± 7.1), which decreased from Visit 3 to Visit 4 (p = 0.025) and from Visit 3 to Visit 5 (p = 0.014). There was a Group main effect for FPI (p = 0.028; Pre CBD = 11.9 ± 14.4, Post CBD = 8.8 ± 10.9; Pre PL = 9.0 ± 14.2, Post PL = 12.9 ± 11.5), indicating that the placebo group had greater increases in pain over the intervention compared to the CBD group. No significant differences were found between groups in the incidence and prevalence of “colds or flus” (p > 0.05).

DISCUSSION: CBD was safe and well tolerated in healthy adults. These findings show pain was lower in the CBD group, suggesting a potentially positive effect for consumption of CBD. “Vigor-activity” decreased across the intervention, which may be a confounding effect of the academic semester. While the dosage chosen was safe, more research may be warranted using higher doses as these may be needed to observe further therapeutic effects in healthy populations.

PMID:38904150 | DOI:10.1080/15502783.2024.2370430

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38904150/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240621072653&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Comprehensive analyses of the ARF gene family in cannabis reveals their potential roles in regulating cannabidiol biosynthesis and male flower development

PubMed: Comprehensive analyses of the ARF gene family in cannabis reveals their potential roles in regulating cannabidiol biosynthesis and male flower development

Front Plant Sci. 2024 Jun 5;15:1394337. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2024.1394337. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD), as an important therapeutic property of the cannabis plants, is mainly produced in the flower organs. Auxin response factors (ARFs) are play a crucial role in flower development and secondary metabolite production. However, the specific roles of ARF gene family in cannabis remain unknown.

METHODS: In this study, various bioinformatics analysis of CsARF genes were conducted using online website and bioinformatics, quantitative real time PCR technology was used to investigate the expression patterns of the CsARF gene family in different tissues of different cannabis varieties, and subcellular localization analysis was performed in tobacco leaf.

RESULTS: In this study, 22 CsARF genes were identified and found to be unevenly distributed across 9 chromosomes of the cannabis genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ARF proteins were divided into 4 subgroups. Duplication analysis identified one pair of segmental/whole-genome duplicated CsARF, and three pairs of tandemly duplicated CsARF. Collinearity analysis revealed that two CsARF genes, CsARF4 and CsARF19, were orthologous in both rice and soybean. Furthermore, subcellular localization analysis showed that CsARF2 was localized in the nucleus. Tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that six genes were highly expressed in cannabis male flowers, and among these genes, 3 genes were further found to be highly expressed at different developmental stages of male flowers. Meanwhile, correlation analysis between the expression level of CsARF genes and CBD content in two cultivars ‘H8’ and ‘Y7’ showed that the expression level of CsARF13 was negatively correlated with CBD content, while the expression levels of six genes were positively correlated with CBD content. In addition, most of CsARF genes were responsive to IAA treatment.

CONCLUSION: Our study laid a foundation for the further studies of CsARFs function in cannabis, and provides candidate genes for breeding varieties with high CBD yield in cannabis production.

PMID:38903430 | PMC:PMC11188406 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2024.1394337

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38903430/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240621072653&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 21, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol protects mouse hippocampal neurons from neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta-peptide(25-35)

PubMed: Cannabidiol protects mouse hippocampal neurons from neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta-peptide(25-35)

Toxicol In Vitro. 2024 Jun 18:105880. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2024.105880. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide, is a significant health concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The neuropathological diagnostic criteria for AD are based on the deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and the formation of intracellular tau protein tangles. These proteins are associated with several overlapping neurodegenerative mechanisms, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, reduced neuronal viability, and cell death. In this context, our study focuses on the potential therapeutic use of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to evaluate CBD’s neuroprotective role, particularly in protecting hippocampal neurons from Aβ25-35-induced toxicity. Our findings indicate that CBD significantly improves cell viability and decreases levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that CBD possesses a robust potential to rescue cells from induced neurotoxicity through its antioxidant properties. Additionally, the neuroprotective effect of CBD may be associated with the modulation of the endocannabinoid system. These findings suggest that CBD could be a promising compound for adjuvant treatments in neurodegenerative processes triggered by amyloid-β peptide.

PMID:38901785 | DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2024.105880

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38901785/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240621012417&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 20, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Non-linear plasma protein binding of cannabidiol

PubMed: Non-linear plasma protein binding of cannabidiol

J Cannabis Res. 2024 Jun 20;6(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s42238-024-00238-8.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol is highly bound to plasma proteins. Changes in its protein binding can lead to altered unbound plasma concentrations and result in alteration of pharmacological activity of cannabidiol-containing medications. This research has assessed non-linearity of cannabidiol plasma protein binding and the potential effect of tizoxanide on the binding.

METHOD: Cannabidiol protein binding was evaluated by ultrafiltration technique. Human plasma was spiked with cannabidiol stock solution to produce samples of various concentrations. For interaction study potential interactant tizoxanide was added in each sample. All samples were processed through Amicon Micropartition system and analyzed by HPLC.

RESULTS: The study has detected cannabidiol binding to borosilicate glass (9%) and polyethylene plastics (15%). In the interaction study the mean protein unbound fraction of cannabidiol was 0.05 (5%), indicating no binding interaction between cannabidiol and tizoxanide since cannabidiol unbound fraction without tizoxanide was also 5%. The cannabidiol fraction unbound was more than 2-fold greater at high concentrations compared to low concentrations.

CONCLUSION: a). At high concentrations cannabidiol plasma protein binding is non-linear. The non-linearity can affect elimination and medicinal effect of cannabidiol drugs. b). Borosilicate and polyethylene containers should be avoided in formulation, packing and administration of cannabidiol-containing medicines to guarantee correct doses. c). Cannabidiol medications can be co-administered with tizoxanide without caution.

PMID:38902820 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-024-00238-8

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38902820/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240621012417&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 20, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Advancement of Research Progress on Synthesis Mechanism of Cannabidiol (CBD)

PubMed: Advancement of Research Progress on Synthesis Mechanism of Cannabidiol (CBD)

ACS Synth Biol. 2024 Jun 19. doi: 10.1021/acssynbio.4c00239. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. is a multipurpose crop with high value for food, textiles, and other industries. Its secondary metabolites, including cannabidiol (CBD), have potential for broad application in medicine. With the CBD market expanding, traditional production may not be sufficient. Here we review the potential for the production of CBD using biotechnology. We describe the chemical and biological synthesis of cannabinoids, the associated enzymes, and the application of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and heterologous expression to increasing production of CBD.

PMID:38900848 | DOI:10.1021/acssynbio.4c00239

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38900848/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240620192221&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 20, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Pharmacological strategies and nutritional supplements for managing dysgeusia among chemotherapy patients: A systematic review

PubMed: Pharmacological strategies and nutritional supplements for managing dysgeusia among chemotherapy patients: A systematic review

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2024 Jun 12;63:20-30. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2024.05.026. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Among the side effects of chemotherapy, there is dysgeusia, which is an alteration or damage to the taste perception that negatively impacts the biopsychosocial sphere of the patient. Therefore, it is important to recognize and manage it appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify clinical pharmacological strategies to reduce dysgeusia in chemotherapy patients.

METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines between February and May 2023, utilizing PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Database. Methodological quality and bias risk assessment were performed using the JBI framework, while evidence certainty was evaluated using the Oxford OCEBM methodology.

RESULTS: Out of 1225 consulted records, 12 articles were included. The results underscore the efficacy of diverse pharmacological interventions in mitigating dysgeusia among chemotherapy patients. These include zinc supplementation with a daily dosage ranging between 50 and 220 mg (p ≤ 0.005), lactoferrin at 250 mg thrice daily (p < 0.001), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol at 2 mg per day (p < 0.05), and cannabidiol at 150 mg per day (p = 0.04). All studies analysed showed a low risk of bias. The zinc and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinoid treatment proved particularly promising, compared to the other treatments considered, where sample sizes were smaller and the placebo effect was not always clear.

CONCLUSION: Among the various pharmacological strategies identified, those that appear most promising concern the integration of zinc and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinoid. Future studies should further explore the treatments identified in this review to expand the evidence base in this relatively underexplored field.

PMID:38900642 | DOI:10.1016/j.clnesp.2024.05.026

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38900642/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240620192221&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 20, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Corrigendum to "Cannabidiol as an Alternative Analgesic for Acute Dental Pain"

PubMed: Corrigendum to "Cannabidiol as an Alternative Analgesic for Acute Dental Pain"

J Dent Res. 2024 Jul;103(7):767-768. doi: 10.1177/00220345241257653. Epub 2024 Jun 18.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:38900211 | DOI:10.1177/00220345241257653

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38900211/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240620132108&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 20, 2024 10:00 am

Think tank says ‘Miller Amendment’ would not ban CBD and other hemp cannabinoids

HempToday®: Think tank says ‘Miller Amendment’ would not ban CBD and other hemp cannabinoids
Not all hemp cannabinoids would be banned under a controversial amendment proposed for the next U.S. Farm Bill, according to analysis from a key legislative agency. The Congressional Research Service […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/think-tank-says-miller-amendment-would-not-ban-cbd-and-other-hemp-cannabinoids/
June 20, 2024 9:33 am

PubMed: New Polymeric Hydrogels with Cannabidiol and alpha-Terpineol as Potential Materials for Skin Regeneration-Synthesis and Physicochemical and Biological Characterization

PubMed: New Polymeric Hydrogels with Cannabidiol and alpha-Terpineol as Potential Materials for Skin Regeneration-Synthesis and Physicochemical and Biological Characterization

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 29;25(11):5934. doi: 10.3390/ijms25115934.

ABSTRACT

Dermatology and cosmetology currently prioritize healthy, youthful-looking skin. As a result, research is being conducted worldwide to uncover natural substances and carriers that allow for controlled release, which could aid in the battle against a variety of skin illnesses and slow the aging process. This study examined the biological and physicochemical features of novel hydrogels containing cannabidiol (CBD) and α-terpineol (TER). The hydrogels were obtained from ε-caprolactone (CL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymers, diethylene glycol (DEG), poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (HDI), and chitosan (CHT) components, whereas the biodegradable oligomers were synthesized using the enzyme ring-opening polymerization (e-ROP) method. The in vitro release rate of the active compounds from the hydrogels was characterized by mainly first-order kinetics, without a “burst release”. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-aging qualities of the designed drug delivery systems (DDSs) were evaluated. The findings indicate that the hydrogel carriers that were developed have the ability to scavenge free radicals and impact the activity of antioxidant enzymes while avoiding any negative effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Furthermore, they have anti-inflammatory qualities by impeding protein denaturation as well as the activity of proteinase and lipoxygenase. Additionally, their ability to reduce the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and inhibit the activity of collagenase and elastase has been demonstrated. Thus, the developed hydrogel carriers may be effective systems for the controlled delivery of CBD, which may become a valuable tool for cosmetologists and dermatologists.

PMID:38892121 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25115934

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38892121/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240619072119&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 19, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Anti-Cancer and Anti-Proliferative Potential of Cannabidiol: A Cellular and Molecular Perspective

PubMed: Anti-Cancer and Anti-Proliferative Potential of Cannabidiol: A Cellular and Molecular Perspective

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 23;25(11):5659. doi: 10.3390/ijms25115659.

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids, the bioactive compounds found in Cannabis sativa, have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, with early discoveries dating back to the BC era (BCE). However, the increased recreational use of cannabis has led to a negative perception of its medicinal and food applications, resulting in legal restrictions in many regions worldwide. Recently, cannabinoids, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have gained renewed interest in the medical field due to their anti-cancer properties. These properties include the inhibition of tumour growth and cell invasion, anti-inflammatory effects, and the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. As a result, the use of cannabinoids to treat chemotherapy-associated side effects, like nausea, vomiting, and pain, has increased, and there have been suggestions to implement the large-scale use of cannabinoids in cancer therapy. However, these compounds’ cellular and molecular mechanisms of action still need to be fully understood. This review explores the recent evidence of CBD’s efficacy as an anti-cancer agent, which is of interest due to its non-psychoactive properties. The current review will also provide an understanding of CBD’s common cellular and molecular mechanisms in different cancers. Studies have shown that CBD’s anti-cancer activity can be receptor-dependent (CB1, CB2, TRPV, and PPARs) or receptor-independent and can be induced through molecular mechanisms, such as ceramide biosynthesis, the induction of ER stress, and subsequent autophagy and apoptosis. It is projected that these molecular mechanisms will form the basis for the therapeutic applications of CBD. Therefore, it is essential to understand these mechanisms for developing and optimizing pre-clinical CBD-based therapies.

PMID:38891847 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25115659

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38891847/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240619072119&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 19, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Harnessing Enhanced Flame Retardancy in Rigid Polyurethane Composite Foams through Hemp Seed Oil-Derived Natural Fillers

PubMed: Harnessing Enhanced Flame Retardancy in Rigid Polyurethane Composite Foams through Hemp Seed Oil-Derived Natural Fillers

Polymers (Basel). 2024 Jun 3;16(11):1584. doi: 10.3390/polym16111584.

ABSTRACT

Over the past few decades, polymer composites have received significant interest and become protagonists due to their enhanced properties and wide range of applications. Herein, we examined the impact of filler and flame retardants in hemp seed oil-based rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) composites’ performance. Firstly, the hemp seed oil (HSO) was converted to a corresponding epoxy analog, followed by a ring-opening reaction to synthesize hemp bio-polyols. The hemp polyol was then reacted with diisocyanate in the presence of commercial polyols and other foaming components to produce RPUF in a single step. In addition, different fillers like microcrystalline cellulose, alkaline lignin, titanium dioxide, and melamine (as a flame retardant) were used in different wt.% ratios to fabricate composite foam. The mechanical characteristics, thermal degradation behavior, cellular morphology, apparent density, flammability, and closed-cell contents of the generated composite foams were examined. An initial screening of different fillers revealed that microcrystalline cellulose significantly improves the mechanical strength up to 318 kPa. The effect of melamine as a flame retardant in composite foam was also examined, which shows the highest compression strength of 447 kPa. Significantly better anti-flaming qualities than those of neat foam based on HSO have been reflected using 22.15 wt.% of melamine, with the lowest burning time of 4.1 s and weight loss of 1.88 wt.%. All the composite foams showed about 90% closed-cell content. The present work illustrates the assembly of a filler-based polyurethane foam composite with anti-flaming properties from bio-based feedstocks with high-performance applications.

PMID:38891530 | DOI:10.3390/polym16111584

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38891530/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240619072119&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 19, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Transdermal Delivery of Cannabidiol for the Management of Acute Inflammatory Pain: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

PubMed: Transdermal Delivery of Cannabidiol for the Management of Acute Inflammatory Pain: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 28;25(11):5858. doi: 10.3390/ijms25115858.

ABSTRACT

The emerging field of nanotechnology has paved the way for revolutionary advancements in drug delivery systems, with nanosystems emerging as a promising avenue for enhancing the therapeutic potential and the stability of various bioactive compounds. Among these, cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychotropic compound of the Cannabis sativa plant, has gained attention for its therapeutic properties. Consequently, researchers have devoted significant efforts to unlock the full potential of CBD’s clinical benefits, where various nanosystems and excipients have emerged to overcome challenges associated with its bioavailability, stability, and controlled release for its transdermal application. Therefore, this comprehensive review aims to explain CBD’s role in managing acute inflammatory pain and offers an overview of the state of the art of existing delivery systems and excipients for CBD. To summarize this review, a summary of the cannabinoids and therapeutical targets of CBD will be discussed, followed by its conventional modes of administration. The transdermal route of administration and the current topical and transdermal delivery systems will also be reviewed. This review will conclude with an overview of in vivo techniques that allow the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potentials of these systems.

PMID:38892047 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25115858

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38892047/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240619072119&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 19, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Computational Screening for the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Putative Hemp Seed Hydrolyzed Peptidome as a Potential Antidiabetic Agent

PubMed: Computational Screening for the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Putative Hemp Seed Hydrolyzed Peptidome as a Potential Antidiabetic Agent

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 24;25(11):5730. doi: 10.3390/ijms25115730.

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) inhibitory peptides are a class of antihyperglycemic drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder resulting from reduced levels of the incretin hormone GLP-1. Given that DPPIV degrades incretin, a key regulator of blood sugar levels, various antidiabetic medications that inhibit DPPIV, such as vildagliptin, sitagliptin, and linagliptin, are employed. However, the potential side effects of these drugs remain a matter of debate. Therefore, we aimed to investigate food-derived peptides from Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds. Our developed bioinformatics pipeline was used to identify the putative hydrolyzed peptidome of three highly abundant proteins: albumin, edestin, and vicilin. These proteins were subjected to in silico digestion by different proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin) and then screened for DPPIV inhibitory peptides using IDPPIV-SCM. To assess potential adverse effects, several prediction tools, namely, TOXINpred, AllerCatPro, and HemoPred, were employed to evaluate toxicity, allergenicity, and hemolytic effects, respectively. COPID was used to determine the amino acid composition. Molecular docking was performed using GalaxyPepDock and HPEPDOCK, 3D visualizations were conducted using the UCSF Chimera program, and MD simulations were carried out with AMBER20 MD software. Based on the predictive outcomes, FNVDTE from edestin and EAQPST from vicilin emerged as promising candidates for DPPIV inhibitors. We anticipate that our findings may pave the way for the development of alternative DPPIV inhibitors.

PMID:38891918 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25115730

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38891918/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240619072119&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 19, 2024 10:00 am

Colorado attorney general says company sold highly potent THC products as hemp

HempToday®: Colorado attorney general says company sold highly potent THC products as hemp
A Colorado company has been hit with a lawsuit for selling highly potent cannabis products that it marketed as industrial hemp. The state’s attorney general, Phil Weiser, said his office […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/colorado-attorney-general-says-company-sold-highly-potent-thc-products-as-hemp/
June 19, 2024 8:00 am

PubMed: Minor Cannabinoids as Inhibitors of Skin Inflammation: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

PubMed: Minor Cannabinoids as Inhibitors of Skin Inflammation: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

J Nat Prod. 2024 Jun 18. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.4c00212. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Despite millennia of therapeutic plant use, deliberate exploitation of Cannabis‘s diverse biomedical potential has only recently gained attention. Bioactivity studies focus mainly on cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with limited information about the broader cannabinome’s “minor phytocannabinoids”. In this context, our research targeted the synthesis of minor cannabinoids containing a lateral chain with 3 or 4 carbon atoms, focusing on cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC) analogues. Using known and innovative strategies, we achieved the synthesis of 11 C3 and C4 analogues, five of which were inhibitors of skin inflammation, with the CBG-C4 ester derivative emerging as the most potent compound.

PMID:38889235 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.4c00212

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38889235/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240618192324&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) in diet on growth, gut health, and immunity in broilers

PubMed: Effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) in diet on growth, gut health, and immunity in broilers

Vet Q. 2024 Dec;44(1):1-10. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2367214. Epub 2024 Jun 18.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different levels of hempseed (HS) on growth performance, immunity and gut health in broiler chickens. A total of 192 Hubbard broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed HS as follow: control (HS0), HS 10% (HS-10), HS 15% (HS-15) and HS 20% (HS-20). The study on HS supplementation in broilers revealed no significant impacts on feed intake during the starter (p = .2294) and finisher phases (p = .2294), or overall (p = .0944), though numerical increases were noted with higher HS levels. Body weight gain showed no significant influence in the starter and finisher phases, with overall weight gain also not significantly different (p = .0944), but numerically higher with increased HS. Feed conversion ratio was unaffected in the starter (p = .6986) and finisher phases (p = .6425), and overall (p = .2218). Dressing percentage (p = .1062) and mortality (p = .1631) were not significantly altered, but HS-20 had the highest dressing percentage and lowest mortality numerically. White blood cell counts increased significantly (p = .0377), especially in HS-15 and HS-20 groups. IgM and IgG production was higher in HS-20 on day 28 (p = .021). Gut pH (p > .05) and intestinal histomorphology (p > .05) were not significantly affected, although villus height increased numerically with higher HS levels. These results suggest potential benefits of HS, especially at higher inclusion levels. In conclusion, the obtained results indicated that HS incorporation into the diet of broilers did not affect the growth performance and gut health; however, the immune responses were significantly higher at 15 and 20% levels.

PMID:38889341 | DOI:10.1080/01652176.2024.2367214

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38889341/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240618192324&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 18, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Stability of Nano-Emulsified Cannabidiol in Acidic Foods and Beverages

PubMed: Stability of Nano-Emulsified Cannabidiol in Acidic Foods and Beverages

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2024 Jun 18. doi: 10.1089/can.2024.0064. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Food and beverage products containing cannabidiol (CBD) is a growing industry, but some CBD products contain Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), despite being labeled as “THC-free”. As CBD can convert to Δ9-THC under acidic conditions, a potential cause is the formation of Δ9-THC during storage of acidic CBD products. In this study, we investigated if acidic products (pH ≤ 4) fortified with CBD would facilitate conversion to THC over a 2-15-month time period. Materials and Methods: Six products, three beverages (lemonade, cola, and sports drink) and three condiments (ketchup, mustard, and hot sauce), were purchased from a local grocery store and fortified with a nano-emulsified CBD isolate (verified as THC-free by testing). The concentrations of CBD and Δ9-THC were measured by Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Liquid Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively, for up to 15 months at room temperature. Results: Coefficients of variation (CVs) of initial CBD concentrations by GC-FID were <10% for all products except ketchup (18%), showing homogeneity in the fortification. Formation of THC was variable, with the largest amount observed after 15 months in fortified lemonade #2 (3.09 mg Δ9-THC/serving) and sports drink #2 (1.18 mg Δ9-THC/serving). Both beverages contain citric acid, while cola containing phosphoric acid produced 0.10 mg Δ9-THC/serving after 4 months. The importance of the acid type was verified using acid solutions in water. No more than 0.01 mg Δ9-THC/serving was observed with the condiments after 4 months. Discussion: Conversion of CBD to THC can occur in some acidic food products when those products are stored at room temperature. Therefore, despite purchasing beverages manufactured with a THC-free nano-emulsified form of CBD, consumers might be at some risk of unknowingly ingesting small amounts of THC. The results indicate that up to 3 mg Δ9-THC from conversion can be present in a serving of CBD-lemonade. Based on the previous studies, 3 mg Δ9-THC might produce a positive urine sample (≥15 ng/mL THC carboxylic acid) in some individuals. Conclusion: Consumers must exert caution when consuming products with an acidic pH (≤4) that suggests that they are “THC-Free,” because consumption might lead to positive drug tests or, in the case of multiple doses, intoxication.

PMID:38888614 | DOI:10.1089/can.2024.0064

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38888614/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240618183306&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 18, 2024 10:00 am

Mexico grants second hemp license, but law establishing regulations still not in place

HempToday®: Mexico grants second hemp license, but law establishing regulations still not in place
A Mexican company has been notified it was approved for a hemp license, only the second such permit granted by the country’s health agency. The Federal Commission for the Protection […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/mexico-grants-second-hemp-license-but-law-establishing-regulations-still-not-in-place/
June 18, 2024 7:58 am

PubMed: Cannabigerol and Cannabicyclol Block SARS-CoV-2 Cell Fusion

PubMed: Cannabigerol and Cannabicyclol Block SARS-CoV-2 Cell Fusion

Planta Med. 2024 Jun 17. doi: 10.1055/a-2320-8822. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The search for new active substances against SARS-CoV-2 is still a central challenge after the COVID-19 pandemic. Antiviral agents to complement vaccination are an important pillar in the clinical situation. Selected cannabinoids such as cannabigerol, cannabicyclol, cannabichromene, and cannabicitran from Cannabis sativa and synthetic homologues of cannabigerol and cannabicyclol were evaluated for effects on the cell viability of Vero cells (CC50 of cannabigerol and cannabicyclol 40 resp. 38 µM) and reduced virus entry of vesicular stomatitis pseudotyped viruses with surface-expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at 20 µM. In addition to a reduction of pseudotyped virus entry, a titer reduction assay on Vero cells after preincubation of Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 significantly confirmed antiviral activity. Investigations on the molecular targets addressed by cannabigerol and cannabicyclol indicated that both compounds are inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated membrane fusion, as could be shown by a virus-free reporter fusion inhibition assay (EC50 for cannabigerol 5.5 µM and for cannabicyclol 10.8 µM) and by monitoring syncytia formation in Vero reporter cells. Selectivity indices were calculated as 7.4 for cannabigerol and 3.5 for cannabicyclol. Systematic semisynthetic alterations of cannabigerol and cannabicyclol indicated that the side chains of both compounds do not contribute to the observed anti-membrane fusion activity.

PMID:38885660 | DOI:10.1055/a-2320-8822

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38885660/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240618012124&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 17, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Hepatoprotective Effect of Cannabidiol on the Progression of Experimental Hepatic Cirrhosis in Rats

PubMed: Hepatoprotective Effect of Cannabidiol on the Progression of Experimental Hepatic Cirrhosis in Rats

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2024 Jun 17. doi: 10.1089/can.2023.0285. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Liver cirrhosis is a condition characterized by the gradual replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue, ultimately leading to liver failure. This slow and progressive disease begins with a chronic inflammatory process induced by a noxious agent. In its advanced stages, the disease lacks effective therapies. Research has demonstrated the significant involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of this disease. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in the progression of experimental hepatic cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Methods: A randomized experimental design was employed using Holtzman rats. Hepatic cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of TAA at a dose of 150 mg/kg for 6 weeks, with treatment initiated additionally. The groups were as follows: Group 1: TAA + vehicle; Group 2: TAA + CBD 2 mg/kg; Group 3: TAA + CBD 9 mg/kg; Group 4: TAA + CBD 18 mg/kg; Group 5: TAA + silymarin 50 mg/kg; and Group 6: Healthy control. Serum biochemical analysis (total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin) and hepatic histopathological study were performed. The Knodell histological activity index (HAI) was determined, considering periportal necrosis, intralobular degeneration, portal inflammation, fibrosis, and focal necrosis. Results: All groups receiving TAA exhibited an elevation in AST levels; however, only those treated with CBD at doses of 2 mg/kg and 18 mg/kg did not experience significant changes compared to their baseline values (152.8 and 135.7 IU/L, respectively). Moreover, ALT levels in animals treated with CBD showed no significant variation compared to baseline. The HAI of hepatic tissue was notably lower in animals treated with CBD at doses of 9 and 18 mg/kg, scoring 3.0 and 3.25, respectively, in contrast to the TAA + vehicle group, which recorded a score of 7.00. Animals treated with CBD at 18 mg/kg showed a reduced degree of fibrosis and necrosis compared to those receiving TAA alone (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that cannabidiol exerts a hepatoprotective effect in the development of experimental hepatic cirrhosis induced in rats.

PMID:38885158 | DOI:10.1089/can.2023.0285

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38885158/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240617192458&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 17, 2024 10:00 am

Effort to ban intoxicating hemp in California could also hurt patients who depend on CBD

HempToday®: Effort to ban intoxicating hemp in California could also hurt patients who depend on CBD
Restrictions on per-serving THC limits in CBD products proposed in California could bring a setback for consumers who take high doses of over-the-counter CBD for medical conditions, some caretakers have […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/effort-to-ban-intoxicating-hemp-in-california-could-also-hurt-patients-who-use-cbd/
June 17, 2024 9:35 am

Taxing hemp consumables — NC HB563 

CNR: Taxing hemp consumables — NC HB563 

“Hemp-derived consumables” in HB563, https://www.ncleg.gov/Sessions/2023/Bills/House/PDF/H563v5.pdf

– contain THC, the intoxicant in marijuana, which creates externalities.

– will cost money to regulate.

– are federally legal only because of loopholes in the Farm Bill.  

We can and should tax these hemp products.

– Louisiana, Tennessee, West Virginia, and other jurisdictions tax hemp now. 

–  SB3 would tax medical cannabis (used by certified patients only).

Taxing by percentage of price is weak.

– Prices will go down over time as industry matures; taxes shouldn’t.

– Prices may reflect frills, premium marketing, quantity discounts, and employee discounts rather than externalities.

Taxing by weight of THC is better than taxing by price.

– A THC tax aims straight at the intoxicant — the right target.        

–  Connecticut and Illinois already tax legalized cannabis by the THC it contains. 

But you can tax too much – as other states have learned the hard way.  If you tax too heavily, 

– Illicit sellers will bypass not just taxes, but also all regulations.

–  Revenue will evaporate. 

Suggested language is below.

+++

Statutory Draft

Senator _______

 moves to amend the bill as reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

 on page 7, lines 31, by rewriting the line to read: “§ 18D-302. Fees and Taxes.”

On page 8, by adding the following after line 22:

(d) Taxes

(1)   An excise tax of [$0.0xx] per milligram of the amount of total THC, as reflected on the product label, is levied on the sale of all hemp-derived consumable products sold at retail.  

(2)   “Total THC” means the sum of weight of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, multiplied by eight hundred seventy-seven-thousandths, plus the percentage of weight of tetrahydrocannabinol.

(3)   The excise taxes on total THC are payable to the Secretary of Revenue by the retailer or by the importer who ships the products to consumers in this State.

(4)   The tax on total THC is due on or before the 15th day of the month following the month in which the product is sold by the retailer or the importer to consumers.

(5)   The tax on total THC is effective for sales and importation to consumers occurring on or after July 1, 2025.  For transactions occurring before July 1, 2027, the tax rate shall be one-half the rate described in subsection (1) of this section.  This amount shall be indexed on January 1 of 2028 and each year thereafter by the cost-of-living adjustment described in G.S. 105-277.1.  

+++

Notes

Rate:  How high should the tax be?  A 1-cent per milligram tax would be about 8% of retail price for these products:https://www.southernease.com/collections/new-delta-9-thc-gummies.  Connecticut taxes marijuana edibles at 2.75 cents per milligram.  West Virginia’s ad valorem rate is 11%; Tennesee’s is 6%; Minnesota’s, 10%, Louisiana’s, 3% — all plus applicable sales taxes.

Target:  Total THC reaches all “delta” forms of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol); it reaches THCA, as well, with a fractional reduction reflecting the weaker intoxicating power of THC.  It excludes, for instance, CBD.  This definition comes from the Connecticut statute: https://www.cga.ct.gov/current/pub/chap_420b.htm#sec_21a-240 section 60.

Phase-in:  The tax rate could be set deliberately low for the first few years as industry matures, and indexed thereafter.


#CBD #Hemp

Taxing hemp consumables — NC HB563 


June 16, 2024 3:33 pm

PubMed: Prescribed Medical Cannabis Use Among Older Individuals: Patient Characteristics and Improvements in Well-Being: Findings from T21

PubMed: Prescribed Medical Cannabis Use Among Older Individuals: Patient Characteristics and Improvements in Well-Being: Findings from T21

Drugs Aging. 2024 Jun 17. doi: 10.1007/s40266-024-01123-y. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the use of cannabis-based medicinal products is increasing most rapidly among older aged individuals (65+ years). Despite this, little is known about the characteristics of older people using cannabis-based medicinal products and their effectiveness.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to document the characteristics, outcomes and prescribing patterns of individuals aged 65+ years receiving prescribed cannabis compared to younger individuals receiving prescribed cannabis.

METHODS: Data from T21, an observational study of patients seeking treatment with medicinal cannabinoids, including self-report ratings of quality of life (assessed via the EQ-5D-5L), general health (assessed via the visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D-5L), mood (assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and sleep (assessed using four items derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were available at treatment entry [n = 4228; 198 (4.7%) 65+ years] and at a 3-month follow-up [n = 2455; 98 (4.2%) = 65+ years].

RESULTS: Relative to younger individuals, those aged over 64 years were more likely to be female (52.5% vs 47.0%; p < 0.001), more likely to report pain as their primary condition (76.3% vs 45.6%; p < 0.001) and less likely to report current daily use (20.2% vs 60.3%, p < 0.001). They received fewer cannabis-based medicinal products (mean = 1.4 vs 2.1; F(1,2199) = 32.3, p < 0.001) and were more likely to receive a prescription for a cannabidiol dominant oil (17.5% vs 5.7%; p < 0.001) and less likely to receive a prescription for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dominant flower (32.5% vs 75.2%; p < 0.001). There were significant improvements across all measures of well-being (p < 0.001), but the extent of improvements in sleep were more marked in younger individuals (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: There are important differences between individuals aged 65+ years and younger individuals receiving cannabis-based medicinal products. Older aged individuals experience considerable improvement in health and well-being when prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products.

PMID:38880841 | DOI:10.1007/s40266-024-01123-y

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38880841/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240617012846&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 16, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: In vitro Effect of Cannabidiol on Red Blood Cells: Implication in Long-Lasting Pathology Treatment

PubMed: In vitro Effect of Cannabidiol on Red Blood Cells: Implication in Long-Lasting Pathology Treatment

Curr Pharm Des. 2024 Jun 13. doi: 10.2174/0113816128287272240529072040. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is the principal non-hallucinogenic compound of Cannabis plants with high clinical interest because CBD has been described as having anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant properties. CBD is considered a multitarget compound as it can interact with a wide range of targets, explaining their multiplicity of effects. Some clinical studies have indicated certain side effects of CBD, including somnolence, anemia and diarrhea, while the elevation of transaminases is considered as an exclusion criterion from the trial. Since the red blood cells (RBCs) are a source of transaminase, we assayed in vitro effect on RBCs stability.

METHODS: We performed in vitro experiments with RBCs obtained from human peripheral blood with normal hematological parameters exposed to CBD in the range of therapeutic uses. We evaluated RBCs morphological changes, membrane fragility and hemoglobin release as a reflection of hemolysis.

RESULTS: CBD induced an increase in the hemoglobin release (3.27 μg/106 RBC), without altered RBC osmotic fragility. When RBCs suspensions were incubated with CBD the initial number of elements (RBCs + vesicles) was increased up to 65% after 20 min and returned to basal level after 40 min of incubation. In the first 20 min, the accounts of elements were enriched in the smaller vesicles that disappeared after the remaining 20 minutes.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CBD affects the indemnity of erythrocytes in vitro, inducing the formation of hemolytic vesicles that can provide the basis for the development of anemia, transaminase elevation and underlying tissular iron overload in patients chronically treated with CBD.

PMID:38874045 | DOI:10.2174/0113816128287272240529072040

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38874045/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240614132139&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 14, 2024 10:00 am

Proposed changes to Tasmanian hemp law aimed at smoothing path for producers

HempToday®: Proposed changes to Tasmanian hemp law aimed at smoothing path for producers
The government of Tasmania said it is working to simplify things for hemp producers after a comprehensive review of the state’s Industrial Hemp Act 2015. Jane Howlett, Minister for Primary Industries and […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/proposed-changes-to-tasmanian-hemp-law-aimed-at-smoothing-path-for-producers/
June 14, 2024 8:02 am

PubMed: Systematic review of drug-drug interactions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and Cannabis

PubMed: Systematic review of drug-drug interactions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and Cannabis

Front Pharmacol. 2024 May 22;15:1282831. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2024.1282831. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent exponential increase in legalized medical and recreational cannabis, development of medical cannabis programs, and production of unregulated over-the-counter products (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) oil, and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC)), has the potential to create unintended health consequences. The major cannabinoids (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that metabolize most prescription medications and xenobiotics (CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19). As a result, we predict that there will be instances of drug-drug interactions and the potential for adverse outcomes, especially for prescription medications with a narrow therapeutic index.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of all years to 2023 to identify real world reports of documented cannabinoid interactions with prescription medications. We limited our search to a set list of medications with predicted narrow therapeutic indices that may produce unintended adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Our team screened 4,600 reports and selected 151 full-text articles to assess for inclusion and exclusion criteria.

RESULTS: Our investigation revealed 31 reports for which cannabinoids altered pharmacokinetics and/or produced adverse events. These reports involved 16 different Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) medications, under six drug classes, 889 individual subjects and 603 cannabis/cannabinoid users. Interactions between cannabis/cannabinoids and warfarin, valproate, tacrolimus, and sirolimus were the most widely reported and may pose the greatest risk to patients. Common ADRs included bleeding risk, altered mental status, difficulty inducing anesthesia, and gastrointestinal distress. Additionally, we identified 18 instances (58%) in which clinicians uncovered an unexpected serum level of the prescribed drug. The quality of pharmacokinetic evidence for each report was assessed using an internally developed ten-point scale.

CONCLUSION: Drug-drug interactions with cannabinoids are likely amongst prescription medications that use common CYP450 systems. Our findings highlight the need for healthcare providers and patients/care-givers to openly communicate about cannabis/cannabinoid use to prevent unintended adverse events. To that end, we have developed a free online tool (www.CANN-DIR.psu.edu) to help identify potential cannabinoid drug-drug interactions with prescription medications.

PMID:38868665 | PMC:PMC11167383 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2024.1282831

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38868665/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240613072110&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 13, 2024 10:00 am

Licensed hemp fields double in Idaho, where farmers are focused on fiber production

HempToday®: Licensed hemp fields double in Idaho, where farmers are focused on fiber production
Late-comer Idaho has joined the ranks of leading hemp states in the U.S., with more than 2,440 acres licensed this year, according to the state’s agriculture department. Compared to last […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/licensed-hemp-fields-double-in-idaho-where-farmers-are-focused-on-fiber-production/
June 13, 2024 8:12 am

Hemp provisions in U.S. spending bill could speed up crackdown on synthetic intoxicants

HempToday®: Hemp provisions in U.S. spending bill could speed up crackdown on synthetic intoxicants
A U.S. Congressional spending bill released this week includes language that would likely shut down widespread distribution of unregulated intoxicating hemp products – perhaps before the end of the year. […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/hemp-provisions-in-u-s-spending-bill-could-speed-up-crackdown-on-hemp-intoxicants/
June 12, 2024 10:21 am

Draft remarks for NC Hearing June 12

CNR: Draft remarks for NC Hearing June 12

Hemp drugs: Hearing Wednesday 2 EDT in North Carolina, streamed at https://ncleg.gov/LegislativeCalendarEvent/132863#videoHeader

Constructive comments welcomed. Sometimes they let the public speak.

Mr. Chairman, Thank you.  

My name is Pat Oglesby.  I’m a lawyer with the Center for New Revenue in Chapel Hill. Some of you all are old enough to remember Bob Dole and Lloyd Bentsen.  I was a staffer for the nonpartisan Joint Committee on Taxation when they chaired it.     I’ve been a paid advisor to several states on cannabis tax policy.  

As you’re discovering, hemp-derived cannabinoids create both costs and externalities.  That’s why North Carolina should tax these substances – ideally by THC content – as part of a comprehensive cannabis strategy. 

Louisiana, Minnesota, Tennessee, and West Virginia are four states that already collect extra excise taxes on these substances.  Taxes that range from 3 percent to 11 percent of retail price.

But that’s just one approach. An alternative and more effective tax is one being used in Connecticut, Illinois, and all Canadian provinces. They tax legalized cannabis products by the volume of THC they contain. This THC tax aims straight at the target you want to hit.

Whichever taxes you choose — taxes based on price or taxes based on THC levels – there’s a risk of overdoing it.  If you tax too heavily, illicit sellers will bypass the tax and you won’t get the revenue you hope for.  I don’t work for industry, but I do know that other states have learned this lesson the hard way: Overtaxing backfires.  

The journey you’re on won’t be easy. But please know that I will do what I can to help. 


#CBD #Hemp

Draft remarks for NC Hearing June 12


June 11, 2024 11:10 pm

PubMed: Formulation Development and Evaluation of Cannabidiol Hot-Melt Extruded Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Applications

PubMed: Formulation Development and Evaluation of Cannabidiol Hot-Melt Extruded Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Applications

AAPS PharmSciTech. 2024 Jun 11;25(5):136. doi: 10.1208/s12249-024-02857-z.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly lipophilic compound with poor oral bioavailability, due to poor aqueous solubility and extensive pre-systemic metabolism. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of employing Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) technology for the continuous production of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) to improve the solubility and in vitro dissolution performance of CBD. Accordingly, different placebos were processed through HME in order to obtain a lead CBD loaded solid SEDDS. Two SEDDS were prepared with sesame oil, Poloxamer 188, Gelucire®59/14, PEO N80 and Soluplus®. Moreover, Vitamin E was added as an antioxidant. The SEDDS formulations demonstrated emulsification times of 9.19 and 9.30 min for F1 and F2 respectively. The formed emulsions showed smaller droplet size ranging from 150-400 nm that could improve lymphatic uptake of CBD and reduce first pass metabolism. Both formulations showed significantly faster in vitro dissolution rate (90% for F1 and 83% for F2) compared to 14% for the pure CBD within the first hour, giving an enhanced release profile. The formulations were tested for stability over a 60-day time period at 4°C, 25°C, and 40°C. Formulation F1 was stable over the 60-day time-period at 4°C. Therefore, the continuous HME technology could replace conventional methods for processing SEDDS and improve the oral delivery of CBD for better therapeutic outcomes.

PMID:38862810 | DOI:10.1208/s12249-024-02857-z

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38862810/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240612012340&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Ultrafast, Selective, and Highly Sensitive Nonchromatographic Analysis of Fourteen Cannabinoids in Cannabis Extracts, delta8-Tetrahydrocannabinol Synthetic Mixtures, and Edibles by Cyclic Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

PubMed: Ultrafast, Selective, and Highly Sensitive Nonchromatographic Analysis of Fourteen Cannabinoids in Cannabis Extracts, delta8-Tetrahydrocannabinol Synthetic Mixtures, and Edibles by Cyclic Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

Anal Chem. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.3c05879. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The diversity of cannabinoid isomers and complexity of Cannabis products pose significant challenges for analytical methodologies. In this study, we developed a method to analyze 14 different cannabinoid isomers in diverse samples within milliseconds by leveraging the unique adduct-forming behavior of silver ions in advanced cyclic ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. The developed method achieved the separation of isomers from four groups of cannabinoids: Δ3-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (1), Δ8-THC (2), Δ9-THC (3), cannabidiol (CBD) (4), Δ8-iso-THC (5), and Δ(4)8-iso-THC (6) (all MW = 314); 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (7), 9β-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (8), and 8-hydroxy-iso-THC (9) (all MW = 332); tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) (10) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) (11) (both MW = 358); Δ8-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) (12), Δ8-iso-THCV (13), and Δ9-THCV (14) (all MW = 286). Moreover, experimental and theoretical traveling wave collision cross section values in nitrogen (TWCCSN2) of cannabinoid-Ag(I) species were obtained for the first time with an average error between experimental and theoretical values of 2.6%. Furthermore, a workflow for the identification of cannabinoid isomers in Cannabis and Cannabis-derived samples was established based on three identification steps (m/z and isotope pattern of Ag(I) adducts, TWCCSN2, and MS/MS fragments). Afterward, calibration curves of three major cannabinoids were established with a linear range of 1-250 ng·ml-1 for Δ8-THC (2) (R2 = 0.9999), 0.1-25 ng·ml-1 for Δ9-THC (3) (R2 = 0.9987), and 0.04-10 ng·ml-1 for CBD (4) (R2 = 0.9986) as well as very low limits of detection (0.008-0.2 ng·ml-1). Finally, relative quantification of Δ8-THC (2), Δ9-THC (3), and CBD (4) in eight complex acid-treated CBD mixtures was achieved without chromatographic separation. The results showed good correspondence (R2 = 0.999) with those obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry.

PMID:38862388 | DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.3c05879

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38862388/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240612012340&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 11, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The Effects of Nicotine and Cannabinoids on Cytokines

PubMed: The Effects of Nicotine and Cannabinoids on Cytokines

Curr Pharm Des. 2024 Jun 7. doi: 10.2174/0113816128293077240529111824. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The usage of nicotine and cannabinoids has rapidly grown in popularity, leading to increased research into how they can affect people’s health, both positively and negatively. Nicotine, Cannabidiol (CBD), and Tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) have been shown to have significant effects on cytokine function and inflammatory response.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review and summarize the current literature on the effects of nicotine and cannabinoids on cytokines, including interleukins, TNF, IFN, and TGF-β.

METHODS: Literature search was conducted on Medline/PubMed electronic databases utilizing the search terms “nicotine” OR “cannabis” OR “cannabinoids” AND “cytokine” AND “inflammation” AND “stress” AND “immune” from 11/1973 to 02/2024.

RESULTS: THC and CBD usage have been associated with conflicting impacts on immune response, and observed to both exacerbate and inhibit inflammation. Nicotine has been shown to be generally proinflammatory with regards to cytokines. These responses have been reported to have significant effects on bodily response to inflammation-related diseases. Nicotine usage is associated with worsened outcomes for some conditions, like chronic pain, but improved outcomes for others, like arthritis. The impacts of cannabinoid usage tend to be more positive, exerting anti-inflammatory effects across a wide range of diseases. Given the widespread usage of these substances, it is important to understand the nature of their consequences on immune functions and the underlying mechanisms by which they act.

CONCLUSION: This review has covered how cannabinoids and nicotine affect inflammation directly and how these effects can be attributed to the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In summary, the existing research studying the effects of cannabinoids and nicotine supports the major relationship between nicotine and cannabis use and inflammatory diseases.

PMID:38859790 | DOI:10.2174/0113816128293077240529111824

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38859790/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240611072146&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 11, 2024 10:00 am

For Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis, intoxicating hemp is OK, but marijuana isn’t

HempToday®: For Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis, intoxicating hemp is OK, but marijuana isn’t
Intoxicating hemp substances will remain on the market in Florida after Gov. Ron DeSantis nixed a proposed law that would have banned products containing them. DeSantis on Friday vetoed Senate […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/for-florida-gov-ron-desantis-intoxicating-hemp-is-ok-but-marijuana-isnt/
June 10, 2024 11:07 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol alleviates suture-induced corneal pathological angiogenesis and inflammation by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells

PubMed: Cannabidiol alleviates suture-induced corneal pathological angiogenesis and inflammation by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells

Int Immunopharmacol. 2024 Jun 7;137:112429. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2024.112429. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, no perfect treatment for neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis exist, and each treatment method has its complications and side effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and its mechanism of action.

METHOD: An in vivo corneal neovascularization (CNV) model was established using the suture method to investigate the inhibitory effects of CBD on suture-induced corneal inflammation, pathological blood vessel formation, and lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, the impact of CBD on immune cells was studied. In vitro methodologies, including cell sorting and co-culture, were employed to elucidate its mechanism of action.

RESULTS: Compared with the CNV group, CBD can inhibit CNV, lymphangiogenesis, and inflammation induced via the suture method. In addition, CBD specifically induced CD45+CD11b+Gr-1+ cell upregulation, which significantly inhibited the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in vitro and exhibited a CD31+ phenotype, proving that they were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We administered anti-Gr-1 to mice to eliminate MDSCs in vivo and found that anti-Gr-1 partially reversed the anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects of CBD. Furthermore, we found that compared with MDSCs in the normal group, CBD-induced MDSCs overexpress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). Administering PPAR-γ inhibitor in mice almost reversed the induction of MDSCs by CBD, demonstrating the role of PPAR-γ in the function of CBD.

CONCLUSION: This study indicates that CBD may induce MDSCs upregulation by activating the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ, exerting anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and lymphangiogenic effects, and revealing potential therapeutic targets for corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis.

PMID:38851157 | DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2024.112429

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38851157/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240609102250&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 8, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Quantitative summary on the human pharmacokinetic properties of cannabidiol to accelerate scientific clinical application of cannabis

PubMed: Quantitative summary on the human pharmacokinetic properties of cannabidiol to accelerate scientific clinical application of cannabis

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2024 Jun 8. doi: 10.1007/s00210-024-03185-6. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive substance that exerts numerous pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has received attention as a useful substance for the treatment of intractable pain, seizures, and anxiety, and related clinical trials have continued. However, the CBD pharmacokinetic results between reports are highly variable, making it difficult to clearly identify the pharmacokinetic properties of CBD. The main purpose of this study was to identify CBD clinical pharmacokinetic properties through meta-analysis. In particular, we sought to derive valid, interpretable independent variables and interpret their pharmacokinetic parameter correlations in relation to the large inter-individual and inter-study variability in CBD pharmacokinetics. For this study, CBD-related clinical trial reports were extensively screened and intercomparisons were performed between internal data sets through systematic classification and extraction of pharmacokinetic parameter values. The candidate independent variables associated with interpretation of CBD pharmacokinetic diversity established and explored in this study were as follows: diet, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) combination, sample matrix type, liver and renal function, exposure route, dosage form, CBD exposure dose, cannabis smoking frequency, multiple exposure. The results of this study showed that CBD pharmacokinetics were influenced (increased plasma exposure by approximately 2-5 times) by diet immediately before or during CBD exposure, and that THC was not expected to have an antagonistic effect on the CBD absorption. The influence of changes in liver function would be significant in CBD pharmacokinetic diversity. Due to decreased liver function, the plasma exposure of CBD increased 2.57-5.15 times compared to healthy adults, and the half-life and clearance showed a 2.58-fold increase and a 5.15-fold decrease, respectively. CBD can be rapidly absorbed into the body (time to reach maximum concentration within 3.18 h) by oral, transdermal, and inhalation exposures, and lipid emulsification and nanoformulation of CBD will greatly improve CBD bioavailability (up to approximately 2 times). The pharmacokinetics of CBD generally follow linear kinetic characteristics. The importance of this study is that it suggests key factors that should be considered in terms of pharmacokinetics in further clinical trials and formulations of CBD in the future.

PMID:38850302 | DOI:10.1007/s00210-024-03185-6

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38850302/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240608202235&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 8, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: The development of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in the United States

PubMed: The development of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in the United States

Pharmacol Rev. 2024 Jun 7:PHARMREV-AR-2023-001121. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.123.001121. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is one of the oldest and widely used substances in the world. Cannabinoids within the cannabis plant, known as phytocannabinoids, mediate cannabis’ effects through interactions with the body’s endogenous cannabinoid system. This endogenous system, the endocannabinoid system, has important roles in physical and mental health. These roles point to the potential to develop cannabinoids as therapeutic agents, while underscoring the risks related to interfering with the endogenous system during non-medical use. This scoping narrative review synthesizes the current evidence for both the therapeutic and adverse effects of the major (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) and lesser studied minor phytocannabinoids, from nonclinical to clinical research. We pay particular attention to the areas where evidence is well-established, including analgesic effects after acute exposures and neurocognitive risks after acute and chronic use. In addition, drug development considerations for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents within the United States are reviewed. The proposed clinical study design considerations encourage methodological standards for greater scientific rigor and reproducibility, ultimately, to extend our knowledge of the risks and benefits of cannabinoids for patients and providers. Significance Statement This work provides a review of prior research related to phytocannabinoids, including therapeutic potential and known risks in the context of drug development within the United States. We also provide study design considerations for future cannabinoid drug development.

PMID:38849155 | DOI:10.1124/pharmrev.123.001121

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38849155/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240608112312&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 7, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for the quantification of cannabigerol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and cannabichromene in human plasma and mouse matrices

PubMed: Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for the quantification of cannabigerol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and cannabichromene in human plasma and mouse matrices

Analyst. 2024 Jun 7. doi: 10.1039/d4an00070f. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabigerol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and cannabichromene are non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids, highly present in Cannabis sativa, for which numerous therapeutical applications have been described. However, additional pre-clinical and clinical data, including toxicopharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, remain required to support their use in clinical practice and new therapeutic applications. To support these studies, a new high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed and validated to quantify these cannabinoids in human plasma and mouse matrices. Sample extraction was accomplished by protein precipitation and double liquid-liquid extraction. Simvastatin and perampanel were used as internal standards in human and mouse matrices, respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 16 min on an InfinityLab Poroshell® 120 C18 column (4.6 mm × 100 mm, 2.7 μm) at 40 °C. A mobile phase composed of water/acetonitrile was pumped with a gradient elution program at 1.0 mL min-1. The technique revealed linearity in the defined concentration ranges with a determination coefficient of over 0.99. Intra and inter-day accuracy and precision values ranged from -14.83 to 13.97% and 1.08 to 13.74%, respectively. Sample stability was assessed to ensure that handling and storage conditions did not compromise analyte concentrations in different matrices. Carry-over was absent and recoveries were over 77.31%. This technique was successfully applied for the therapeutic monitoring of cannabidiol and preliminary pre-clinical studies with cannabigerol and cannabidiol. All samples were within calibration ranges, with the exception of cannabigerol after intraperitoneal administration. This is the first HPLC-DAD technique that simultaneously quantifies cannabinoids in these biological matrices, supporting future pre-clinical and clinical investigations.

PMID:38847584 | DOI:10.1039/d4an00070f

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38847584/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240607132629&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 7, 2024 10:00 am

PubMed: Understanding the Potential of CBD for Health Benefits: an Overview

PubMed: Understanding the Potential of CBD for Health Benefits: an Overview

Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2024 Jun 6. doi: 10.2174/0115701638305553240529103622. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids are compounds with increasing scientific interest, particularly due to their interaction with the endocannabinoid system via CBR1 and CBR2 receptors. They can interfere with appetite, pain, and sleep or develop mood changes of the individual. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a well-known cannabinoid with potential benefits, including reducing epilepsy seizures, alleviating anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, aiding in Tourette Syndrome (a neurodevelopmental disorder), depression, sleep disorders, and promising in the treatment of cancer, pain relief, and heart health. Although generally safe, CBD can have side effects, including drug metabolism interference, fertility, and liver function. In addition, it can be administered by oral, sublingual, transdermal or inhalation via, each one with different bioavailability. The application of nanotechnology, specifically through colloidal carrier systems, holds promising potential for maximizing CBD’s efficacy and pharmacological profile. There are reported CBD extraction methods using ethanol, carbon dioxide, deionised water, and non-polar oils like olive or coconut oil. The green extraction methods have gained popularity for their higher yields, shorter extraction time, and reduced costs. A specific dose with the desired effects is challenging due to individual factors, with most studies suggesting a range between less than 1 and 50 mg/kg/d. This review aims to explore the principles of CBD-based products development, focusing on extraction methods and purification processes of this cannabinoid for tinctures, topicals, and other pharmaceutical forms, as well as further research to attain the objectives.

PMID:38847170 | DOI:10.2174/0115701638305553240529103622

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38847170/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240607072225&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 June 7, 2024 10:00 am

Florida university now suspects $238 million gift from hemp entrepreneur is bogus

HempToday®: Florida university now suspects $238 million gift from hemp entrepreneur is bogus
A Florida university that received a $238 million “gift” from a Texas hemp entrepreneur likely won’t cash in on the pledge, school officials have indicated. The donation to Florida Agricultural […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/florida-university-now-suspects-238-million-gift-from-hemp-entrepreneur-is-bogus/
June 6, 2024 9:19 am

Investors will lose millions if Thailand backtracks on hemp, marijuana, trade group says

HempToday®: Investors will lose millions if Thailand backtracks on hemp, marijuana, trade group says
A plan to re-criminalize cannabis in Thailand could cost CBD stakeholders millions of dollars in lost investments, a key trade group has warned. The Thai Hemp and Cannabis Industry Association […]

#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/investors-will-lose-millions-if-thailand-backtracks-on-hemp-marijuana-trade-group-says/
June 5, 2024 5:25 am

PubMed: Select Minor Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa are Cannabimimetic and Antinociceptive in a Mouse Model of Chronic Neuropathic Pain

PubMed: Select Minor Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa are Cannabimimetic and Antinociceptive in a Mouse Model of Chronic Neuropathic Pain

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2024 Jun 4:JPET-AR-2024-002212. doi: 10.1124/jpet.124.002212. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain conditions affect nearly 20% of the population in the United States. Current medical interventions, such as opioid drugs, are effective at relieving pain but are accompanied by many undesirable side effects. This is one reason increased numbers of chronic pain patients have been turning to Cannabis for pain management. Cannabis contains many bioactive chemical compounds; however, current research looking into lesser-studied minor cannabinoids in Cannabis lacks uniformity between experimental groups and/or excludes female mice from investigation. This makes it challenging to draw conclusions between experiments done with different minor cannabinoid compounds between labs or parse out potential sex differences that could be present. We chose five minor cannabinoids found in lower quantities within Cannabis: cannabinol (CBN), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabigerol (CBG), Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). These compounds were then tested for their cannabimimetic and pain-relieving behaviors in a cannabinoid tetrad assay and a chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) pain model in male and female CD-1 mice. We found that the minor cannabinoids we tested differed in the cannabimimetic behaviors evoked, as well as the extent. We found that CBN, CBG, and high dose Δ8-THC evoked some tetrad behaviors in both sexes, while THCV and low dose Δ8-THC exhibited cannabimimetic tetrad behaviors only in females. Only CBN efficaciously relieved CIPN pain, which contrasts with reports from other researchers. Together these findings provide further clarity to the pharmacology of minor cannabinoids and suggest further investigation into their mechanism and therapeutic potential. Significance Statement Minor cannabinoids are poorly studied lig