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CannaSearch Daily on CBD + Hemp

UK food agency rejects HempToday request for documentation on CBD makers

UK food agency rejects HempToday request for documentation on CBD makers
UK food agency rejects HempToday request for documentation on CBD makers

The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) has rejected a Freedom of Information request submitted by HempToday (HT) regarding companies that currently have products in the…

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#CBD #Hemp

UK food agency rejects HempToday request for documentation on CBD makers


September 28, 2022 6:53 am

U.S. bill would boost THC threshold, but fall short of global trend to 1.0%

U.S. bill would boost THC threshold, but fall short of global trend to 1.0%
U.S. bill would boost THC threshold, but fall short of global trend to 1.0%

A key cannabis bill now before the U.S. Senate would establish the legality of all forms of THC naturally present in hemp, adding varieties so…

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#CBD #Hemp

U.S. bill would boost THC threshold, but fall short of global trend to 1.0%


September 26, 2022 6:12 am

Jet Fuel From Hemp Stalk?

Hemp stalk contains lignin:

“Lignin could hold the answer to achieving a complete bio-based jet fuel.

Researchers at NREL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Washington State University have reported success in using #lignin as a path toward a drop-in 100% sustainable aviation fuel (#SAF). Lignin makes up the rigid parts of the cell walls of plants. Other parts of plants are used for biofuels, but lignin has been largely overlooked because of the difficulties in breaking it down chemically and converting it into useful products.

The research, published in Cell Press: Joule, demonstrated a process the researchers developed to remove the oxygen from lignin, such that the resulting hydrocarbons could be used as a jet fuel blendstock.”

Read more at: https://www.nrel.gov/news/press/2022/catalytic-process-with-lignin-could-enable-100-sustainable-aviation-fuel.html

PubMed: Effects of rich cannabidiol oil on behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia: A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

PubMed: Effects of rich cannabidiol oil on behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia: A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Sep 6;9:951889. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.951889. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of patients with dementia suffer from some type of neurobehavioral symptom, and there are no approved medications to address these symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the medical cannabis oil “Avidekel” for the reduction of behavioral disturbances among patients with dementia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, single-cite, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Israel (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03328676), patients aged at least 60, with a diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorder and associated behavioral disturbances were randomized 2:1 to receive either “Avidekel,” a broad-spectrum cannabis oil (30% cannabidiol and 1% tetrahydrocannabinol: 295 mg and 12.5 mg per ml, respectively; n = 40) or a placebo oil (n = 20) three times a day for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was a decrease, as compared to baseline, of four or more points on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score by week 16.

RESULTS: From 60 randomized patients [mean age, 79.4 years; 36 women (60.0%)], 52 (86.7%) completed the trial (all eight patients who discontinued treatment were from the investigational group). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of subjects who had a Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score reduction of ≥ 4 points at week 16: 24/40 (60.0%) and 6/20 (30.0%) for investigational and control groups, respectively (χ2 = 4.80, P = 0.03). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of subjects who had a Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score reduction of ≥ 8 points at week 16: 20/40 (50%) and 3/20 (15%), respectively (χ2 = 6.42, P = 0.011). The ANOVA repeated measures analysis demonstrated significantly more improvement in the investigational group compared to the control group at weeks 14 and 16 (F = 3.18, P = 0.02). Treatment was mostly safe, with no significant differences in the occurrence of adverse events between the two groups.

CONCLUSION: In this randomized controlled trial, ‘Avidekel’ oil significantly reduced agitation over placebo in patients suffering from behavioral disturbances related to dementia, with non-serious side-effects. Further research is required with a larger sample size.

PMID:36148467 | PMC:PMC9486160 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2022.951889

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36148467/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity by modulating dopamine receptor D1-mediated calcium-dependent phosphorylation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2

PubMed: Cannabidiol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity by modulating dopamine receptor D1-mediated calcium-dependent phosphorylation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2

Front Pharmacol. 2022 Sep 6;13:972828. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.972828. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

In the past decade, methamphetamine (METH) abuse has sharply increased in the United States, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. METH abuse not only leads to serious drug dependence, but also produces irreversible neurotoxicity. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapies for the treatment of METH use disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive (and non-addictive) cannabinoid from the cannabis plant, shows neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties under METH exposure. At present, however, the mechanisms underlying these properties remain unclear, which continues to hinder research on its therapeutic potential. In the current study, computational simulations showed that CBD and METH may directly bind to the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via two overlapping binding sites. Moreover, CBD may compete with METH for the PHE-313 binding site. We also found that METH robustly induced apoptosis with activation of the caspase-8/caspase-3 cascade in-vitro and in-vivo, while CBD pretreatment prevented these changes. Furthermore, METH increased the expression of DRD1, phosphorylation of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) at serine 421 (Ser421), and level of intracellular Ca2+ in-vitro and in-vivo, but these effects were blocked by CBD pretreatment. The DRD1 antagonist SCH23390 significantly prevented METH-induced apoptosis, MeCP2 phosphorylation, and Ca2+ overload in-vitro. In contrast, the DRD1 agonist SKF81297 markedly increased apoptosis, MeCP2 phosphorylation, and Ca2+ overload, which were blocked by CBD pretreatment in-vitro. These results indicate that CBD prevents METH-induced neurotoxicity by modulating DRD1-mediated phosphorylation of MeCP2 and Ca2+ signaling. This study suggests that CBD pretreatment may resist the effects of METH on DRD1 by competitive binding.

PMID:36147353 | PMC:PMC9486307 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2022.972828

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36147353/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Association between <em>ABCB1</em> rs2235048 Polymorphism and THC Pharmacokinetics and Subjective Effects following Smoked Cannabis in Young Adults

PubMed: Association between <em>ABCB1</em> rs2235048 Polymorphism and THC Pharmacokinetics and Subjective Effects following Smoked Cannabis in Young Adults

Brain Sci. 2022 Sep 3;12(9):1189. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12091189.

ABSTRACT

Genetic influences on acute responses to psychoactive drugs may contribute to individual variability in addiction risk. ABCB1 is a human gene that encodes P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent efflux pump that may influence the pharmacokinetics of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Using data from 48 young adults (aged 19-25 years) reporting 1-4 days of cannabis use per week who completed a placebo-controlled human laboratory experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the rs2235048 polymorphism of ABCB1 would influence acute responses to smoked cannabis. C-allele carriers reported on average greater frequency of weekly cannabis use compared to the TT genotype carriers (TC/CC mean ± SEM = 2.74 ± 0.14, TT = 1.85 ± 0.24, p = 0.004). After smoking a single cannabis cigarette to their desired high, C-allele carriers had higher area-under-the-curve (AUC) of both THC metabolites (11-OH-THC TC/CC = 7.18 ± 9.64, TT = 3.28 ± 3.40, p = 0.05; THC-COOH TC/CC = 95.21 ± 116.12, TT = 45.92 ± 42.38, p = 0.043), and these results were impact by self-reported ethnicity. There were no significant differences in self-reported subjective drug effects except for a greater AUC of visual analogue scale rating of drug liking (TC/CC = 35,398.33 ± 37,233.72, TT = 15,895.56 ± 13,200.68, p = 0.017). Our preliminary findings suggest that further work in a larger sample should investigate whether human ABCB1 influences cannabis-related phenotypes and plays a role in the risk of developing a cannabis use disorder.

PMID:36138925 | DOI:10.3390/brainsci12091189

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36138925/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Analysis of Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of 25 High-THC Cannabis Extracts

PubMed: Analysis of Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of 25 High-THC Cannabis Extracts

Molecules. 2022 Sep 16;27(18):6057. doi: 10.3390/molecules27186057.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest cultivated plants. Many of the medicinal properties of cannabis are known, although very few cannabis-based formulations became prescribed drugs. Previous research demonstrated that cannabis varieties are very different in their medicinal properties, likely due to the entourage effect-the synergistic or antagonistic effect of various cannabinoids and terpenes. In this work, we analyzed 25 cannabis extracts containing high levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We used HCC1806 squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated various degrees of efficiency of the tested extracts, from 66% to 92% of growth inhibition of cancer cells. Inflammation was tested by induction of inflammation with TNF-α/IFN-γ in WI38 human lung fibroblasts. The efficiency of the extracts was tested by analyzing the expression of COX2 and IL6; while some extracts aggravated inflammation by increasing the expression of COX2/IL6 by 2-fold, other extracts decreased inflammation, reducing expression of cytokines by over 5-fold. We next analyzed the level of THC, CBD, CBG and CBN and twenty major terpenes and performed clustering and association analysis between the chemical composition of the extracts and their efficiency in inhibiting cancer growth and curbing inflammation. A positive correlation was found between the presence of terpinene (pval = 0.002) and anti-cancer property; eucalyptol came second, with pval of 0.094. p-cymene and β-myrcene positively correlated with the inhibition of IL6 expression, while camphor correlated negatively. No significant correlation was found for COX2. We then performed a correlation analysis between cannabinoids and terpenes and found a positive correlation for the following pairs: α-pinene vs. CBD, p-cymene vs. CBGA, terpenolene vs. CBGA and isopulegol vs. CBGA. Our work, thus, showed that most of high-THC extracts demonstrate anti-cancer activity, while only certain selected extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity. Presence of certain terpenes, such as terpinene, eucalyptol, cymene, myrcene and camphor, appear to have modulating effects on the activity of cannabinoids.

PMID:36144796 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27186057

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36144796/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Application of experimental design in HPLC method optimisation for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive cannabinoids

PubMed: Application of experimental design in HPLC method optimisation for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive cannabinoids

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2022 Sep 9;221:115037. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2022.115037. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The scientific interest in Cannabis sativa L. analysis has been rapidly increasing in recent years, especially for what concerns cannabinoids, plant secondary metabolites which are well known for having many biological properties. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is frequently used for both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabinoids in plant extracts from C. sativa and its derived products. Many studies have been focused on the main cannabinoids, such as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (∆9-THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and their decarboxylated derivatives, such as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG). In addition to the abovementioned compounds, the plant produces other metabolites of the same chemical class, and some of them have shown interesting biological activities. In the light of this, it is important to have efficient analytical methods for the simultaneous separation of cannabinoids, which is quite complex since they present similar chemical-physical characteristics. The present work is focused on the use of the Design of Experiments technique (DoE) to develop and optimise an HPLC method for the simultaneous separation of 14 cannabinoids. Experimental design optimisation was applied by using a Central Composite Face-Centered design to achieve the best resolution with minimum experimental trials. Five significant variables affecting the chromatographic separation, including ammonium formate concentration, gradient elution, run time and flow rate, were studied. A multivariate strategy, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squared (PLS) regression, was used to define the best operative conditions. The developed method allowed for the separation of 12 out of 14 cannabinoids. Due to co-elution phenomena, HPLC coupled with a triple quadrupole mass analyser (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was applied, monitoring the specific transitions of each compound in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Finally, the optimised method was applied to C. sativa extracts having a different cannabinoid profile to demonstrate its efficiency to real samples. The methodology applied in this study can be useful for the separation of other cannabinoid mixtures, by means of appropriate optimisation of the experimental conditions.

PMID:36148721 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2022.115037

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36148721/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Analysis of Polar Lipids in Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.) By-Products by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

PubMed: Analysis of Polar Lipids in Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.) By-Products by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Molecules. 2022 Sep 9;27(18):5856. doi: 10.3390/molecules27185856.

ABSTRACT

Polar lipids were extracted from residual biomass of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) by-products with EtOH and partitioned into aqueous and chloroform fractions. The chloroform fractions were studied for their lipid composition using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by UHPLC/HRMS and NMR analyses. The 1H NMR and gravimetric yield of SPE indicated triacylglycerols covered ≥ 51.3% of the chloroform fraction of hemp seed hulls and hemp cake. UHPLC/HRMS analyses of remaining polar lipids led to the identification of nine diacylglycerols (DAGs), six lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), five lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs), eight phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), and thirteen phosphatidylcholines (PCs) for the first time from hemp seed hulls. The regiospecificity of fatty acyl substitutes in glycerol backbone of individual phospholipids were assigned by analyzing the diagnostic fragment ions and their intensities. The heat-map analysis suggested that DAG 18:2/18:2, 1-LPC 18:2, 1-LPE 18:2, PE 18:2/18:2, and PC 18:2/18:2 were the predominant molecules within their classes, supported by the fact that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid covering &gt; 41.1% of the total fatty acids determined by GC-FID analysis. The 31P NMR analysis confirmed the identification of phospholipids and suggested PC covers ≥ 37.9% of the total phospholipid present in hemp by-products. HPLC purification led to the isolation of 1,2-dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine. These two major PCs further confirmed the UHPLC/HRMS finding.

PMID:36144592 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27185856

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36144592/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors from a Library of Minor Cannabinoids by Biochemical Inhibition Assay and Surface Plasmon Resonance Characterized Binding Affinity

PubMed: Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors from a Library of Minor Cannabinoids by Biochemical Inhibition Assay and Surface Plasmon Resonance Characterized Binding Affinity

Molecules. 2022 Sep 19;27(18):6127. doi: 10.3390/molecules27186127.

ABSTRACT

The replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by its main protease (Mpro), which is a plausible therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although numerous in silico studies reported the potential inhibitory effects of natural products including cannabis and cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, their anti-Mpro activities are not well validated by biological experimental data. Herein, a library of minor cannabinoids belonging to several chemotypes including tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabidiols, cannabigerols, cannabichromenes, cannabinodiols, cannabicyclols, cannabinols, and cannabitriols was evaluated for their anti-Mpro activity using a biochemical assay. Additionally, the binding affinities and molecular interactions between the active cannabinoids and the Mpro protein were studied by a biophysical technique (surface plasmon resonance; SPR) and molecular docking, respectively. Cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabutol and cannabigerolic acid were the most active Mpro inhibitors (IC50 = 3.62 and 14.40 μM, respectively) and cannabigerolic acid had a binding affinity KD=2.16×10-4 M). A preliminary structure and activity relationship study revealed that the anti-Mpro effects of cannabinoids were influenced by the decarboxylation of cannabinoids and the length of cannabinoids’ alkyl side chain. Findings from the biochemical, biophysical, and computational assays support the growing evidence of cannabinoids’ inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.

PMID:36144858 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27186127

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36144858/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Functional characterization of cannabidiol effect on the serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus in rat brain slices

PubMed: Functional characterization of cannabidiol effect on the serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus in rat brain slices

Front Pharmacol. 2022 Sep 6;13:956886. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.956886. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant, elicits several pharmacological effects via the 5-HT1A receptor. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main serotonergic cluster in the brain that expresses the 5-HT1A receptor. To date, the effect of CBD on the neuronal activity of DRN 5-HT cells and its interaction with somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors have not been characterized. Our aim was to study the effect of CBD on the firing activity of DRN 5-HT cells and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor activation by electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques in male Sprague-Dawley rat brain slices. Perfusion with CBD (30 μM, 10 min) did not significantly change the firing rate of DRN 5-HT cells or the inhibitory effect of 5-HT (50-100 μM, 1 min). However, in the presence of CBD (30 μM, 10 min), the inhibitory effects of 8-OH-DPAT (10 nM) and ipsapirone (100 nM) were reduced by 66% and 53%, respectively. CBD failed to reverse ipsapirone-induced inhibition, whereas perfusion with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (30 nM) completely restored by 97.05 ± 14.63% the firing activity of 5-HT cells. Administration of AM251 (1 µM), MDL100907 (30 nM), or picrotoxin (20 μM) did not change the blockade produced by CBD (30 μM) on ipsapirone-induced inhibition. Our study also shows that CBD failed to modify the KCl (15 mM, 4 min)-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i or the inhibitory effect of ipsapirone (1 μM, 4 min) on KCl-evoked [Ca2+]i. In conclusion, CBD does not activate 5-HT1A autoreceptors, but it hindered the inhibitory effect produced by selective 5-HT1A receptor agonists on the firing activity of DRN 5-HT cells through a mechanism that does not involve CB1, 5-HT2A, or GABAA receptors. Our data support a negative allosteric modulation of DRN somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptor by CBD.

PMID:36147343 | PMC:PMC9485894 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2022.956886

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36147343/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Simple Extraction of Cannabinoids from Female Inflorescences of Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.)

PubMed: Simple Extraction of Cannabinoids from Female Inflorescences of Hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.)

Molecules. 2022 Sep 10;27(18):5868. doi: 10.3390/molecules27185868.

ABSTRACT

The high interest in non-psychoactive cannabidiol increases the need for efficient and straightforward cannabidiol (CBD) extraction methods. The research aimed to compare simple methods of cannabinoid extraction that do not require advanced laboratory equipment. This work assesses the content of total CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in popular solvents such as water and ethanol extracts. Hemp raw material was analyzed with Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), while extracts were tested by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The female inflorescences of three varieties of industrial hemp were tested: Futura 75, KC Dora, and Tygra (different sowing and N fertilization densities). Tygra (T/10/30) showed the highest content of CBD (0.064%) in water extracts. However, in 80% tincture from Futura 75 (F/30/30), a higher CBD content of 1.393% was observed. The use of 96% ethanol for extraction and ultrasound enabled the highest CBD content to be obtained: 2.682% in Futura 75 (F/30/30). Cold water extraction showed no effect on Δ9-THC content, while hot water extraction increased content from 0.001% in KC Dora to 0.002% in Futura 75 (F/30/30) and Tygra, but the changes were statistically insignificant. Application of 80% ethanol revealed the significantly highest content of Δ9-THC in KC Dora, from 0.026% (K/30/90) to 0.057% (K/30/30), as well as in Tygra (T/30/30) (0.036%) and Futura 75 (F/30/30) (0.048%). The use of ethanol extraction in combination with ultrasound could be an efficient method of obtaining cannabinoids.

PMID:36144607 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27185868

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36144607/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Bacterial and fungal communities within and among geographic samples of the hemp pest <em>Psylliodes attenuata</em> from China

PubMed: Bacterial and fungal communities within and among geographic samples of the hemp pest <em>Psylliodes attenuata</em> from China

Front Microbiol. 2022 Sep 6;13:964735. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.964735. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

The hemp flea beetle Psylliodes attenuata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Psylliodes) is a common pest of Cannabis sativa, including cultivars of both medicinal marijuana and industrial hemp. Both the larval and adult stages of this beetle can cause significant damages to C. sativa, resulting in substantial crop losses. At present, little is known about the bacterial and fungal community diversity among populations of this pest insect. In the present study, we obtained P. attenuata samples from nine field sites representing broad industrial hemp productions in China and analyzed their microbial communities using DNA metabarcoding. Bacterial sequences of all the samples were assigned to 3728 OTUs, which belonged to 45 phyla, 1058 genera and 1960 known species. The most common genera were Rickettsia, Wolbachia, and Candidatus_Brownia. Fungal sequences of all the samples were assigned to 910 OTUs, which belonged to 9 phyla, 308 genera and 464 known species. The most common fungal genera were Cladosporium, Cutaneotrichosporon, and Aspergillus. Principal coordinate analysis revealed a significant difference in the bacterial and fungal community structure among the nine P. attenuata populations. Understanding the microbial symbionts may provide clues to help develop potential biocontrol techniques against this pest.

PMID:36147860 | PMC:PMC9485832 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.964735

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36147860/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: The Antioxidant Role of Hemp Phytocomplex in Cannabis Oil-Based Extracts

PubMed: The Antioxidant Role of Hemp Phytocomplex in Cannabis Oil-Based Extracts

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 Sep 4;15(9):1102. doi: 10.3390/ph15091102.

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic use of Cannabis oil extracts is constantly increasing. However, in Italy, they are allowed to be prepared with only a few methods and matrices. With this work, we aimed to assess how the different processes might affect the chemical composition of two different matrices (olive oils and medium chain triglycerides oils – MCT), accounting as variables for both the presence of Cannabis dried apices of the female flower and the adding of tocopherol acetate as an antioxidant. The macerated oils were prepared with four of the methods allowed according to the Italian legislation (Romano-Hazekamp, Cannazza-Citti, SIFAP and Calvi) and analyzed for normal and oxidized tocopherols, oxidized and conjugated fatty acids and volatile carbonyl compounds (VCCs), all using liquid chromatography coupled to UV or PDA detectors. According to our results, neither normal nor oxidized tocopherols are affected by the addition of antioxidants or Cannabis, while the oxidation state (according to the levels of oxidized and conjugated fatty acids) is often altered in either case. The VCCs concentrations, on the other hand, are never notably altered. These results suggest a worthless use of antioxidants in Cannabis macerated oils preparations, while the dried apices of female flowers might have a protective role in maintaining the oil oxidation state.

PMID:36145323 | DOI:10.3390/ph15091102

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36145323/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Acetone as Artifact of Analysis in Terpene Samples by HS-GC/MS

PubMed: Acetone as Artifact of Analysis in Terpene Samples by HS-GC/MS

Molecules. 2022 Sep 16;27(18):6037. doi: 10.3390/molecules27186037.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis-infused product manufacturers often add terpenes to enhance flavor. Meanwhile, labeling requirements for these same products necessitate testing for residual solvent levels. We have found that heating terpene samples containing an oxygen or air atmosphere results in the detection of significantly higher levels of acetone when compared to the same compound in argon atmosphere using temperature regimes common to headspace autosampler routines. This formation was statistically significant (p = 0.05) for most of the predominant terpenes found in cannabis. The largest increase in acetone formation was seen for terpinolene which showed an 885% increase in oxygen atmosphere (4603.6 PPM) when compared to analysis under argon (519.9 PPM). Cannabinoids were shown to reduce this formation and explain why high levels of acetone are not reported in cannabis extracts, even though these can contain up to 40% terpenes.

PMID:36144771 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27186037

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36144771/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220923162025&v=2.17.8 September 23, 2022 10:00 am

Thai hemp association signs pact with 12 mainstream industries

Thai hemp association signs pact with 12 mainstream industries
Thai hemp association signs pact with 12 mainstream industries

The Thai Industrial Hemp Trade Association (TIHTA) said it has signed a cooperation agreement with 12 manufacturing industries to advance innovations and technology for the…

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#CBD #Hemp

Thai hemp association signs pact with 12 mainstream industries


September 22, 2022 7:03 am

China Hemp Import Requirements

Considering exporting hemp to China? Although it’s a bit like “coals to Newcastle,” here’s what you need to know. This report was prepared by USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service, Global Agricultural Information Network last year:

Date:  September 22, 2021
Report Number: CH2021-0113
Report Name: China’s Hemp and Hemp Products Import Policies

Report Highlights:
While hemp has been grown in China for centuries, liberalization of production, processing, and use regulations have only come in recent years. China’s hemp regulations are opaque, incomplete, ever- changing, and vary by province. These regulations continue to change as hemp and hemp products gain more consumer awareness and popularity. However, only a few provinces regulate hemp and streamlined national guidelines do not exist. This report lays out Post’s understanding of China’s hemp product import requirements as of September 2021. Interested exporters are strongly encouraged to work with their importers for the most accurate and current requirements.

Overview

While hemp has been grown in China for centuries, regulations on production, processing, and use have only been liberalized in recent years. China’s hemp regulations are opaque, incomplete, ever-changing, and vary by province. They continue to evolve as hemp and hemp products gain consumer awareness and popularity. Only two provinces currently allow hemp production and streamlined national guidelines do not yet exist. Trade rumors suggest that additional provinces are currently drafting regulations related to the processing of hemp and hemp products but none are available for comment.

While hemp has gained popularity in recent years in the United States after the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp fiber and hemp seeds for human consumption are currently the only categories of hemp products with a transparent pathway for import into China.

Hemp has also gained popularity in China as consumers awareness has increased. However, hemp fiber and seed products for human consumption are the only legal hemp products in China. Cannabidiol (CBD) or products containing CBD are not allowed for domestic use or import. CBD cosmetics were a growing market sector until CBD use in cosmetics was banned in May 2021. The future of CBD cosmetics in China remains uncertain.

Hemp Fiber

Hemp fiber is currently one of the only hemp products that can be imported into China without significant investment in additional approvals and certificates from national and local authorities. Hemp produced in China is primarily produced for fiber. In recent years, China’s hemp fiber imports have increased rapidly. According to China Customs data, China’s 2018-2020 hemp fiber (HS code 5302) imports were 23 metric tons (MT), 553 MT, and 837 MT, respectively. Among the 837 MT imported in 2020, 76 percent originated from France and 19 percent originated from the Netherlands.

Hemp Fruit (seeds)

Hemp fruit/seeds for human consumption (HS code12079999) has been in China’s list of ingredients allowed for both food and drug use since 1987.  However, according to the  Catalogue of Plant-derived Foods that Needs Risk Analysis When It is Imported for the First Time as Well as Countries or Regions that Have Had Such Export Trade to China, no country has market access for hemp fruit/seed.

A variety of hemp seed products including energy drinks, snacks, supplements, and beer are currently produced in China on a small scale but still have little awareness among consumers.

Hemp Planting Seeds

Import of hemp planting seeds (HS code: 1209990090) are highly regulated. Small quantities of hemp seeds for scientific research/breeding purpose may be approved with a strong justification and significant time investment. Interested parties should work closely with local research partners and regulators to gain necessary approvals. To date, Post is unaware of any commercial-scale hemp planting seed imports into China. Importation of hemp planting seeds requires an approved “Form for Import (Export) of Animal and Plant Seedlings and Seeds issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA)”- which must be applied for by the Chinese importer.

Hemp Biomass (Leaves and Flowers)

According to industry sources, China does not allow importation of hemp biomass for CBD extraction. Post has yet to be able to identify the HS code for hemp biomass.  While HS code 1211903930 applies to hemp plants primarily for pharmaceutical use in traditional Chinese medicine along with other herbs, no country currently has market access to import hemp plants for pharmaceutical use into China.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

According to the current  Catalogue of Psychotropic Drugs (2013 Edition), which was jointly published by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration, the Ministry of Public Security, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) includes its isomers and stereochemical variants. Therefore, although CBD does not have the hallucinogenic effects of THC, as an isomer of THC, China customs regulates it identically to THC and does not distinguish between the two. As a psychotropic drug, the import of CBD requires an import license for Narcotic and Psychotropic Drugs, which is issued by the National Medical Products Administration.  According to the Customs Import and Export Tariff Schedule of China, imports of CBD/THC both require an “Import License for Dual-use Items and Technologies of China”, which is issued by the Ministry of Commerce. Industry contacts indicate they are not aware of any successful imports of CBD into China.

CBD Cosmetics

Cosmetics were previously the only allowable CBD product in China.  However, on May 28, 2021, China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) released an updated “Catalogue of Banned Ingredients in Cosmetics”, which bans hemp related ingredients in cosmetics.  The banned hemp ingredients include cannabis sativa fruit, cannabis sativa seed oil, cannabis sativa leaf extract, and CBD. According to the announcement, any cosmetic product formulated with banned ingredients is not allowed to be manufactured or imported, effective immediately. While there were a significant number of both domestic and imported CBD cosmetic products for sale at the time the ban went into effect, the future for these products remains unclear. Full text of the announcement in Chinese is available on the NMPA website.

The regulatory and trade procedures and the supervision of hemp products in China is complex. Policies may vary in different provinces of China. Interested exporters should work closely with their Chinese importers and buyers for the accurate and current requirements.

Guidance from U.S. Regulators on Hemp Product Export

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

APHIS does not regulate the export of agricultural commodities from the United States but offers the service of phytosanitary certification to assist U.S. exporters in trading plants and plant products with foreign countries. Phytosanitary certification attests to the health status of plants and plant products (such as freedom from specific disease or pests).  Please learn more about APHIS services online at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/sa_export/export_services_program

For agricultural commodities eligible for phytosanitary certification, the exporter would need to provide an import permit or official communication from the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the importing country which includes the phytosanitary requirements for importing the material. If the importing country’s phytosanitary requirements for the product can be satisfied, then a phytosanitary certificate could be issued for the product. For questions related to the export program for plants and/or plant products, please contact the Export Certification Specialist in your State or the State of export at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/SA_Export/CT_Export_Certification_Specialists.

There are additional export controls for exporting this type of material from the United States, which are not under APHIS’ authority. For example, the exporter, must comply with applicable requirements such as the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) regulations. Consequently, APHIS cannot advise on additional export requirements- the exporter should contact their local state department of agriculture as well as the DEA for guidance.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

FDA-regulated food products that contain hemp ingredients are likely eligible for  FDA-issued export certificates, but the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) does not issue export certificates for hemp seeds and plants exported as agricultural commodities. Please see the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) website, which provides information on importing as well as exporting.

CFSAN does not issue export certificates for products that contain THC or cannabidiol (CBD). THC or cannabidiol (CBD) is an active ingredient in a drug product, so you can reach out to FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for more information about FDA certification of this product. For more information,  please visit FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD).

END

Click here to download a copy of this report from USDA. It’s not named properly so you might have to right-click then choose “Save link as…” like I did.

PubMed: Medical cannabis authorization patterns, safety, and associated effects in older adults

PubMed: Medical cannabis authorization patterns, safety, and associated effects in older adults

J Cannabis Res. 2022 Sep 22;4(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s42238-022-00158-5.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Use of medical cannabis is increasing among older adults. However, few investigations have examined cannabis use in this population.

METHODS: We assessed the authorization patterns, safety, and effects of medical cannabis in a sub-analysis of 201 older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) who completed a 3-month follow-up during this observational study of patients who were legally authorized a medical cannabis product (N = 67). Cannabis authorization patterns, adverse events (AEs), Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale-revised (ESAS-r), and Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF) data were collected.

RESULTS: The most common symptoms for which medical cannabis was authorized were pain (159, 85.0%) and insomnia (9, 4.8%). At baseline and at the 3-month follow-up, cannabidiol (CBD)-dominant products were authorized most frequently (99, 54%), followed by balanced products (76, 42%), and then delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-dominant products (8, 4.4%). The most frequent AEs were dizziness (18.2%), nausea (9.1%), dry mouth (9.1%), and tinnitus (9.1%). Significant reductions in ESAS-r scores were observed over time in the domains of drowsiness (p = .013) and tiredness (p = .031), but not pain (p = .106) or well-being (p = .274). Significant reductions in BPI-SF scores over time were observed for worst pain (p = .010), average pain (p = .012), and overall pain severity (p = 0.009), but not pain right now (p = .052) or least pain (p = .141).

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest medical cannabis was safe, well-tolerated, and associated with clinically meaningful reductions in pain in this sample of older adults. However, the potential bias introduced by the high subject attrition rate means that all findings should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by more rigorous studies.

PMID:36131299 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-022-00158-5

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36131299/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220922162039&v=2.17.8 September 21, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis-based magistral formulation is highly effective as an adjuvant treatment in drug-resistant focal epilepsy in adult patients: an open-label prospective cohort study

PubMed: Cannabis-based magistral formulation is highly effective as an adjuvant treatment in drug-resistant focal epilepsy in adult patients: an open-label prospective cohort study

Neurol Sci. 2022 Sep 21. doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06393-1. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The safety and efficacy of a formulation high in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to treat drug-resistant epilepsy have been examined previously in children, but not in adult population. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CBD-rich oil, as an add-on treatment to conventional antiepileptic drugs, was effective, safe, and well-tolerated in adults with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE).

METHODS: An open-label, prospective cohort, single-center in adult patients with DRFE, were receiving stable doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A cannabis based-magistral formulation (CBMF) (100 mg/ml CBD and THC <1.9 mg/ml) was administrated 0.1 ml sublingually every 12 hours, up-titrated weekly. The primary outcome was to establish a reduction in seizures frequency >50% at 12 weeks. Adverse-drug reactions monitoring was done. p-value <0.05 was statistically significant.

RESULTS: Between August 2020 and July 2022, 44 (38.6%) patients completed >3 months of follow-up. The median daily dose of CBD was 200 mg, that of THC was 4 mg, and that of CBD per kilogram of weight was 3.7 mg. The median number of seizures per month before CBD treatment was 11, and after CBD treatment was 2.5 (p<0.001). A reduction in seizures >50% at 12 week was achieved in 79.5% of the patients. The median percentage change in seizure frequency per month was 84.1% at 12 weeks. Five patients reported any adverse-drug reactions.

CONCLUSION: The CBMF is a highly effective and safety therapy to treat adult patients with DRFE. The reduction in seizures frequency is maintained over time.

PMID:36129615 | DOI:10.1007/s10072-022-06393-1

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36129615/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220921162053&v=2.17.8 September 21, 2022 10:00 am

Idaho bans CBD, other hemp products for animals, saying they’re ‘adulterated’

Idaho bans CBD, other hemp products for animals, saying they’re ‘adulterated’
Idaho bans CBD, other hemp products for animals, saying they’re ‘adulterated’

A ban on the sale of CBD and other hemp-derived products intended for pets and farm animals will go into effect Nov. 1 in Idaho…

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#CBD #Hemp

Idaho bans CBD, other hemp products for animals, saying they’re ‘adulterated’


September 21, 2022 4:53 am

Unanswered questions about cannabis taxation

Unanswered questions about cannabis taxation

Tax THC with a CBD offset? Maybe not so fast.

Studies [the link is to an article with an impressive number of authors] have shown that the THC:CBD ratio also influences the level of psychoactivity experienced by cannabis consumers. For infrequent cannabis consumers, when CBD is present at much higher levels than THC, intoxication is reduced compared to THC alone. Conversely, consumption of THC (8 mg) together with half as much CBD (4 mg) enhances the intoxicating effect, but only for infrequent consumers. In people who frequently consume cannabis, the intoxicating effects of THC don’t change much when combined with CBD. This indicates that the psychoactive effects of cannabis can change based on the THC:CBD ratio in a way that depends on your level of consumption experience.”

That’s from  https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/the-entourage-effect-does-it-really-exist (which I don’t vouch for or criticize).

Leave aside CBD offsets. Even for a THC tax, I have a lot of questions.

In trying to assign a tax burden, in dollars and cents, to the sale of a particular product, is “intoxication” the negative externality or phenomenon we want to target and burden?  “Psychoactivity”?  If so, can we measure the phenomenon targeted?  That is, can we assign numbers to such a phenomenon?   

Maybe not, but even if we can assign numbers to negative externalities, how might those numbers correspond to consumption of the product sold?  (This is your tax person looking for an answer in dollars and cents.  For tobacco, the externalities seem understandable enough that our weight-based $1.01 per pack federal tax on cigarettes seems to make some sense. Cannabis is trickier.)  Is there some level of cannabis intoxication or psychoactivity that’s mostly harmless?  (For alcohol use, there seems to be a relatively harmless level of intake for a given day – if it stops there.)  What if different consumers, as the article suggests, react differently to different products?

What if instead of “intoxication” or “psychoactivity” we want to burden “impairment”?  So far, is there any kind of quantifiable road-side alcohol test analog for cannabis driving impairment that is satisfactory enough to put to rest the use of blood and urine tests – whose main virtue is that they give precise numbers?  (Today’s Wall Street Journal goes into detection of impairment by law enforcement.  https://www.wsj.com/articles/welcome-to-the-worlds-oddest-pot-party-thrown-by-the-local-police-11663597103?page=1 shows police considering subjects walking in a line, focusing on a close object, counting to 20 (one subject who drank alcohol too skipped from 16 to 19), and using a driving simulator.)

Beyond current impairment (or whatever), how about other problems, like youth use?  Tax-targeting sales of products that appeal to youth might look at marketing or something unrelated to THC, but other than the 280E denial of deductions for advertising and marketing expenses, there’s no way to target youth use so far, or is there?  

Do certain products (like high-THC products) lead (more than others) to cannabis hyperemesis syndrome?

Do certain products lead (more than others) to substance use disorder in the long run?  Can we assign a dollar-and-cent tax burden to sale of a product on the basis of its potential to create negative externalities that may take years to develop?  Are high-THC products especially dangerous on this score?

Do certain products lead (more than others) to whatever caused former California Governor Jerry Brown to worry, “how many people can get stoned and still have a great state or a great nation?”? 

Do sales of some products deserve a tax break because the products inherently tend to be medical rather than recreational?

What about components beyond delta-9 THC, like delta-8 and THC-O?

+++

Enough questions.  Even if we tax alcoholic beverages on the basis of pure ethanol (like the federal tax on spirits), then each milliliter of ethanol bears an identical tax, but doesn’t create identical negative externalities – or even necessarily similar blood alcohol content. If people somewhere are forced, Orwell-style, to have chips inserted in their bodies, maybe some tax authority will try to collect tax on drivers (as a safety measure) or consumers (as a standard sumptuary tax) on the basis of blood alcohol content.  But even that science fiction scenario wouldn’t solve the problems with cannabis.  I don’t know what we might want to measure, and I don’t know how to measure anything we might want to measure.


#CBD #Hemp
Unanswered questions about cannabis taxation
September 20, 2022 5:31 pm

PubMed: Animal evidence considered in determination of cannabis smoke and Δ<sup>9</sup> -tetrahydrocannabinol as causing reproductive toxicity (developmental endpoint): Part III. Proposed neurodevelopmental mechanisms of action

PubMed: Animal evidence considered in determination of cannabis smoke and Δ<sup>9</sup> -tetrahydrocannabinol as causing reproductive toxicity (developmental endpoint): Part III. Proposed neurodevelopmental mechanisms of action

Birth Defects Res. 2022 Sep 20. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2088. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes the most common potential pathways of neurodevelopmental toxicity due to perinatal exposure to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) that lead to behavioral and other adverse outcomes (AOs). This is Part III in a set of reviews highlighting the animal-derived data considered by California’s Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant Identification Committee (DARTIC) in 2019. The Hazard Identification Document (HID) provided to the DARTIC included a summary of human, whole animal, and mechanistic data on the neurodevelopmental toxicity of cannabis smoke and Δ9 -THC. The literature search for mechanistic data has been updated through 2020. We focus on mechanistic pathways relating to behavioral and other neurodevelopmental outcomes of perinatal exposure to Δ9 -THC. The endocannabinoid system (EC system) plays a crucial role in many processes involved in neurodevelopment and exposure to Δ9 -THC can alter these processes. Whole animal studies report changes in cognitive ability, behavior, and motor function after prenatal exposure to Δ9 -THC. Findings from mechanistic studies add to this evidence and further provide information regarding the pathways leading to these outcomes. Neuromechanistic studies can bridge the gaps between molecular initiating events and apical neurodevelopmental endpoints caused by a chemical. They offer insight into potential alterations in the same pathways by other chemicals that can also result in AOs. Studies of cannabinoid receptor agonist-induced molecular alterations and provide deep biological plausibility at the mechanistic level for the cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairments observed in animal studies after perinatal exposure to Δ9 -THC.

PMID:36125082 | DOI:10.1002/bdr2.2088

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36125082/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220920162059&v=2.17.8 September 20, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol Differentially Alters Cannabidiol Efficacy in Recovery of Phonology and Syntax Following Damage to a Songbird Cortical-Like Brain Region

PubMed: Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol Differentially Alters Cannabidiol Efficacy in Recovery of Phonology and Syntax Following Damage to a Songbird Cortical-Like Brain Region

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Sep 19. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0073. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are few vocal learning animals that are suitable for laboratory study, and so songbirds have unique utility for evaluating drug effects on behavior learned during a critical period of development. We previously found that purified botanically-derived cannabidiol (CBD, ≥98%) mitigates effects of partial ablation of zebra finch HVC, a pre-vocal motor cortical region. Here we expand prior work to determine ability of the euphorigenic cannabis constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to modulate CBD efficacy. Evidence suggests relative abundance of phytocannabinoids within cannabis extracts is an important determinant of activity, with CBD:THC of particular significance. As CBD-enriched extracts have become increasingly available both by prescription and over the counter, differential efficacy associated with distinct phytocannabinoid combinations and relative CBD:THC amounts is of increasing concern. Methods and Results: To evaluate THC modulation of CBD efficacy in mitigating the effects of partial ablation of zebra finch HVC, we have tested 3 mg/kg of purified botanically derived CBD (≥98%) containing 0.02, 0.08, 1, 3 and 5% THC. Results demonstrate differential efficacy on phonology and syntax, consistent with complex, hormetic dose-responses. On phonology, CBD with the lowest THC content (3% CBD + 0.02% THC) improved recovery while that with the highest THC content (3% CBD+5% THC) slowed it. In terms of syntax, all THC concentrations improved recovery time with the higher 3 mg/kg+3% THC being distinctly effective in returning behavior to pre-injury levels, and the highest 3 mg/kg CBD+5% THC for reducing the acute magnitude of syntax disruption. Differential phonology and syntax effects likely involve distinct neural circuits that control vocal learning and production. Understanding these systems-level effects will inform mechanisms underlying both phytocannabinoid action, and learning-dependent vocal recovery. Conclusions: Overall, we have found that efficacy of purified botanically derived CBD (≥98%) to influence vocal recovery varies with THC content in complex ways. This adds to evidence of differential efficacy with phytocannabinoid combinations and ratios thereof and underscores the importance of careful control over cannabis preparations used therapeutically.

PMID:36125410 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0073

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36125410/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220920162059&v=2.17.8 September 20, 2022 10:00 am

Pennsylvania company says it will invest $10.9 million in North Carolina fiber factory

Pennsylvania company says it will invest $10.9 million in North Carolina fiber factory
Pennsylvania company says it will invest $10.9 million in North Carolina fiber factory

A Pennsylvania company said it plans to invest $10.9 million in a new hemp fiber processing facility in North Carolina. BIOPHIL Natural Fibers, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania,…

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#CBD #Hemp

Pennsylvania company says it will invest $10.9 million in North Carolina fiber factory


September 19, 2022 5:06 pm

PubMed: Therapeutic properties of multi-cannabinoid treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease

PubMed: Therapeutic properties of multi-cannabinoid treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease

Front Neurosci. 2022 Sep 2;16:962922. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2022.962922. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by declining cognition and behavioral impairment, and hallmarked by extracellular amyloid-β plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. There is currently no cure for AD and approved treatments do not halt or slow disease progression, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Importantly, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is affected in AD. Phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), interact with the ECS, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, can ameliorate amyloid-β and NFT-related pathologies, and promote neurogenesis. Thus, in recent years, purified CBD and THC have been evaluated for their therapeutic potential. CBD reversed and prevented the development of cognitive deficits in AD rodent models, and low-dose THC improved cognition in aging mice. Importantly, CBD, THC, and other phytochemicals present in Cannabis sativa interact with each other in a synergistic fashion (the “entourage effect”) and have greater therapeutic potential when administered together, rather than individually. Thus, treatment of AD using a multi-cannabinoid strategy (such as whole plant cannabis extracts or particular CBD:THC combinations) may be more efficacious compared to cannabinoid isolate treatment strategies. Here, we review the current evidence for the validity of using multi-cannabinoid formulations for AD therapy. We discuss that such treatment strategies appear valid for AD therapy but further investigations, particularly clinical studies, are required to determine optimal dose and ratio of cannabinoids for superior effectiveness and limiting potential side effects. Furthermore, it is pertinent that future in vivo and clinical investigations consider sex effects.

PMID:36117622 | PMC:PMC9479694 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2022.962922

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36117622/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220919162022&v=2.17.8 September 19, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interactions in Male and Female Rats with Persistent Inflammatory Pain

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interactions in Male and Female Rats with Persistent Inflammatory Pain

J Pain. 2022 Sep 16:S1526-5900(22)00392-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2022.09.002. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), two of the primary constituents of cannabis, are used by some individuals to self-treat chronic pain. It is unclear whether the pain-relieving effects of CBD alone and in combination with THC are consistent across genders and among types of pain. The present study compared the effects of CBD and THC given alone and in combination in male and female rats with Complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. After induction of hindpaw inflammation, vehicle, CBD (0.05-2.5 mg/kg), THC (0.05-2.0 mg/kg), or a CBD:THC combination (3:1, 1:1, or 1:3 dose ratio) was administered i.p. twice daily for three days. Then on day four, mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, weight-bearing, and locomotor activity were assessed 0.5-4 h after administration of the same dose combination. Hindpaw edema and open field (anxiety-like) behaviors were measured thereafter. THC alone was anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic, and decreased paw thickness, locomotion, and open field behaviors. CBD alone was anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic. When combined with THC, CBD tended to decrease THC effects on pain-related behaviors and exacerbate THC-induced anxiety-like behaviors, particularly in females. These results suggest that at the doses tested, CBD-THC combinations may be less beneficial than THC alone for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. PERSPECTIVE: The present study compared CBD and THC effects alone and in combination in male and female rats with persistent inflammatory pain. This study could help clinicians who prescribe cannabis-based medicines for inflammatory pain conditions determine which cannabis constituents may be most beneficial.

PMID:36122809 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2022.09.002

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36122809/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220920162059&v=2.17.8 September 19, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Assessment of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in saliva and blood after oral administration of medical cannabis with respect to its effect on driving abilities

PubMed: Assessment of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in saliva and blood after oral administration of medical cannabis with respect to its effect on driving abilities

Physiol Res. 2022 Sep 19. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Medical cannabis has recently been legalized in many countries, and it is currently prescribed with increasing frequency, particularly for treatment of chronic pain resistant to conventional therapy. The psychoactive substance delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contained in cannabis may affect driving abilities. Therefore, the aims of this study (open-label, monocentric, nonrandomized) were to evaluate blood and saliva concentrations of THC after oral administration of medical cannabis and to assess the time needed for THC levels to decline below a value ensuring legal driving. The study involved 20 patients with documented chronic pain using long-term medical cannabis therapy. They were divided into two groups and treated with two different doses of cannabis in the form of gelatin capsules (62.5 mg or 125 mg). In all patients, the amount of THC was assessed in saliva and in blood at pre-defined time intervals before and after administration. THC levels in saliva were detected at zero in all subjects following administration of both doses at all-time intervals after administration. Assessment of THC levels in blood, however, showed positive findings in one subject 9 h after administration of the lower dose and in one patient who had been given a higher dose 7 h after administration. Our finding suggested that for an unaffected ability to drive, at least 9-10 h should elapse from the last cannabis use.

PMID:36121021

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36121021/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220919162022&v=2.17.8 September 19, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Boosting the Cannabidiol Production in Engineered <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> by Harnessing the Vacuolar Transporter BPT1

PubMed: Boosting the Cannabidiol Production in Engineered <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> by Harnessing the Vacuolar Transporter BPT1

J Agric Food Chem. 2022 Sep 19. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c05468. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), the main nonpsychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa, has diverse applications in the pharmacological, food, and cosmetic industries. The long plantation period and the complex chemical structure of cannabidiol pose a great challenge on CBD supply. Here, we achieved de novo biosynthesis of cannabidiol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The CBD production was further enhanced by 2.53-fold through pushing the supply of precursors and fusion protein construction. Bile pigment transporter 1 (BPT1) was the most effective transporter for transferring cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) from the cytoplasm to the vacuole, which removed the physical barrier separating CBGA and its catalytic enzyme. The lowest binding energy of the CBGA-BPT1 complex confirmed a strong interaction between BPT1 and CBGA. A CBD yield of 6.92 mg/L was achieved, which was 100-fold higher than the yield generated by the starting strain. This study provides insights into high-level CBD-producing strain construction and lays the foundation for CBD supply.

PMID:36122349 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.2c05468

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36122349/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220920162059&v=2.17.8 September 19, 2022 10:00 am

European researchers probing hemp cellulose for use in high-tech gels

European researchers probing hemp cellulose for use in high-tech gels
European researchers probing hemp cellulose for use in high-tech gels

German and French researchers are studying new ways to extract cellulose from waste hemp fibers to make aerogels, high-tech materials that have a wide range…

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#CBD #Hemp

European researchers probing hemp cellulose for use in high-tech gels


September 18, 2022 2:32 am

Revenue policy to share cannabis wealth and allow home grows

Revenue policy to share cannabis wealth and allow home grows

An increasing per-plant or per-square foot fee — as the only marijuana revenue government gets — is still possible in newly legalizing states.

The lack of legal interstate commerce in cannabis in the United States offers opportunities for states to experiment.  Some say courts will use the Dormant Commerce Clause to open up interstate commerce without Congressional action.  That would bring an end to many state tax experiments.  https://newtax.files.wordpress.com/2022/05/federal-shake-up-2022-april-4-tax-notes-oglesby.pdf

With imports and exports illegal,  a closed loop jurisdiction is in place.  In a closed loop jurisdiction, taxes can be imposed anywhere in the supply chain, from the farm or “grow” to the retail cashier – it doesn’t matter where.

For instance, this method of sharing cannabis wealth and allowing home marijuana grows will work only in a closed loop jurisdiction: 

Everyone 21+ can have a grow license.

There are no taxes, and there is only one fee.

Per plant fee:
$1x for the 1st plant
$2x for the 2nd
$4x for the 3rd
$8x for the 4th
$16x for the 5th
& so on.

x=1? 5? 10? . . .

Doubling is easy to understand, but rather than doubling for each plant, the ratio could be smaller:  1.5 instead of 2?  1.2 instead?

And rather than number of plants, the fee could work off grow area, with exponentially increasing rates as grow area expanded.

And we’d need enforced anti-aggregation rules, which the Tax Code has developed well, to prevent people from disguising true ownership.

This kind of fee is realistic only in states that have not legalized commerce yet.  Or in nations that won’t allow imports.  (Who knows?  With narcotics treaties still in place, maybe the United States won’t allow imports after legalization.)

But if you favor wealth sharing and home growing, interstate commerce would kill this kind of revenue plan, as imported products wouldn’t be grown in the state at all.  Courts looking at interstate commerce in commerce should understand that it would end all kinds of state experiments, experiments that the federal government should be encouraging, and that federal prohibition indirectly encourages thanks to the existence of closed loop jurisdictions.


#CBD #Hemp
Revenue policy to share cannabis wealth and allow home grows
September 16, 2022 12:11 pm

PubMed: Animal evidence considered in determination of cannabis smoke and Δ<sup>9</sup> -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ<sup>9</sup> -THC) as causing reproductive toxicity (developmental endpoint); part II. Neurodevelopmental effects

PubMed: Animal evidence considered in determination of cannabis smoke and Δ<sup>9</sup> -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ<sup>9</sup> -THC) as causing reproductive toxicity (developmental endpoint); part II. Neurodevelopmental effects

Birth Defects Res. 2022 Sep 16. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2084. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on neurodevelopmental effects observed in animal studies of cannabis smoke and Δ9 -THC. Effects in offspring after preconceptional, prenatal, or perinatal exposure to cannabis smoke or Δ9 -THC were considered. Locomotor and exploratory behavior effects were noted in rats. Cognitive effects observed included impairment of memory and learning, attention deficits, time taken to complete tasks (rats) and alterations in response to visual stimuli (rats/monkeys). Emotionality was observed in rodents as an increase in separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, reduced social interaction and play behavior, and increased generalized anxiety. Increased rate of acquisition of morphine self-administration and/or enhanced sensitivity towards the rewarding effects of morphine or heroin were observed in adult rats prenatally exposed to Δ9 -THC. Expression of cannabinoid receptors was examined in rodent studies along with behavioral parameters. Altered mRNA levels of genes relevant to synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (the brain region associated with compulsivity, addiction vulnerability, and reward sensitivity) were noted. Findings in zebrafish supported effects in mammalian models. Neurochemical effects on specific brain regions and neurotransmitter systems seen in these animal studies appear to impact cognitive function, motor activity, and drug sensitivity. Mechanistic studies provided evidence for the biological plausibility of effects observed. Observations from animal studies of changes in motor behavior, cognitive performance, emotionality and susceptibility to drug sensitivity later in life were among the findings from animal and human studies considered by California’s Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant Identification Committee, in concluding that cannabis smoke and Δ9 -THC are developmental toxicants.

PMID:36111653 | DOI:10.1002/bdr2.2084

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36111653/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220917162026&v=2.17.8 September 16, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) Chemical Composition and the Application of Hempseeds in Food Formulations

PubMed: Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) Chemical Composition and the Application of Hempseeds in Food Formulations

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2022 Sep 16. doi: 10.1007/s11130-022-01013-x. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Owing to its nutritional and medicinal value, hemp has been cultivated to provide since ancient times. This review aims to map the scientific literature concerning the main functional components and the chemical composition of hemp plant. It is generally acknowledged that each organ of the hemp plant embodies a valuable source, and among them the most pivotal part is the edible fruits hempseeds. Hempseeds are rich in easily digestible proteins, fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and insoluble fiber, which are of high nutritional value. Furthermore, the beneficial effects have increased researchers’ interests in hempseeds-containing foods. Developed as an indispensable ingredient, hempseed is also a significant supplement in various products, such as bakery food, drinks, snacks and culinary products. Overall, this review intends to promote the further in-depth investigation of approved hemp plants and expand the range of hempseeds adoption in the functional foods field.

PMID:36112300 | DOI:10.1007/s11130-022-01013-x

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36112300/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220917162026&v=2.17.8 September 16, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Heating of consumer cannabis oils can lead to free radical initiated degradation, causing CBD and THC depletion

PubMed: Heating of consumer cannabis oils can lead to free radical initiated degradation, causing CBD and THC depletion

Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Sep 13:S0891-5849(22)00587-1. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2022.09.005. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Commercial cannabis oil products are widely available in Canada even though there is a significant gap in scientific information regarding them. Oils, such as vegetable oils, are known to undergo oxidative changes through free radical mechanisms when they are heated or aged, but the cannabis oils used in this study did not have expiry dates or best-before usage dates. This led to the question of how these products would be affected with time. We hypothesized that cannabis oils would produce increased concentrations of free radicals in aging-simulated conditions, which would be related to a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD) or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. Cannabis oils and their respective vehicles (oils) were heated using two protocols: One (moderate aging method) used a 2-day heating protocol at 50 °C, and the other (enhanced aging method) used a 14-day heating protocol at 70 °C. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for free radical analysis using the spin trapping technique using 200 mM PBN and 0.02 mM CuCl2 (for peroxide breakdown to free radicals). For active ingredient analysis (CBD, THC), we used LC/MS. Cannabis oils that contained unsaturated oils as their vehicles, such as olive or sunflower oil, all showed varying degrees of free radical formation. In both aged and unaged oils containing CBD or THC, less free radical formation was detected compared to the vehicle controls. Cannabis oils using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) showed little or no free radical formation. The most significant decrease in CBD or THC was observed in the products using sunflower oil, to a lesser extent in MCT oil, and THC also decreased in olive oil. These findings are important for consumers and policymakers considering using such products in hot beverages or cooking and highlighting the importance of appropriate storage conditions.

PMID:36113706 | DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2022.09.005

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36113706/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220917162026&v=2.17.8 September 16, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Combined alcohol and cannabinoid exposure leads to synergistic toxicity by affecting cerebellar Purkinje cells

PubMed: Combined alcohol and cannabinoid exposure leads to synergistic toxicity by affecting cerebellar Purkinje cells

Nat Metab. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1038/s42255-022-00633-6. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Combined use of cannabis and alcohol results in greater psychoactive toxicity than either substance alone, but the underlying central mechanisms behind this worsened outcome remain unclear. Here we show that the synergistic effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ethanol on motor incoordination in mice is achieved by activating presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) and potentiating extrasynaptic glycine receptors (GlyR) within cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The combination of ethanol and THC significantly reduces miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency in a CB1R-dependent manner, while increasing the extrasynaptic GlyR-mediated chronic chloride current, both leading to decreased PC activity. Ethanol enhances THC actions by boosting the blood-brain-barrier permeability of THC and enriching THC in the cell membrane. Di-desoxy-THC, a designed compound that specifically disrupts THC-GlyR interaction without affecting the basic functions of CB1R and GlyR, is able to restore PC function and motor coordination in mice. Our findings provide potential therapeutic strategies for overcoming the synergistic toxicity caused by combining cannabis and alcohol use.

PMID:36109623 | DOI:10.1038/s42255-022-00633-6

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36109623/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220916162021&v=2.17.8 September 15, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis Dosing and Administration for Sleep: A Systematic Review

PubMed: Cannabis Dosing and Administration for Sleep: A Systematic Review

Sleep. 2022 Sep 15:zsac218. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsac218. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: As cannabis is increasingly used to treat sleep disorders, we performed a systematic review to examine the effects of cannabis on sleep and to guide cannabis prescribers in their recommendations to patients, specifically focusing on dosing.

METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science and identified 4,550 studies for screening. 568 studies were selected for full-text review and 31 were included for analysis. Study results were considered positive based on improvements in sleep architecture or subjective sleep quality. Bias in randomised controlled trials was assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0.

RESULTS: Sleep improvements were seen in 7 out of 19 randomised studies and in 7 out of 12 uncontrolled trials. There were no significant differences between the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Cannabis showed most promise at improving sleep in patients with pain-related disorders, as compared to those with neurologic, psychiatric, or sleep disorders, and showed no significant effects on healthy participants’ sleep. While subjective improvements in sleep quality were often observed, diagnostic testing showed no improvements in sleep architecture. Adverse events included headaches, sedation, and dizziness, and occurred more frequently at higher doses, though no serious adverse events were observed.

CONCLUSION: High-quality evidence to support cannabis use for sleep remains limited. Heterogeneity in cannabis types, doses, timing of administration, and sleep outcome measures limit the ability to make specific dosing recommendations.

PMID:36107800 | DOI:10.1093/sleep/zsac218

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36107800/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220916162021&v=2.17.8 September 15, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Neuroprotective effects of Cannabidiol on Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration and α-synuclein Accumulation in C. elegans Models of Parkinson's disease

PubMed: Neuroprotective effects of Cannabidiol on Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration and α-synuclein Accumulation in C. elegans Models of Parkinson's disease

Neurotoxicology. 2022 Sep 12:S0161-813X(22)00146-2. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2022.09.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in the elderly, causing motor impediments and cognitive dysfunctions. Dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration and α-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc) are the major contributor to this disease. At present, the disease has no effective treatment. Many recent studies focus on identifying novel therapeutics that provide benefits to stop disease advancement in PD patients. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid derived from the Cannabis Sativa plant and possesses anti-depressive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects. The present study aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CBD in transgenic C. elegans PD models. We observed that CBD at 0.025mM (24.66%), 0.05mM (52.41%) and 0.1mM (71.36%) diminished DA neuron degenerations induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), reduced (0.025, 27.1%), (0.05, 38.9%), (0.1, 51.3%) food-sensing behavioural disabilities in BZ555, reduced 40.6%, 56.3%, 70.2% the aggregative toxicity of α-Syn and expanded the nematodes’ lifespan up to 11.5%, 23.1%, 28.8%, dose-dependently. Moreover, CBD augmented the ubiquitin-like proteasomes 28.11%, 43.27, 61.33% and SOD-3 expressions by about 16.4%, 21.2%, 44.8% in transgenic models. Further, we observed the antioxidative role of CBD by reducing 33.2%, 41.4%, 56.7% reactive oxygen species in 6-OHDA intoxicated worms. Together, these findings supported CBD as an anti-parkinsonian drug and may exert its effects by raising lipid depositions to enhance proteasome activity and reduce oxidative stress via the antioxidative pathway.

PMID:36108815 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2022.09.001

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36108815/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220916162021&v=2.17.8 September 15, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabidiol Impairs Brain Mitochondrial Metabolism and Neuronal Integrity

PubMed: Cannabidiol Impairs Brain Mitochondrial Metabolism and Neuronal Integrity

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0011. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: The mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of CBD remain poorly understood. Given the increasing evidence for CBD’s effects on mitochondria, we sought to examine in more detail whether CBD impacts mitochondrial function and neuronal integrity. Methods: We utilized BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells or acutely isolated brain mitochondria from rodents using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer and a fluorescent spectrofluorophotometer assay. Mitochondrial ion channel activity and hippocampal long-term potentiation were measured using standard cellular electrophysiological methods. Spatial learning/memory function was evaluated using the Morris water maze task. Plasma concentrations of CBD were assessed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and cellular viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction neuronal injury assay. Results: At low micromolar concentrations, CBD reduced mitochondrial respiration, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition, and calcium uptake, blocked a novel mitochondrial chloride channel, and reduced the viability of hippocampal cells. These effects were paralleled by in vitro and in vivo learning/memory deficits. We further found that these effects were independent of cannabinoid receptor 1 and mitochondrial G-protein-coupled receptor 55. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence for concentration- and dose-dependent toxicological effects of CBD, findings that may bear potential relevance to clinical populations.

PMID:36108318 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0011

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36108318/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220916162021&v=2.17.8 September 15, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cerebrovascular Effects of Alcohol Combined with Tetrahydrocannabinol

PubMed: Cerebrovascular Effects of Alcohol Combined with Tetrahydrocannabinol

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0234. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Alcohol (ethanol) and cannabis are among the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. With increased efforts toward legalization of cannabis, there is an alarming trend toward the concomitant (including simultaneous) use of cannabis products with alcohol for recreational purpose. While each drug possesses a distinct effect on cerebral circulation, the consequences of their simultaneous use on cerebral artery diameter have never been studied. Thus, we set to address the effect of simultaneous application of alcohol and (-)-trans-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cerebral artery diameter. Materials and Methods: We used Sprague-Dawley rats because rat cerebral circulation closely mimics morphology, ultrastructure, and function of cerebral circulation of humans. We focused on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) because it supplies blood to the largest brain territory when compared to any other cerebral artery stemming from the circle of Willis. Experiments were performed on pressurized MCA ex vivo, and in cranial windows in vivo. Ethanol and THC were probed at physiologically relevant concentrations. Researchers were “blind” to experimental group identity during data analysis to avoid bias. Results: In males, ethanol mixed with THC resulted in greater constriction of ex vivo pressurized MCA when compared to the effects exerted by separate application of each drug. In females, THC, ethanol, or their mixture failed to elicit measurable effect. Vasoconstriction by ethanol/THC mixture was ablated by either endothelium removal or pharmacological block of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK type) and cannabinoid receptors. Block of prostaglandin production and of endothelin receptors also blunted constriction by ethanol/THC. In males, the in vivo constriction of MCA by ethanol/THC did not differ from ethanol alone. In females, the in vivo constriction of this artery by ethanol was significantly smaller than in males. However, artery constriction by ethanol/THC did not differ from the constriction in males. Conclusions: Our data point at the complex nature of the cerebrovascular effects elicited by simultaneous use of ethanol and THC. These effects include both local and systemic components.

PMID:36108317 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0234

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36108317/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220916162021&v=2.17.8 September 15, 2022 10:00 am

‘Simple’ Costa Rican hemp rules set THC limit at 1.0%, make licenses widely available

‘Simple’ Costa Rican hemp rules set THC limit at 1.0%, make licenses widely available
‘Simple’ Costa Rican hemp rules set THC limit at 1.0%, make licenses widely available

Hemp farming and production licenses will be inexpensive and widely available in Costa Rica, according to regulations that have been approved by the government. Cultivation…

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#CBD #Hemp

‘Simple’ Costa Rican hemp rules set THC limit at 1.0%, make licenses widely available


September 15, 2022 5:23 am

PubMed: The Reversal of Empathy-Induced Hypernociception in Male Mice by Intra-Amygdala Administration of Midazolam and Cannabidiol Depends on 5-HT<sub>3</sub> Receptors

PubMed: The Reversal of Empathy-Induced Hypernociception in Male Mice by Intra-Amygdala Administration of Midazolam and Cannabidiol Depends on 5-HT<sub>3</sub> Receptors

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0132. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Empathy is a fundamental prosocial behavior. It has been defined as perception, awareness, and understanding of others’ emotional states, including painful processes. Mice living in pairs with conspecific chronic suffering from constriction injury exhibit pain hypersensitivity mediated by the amygdaloid complex. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms in the amygdala responsible for this response remain to be determined. This study investigated if the anxiolytic benzodiazepine midazolam (MDZ) and cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with multiple molecular targets, would attenuate this behavioral change. We also investigated if serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic mechanisms in the amygdala are involved in this effect. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss mice were housed in pairs for 28 days. The pairs were divided into two groups on the 14th day: cagemate nerve constriction and cagemate sham. On the 24th day, cagemates underwent a stereotaxic surgery and, on the 28th day, were evaluated on the writhing test. Results: The results showed that living with chronic pain leads to hypernociception in the cagemate and increases the expression of 5-HT3 receptor (5-HT3R) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 within the amygdala. MDZ (3.0 and 30 nmol) and CBD (30 and 60 nmol) attenuated the hypernociceptive behavior. The 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron (0.3 nmol) prevented the antinociceptive effects of MDZ and CBD. Conclusion: These findings indicate that 5-HT3R and GABAergic mechanisms within the amygdala are involved in the pain hypersensitivity induced by the empathy for pain model. They also suggest that MDZ and CBD could be a new potential therapy to alleviate emotional pain disorders.

PMID:36103283 | DOI:10.1089/can.2022.0132

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36103283/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220915162054&v=2.17.8 September 14, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Updates in the use of cannabis for insomnia

PubMed: Updates in the use of cannabis for insomnia

Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000914. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent updates in the area of cannabis use for insomnia.

RECENT FINDINGS: Cannabis products have continued to become more potent, particularly in regard to delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Additionally, the use of cannabis has continued to become more accepted with less legal restrictions. The reported use of cannabis for relief of symptoms in sleep disorders appears to be increasing, however the specific effects of cannabinoids on sleep varies with cannabinoid type and concentration. Some evidence supports claims of efficacy of cannabinoids in sleep disorders such as insomnia, while other evidence is either lacking or in some cases contradictory. Regular cannabis use has been associated with withdrawal which can profoundly alter sleep. Also, clinicians should be aware of the potential effects of cannabis on the metabolism of other medications as well as the fact that cannabis use has been reported in a significant number of women in the periods before, during, and after pregnancy.

SUMMARY: Cannabis use has been becoming more and more prevalent in the setting of relaxed restrictions and easier consumer level access to cannabis and cannabis products. A relative paucity of high quality evidence regarding the effects of cannabis on sleep and the treatment of insomnia symptoms remains. The optimal type, concentration, ratio, and dosage form of cannabinoids in the treatment of insomnia symptoms needs further clarification. As the trend of acceptance and use of cannabis continues, more high quality evidence to help guide clinicians in their recommendations will hopefully become available.

PMID:36102608 | DOI:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000914

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36102608/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220914162032&v=2.17.8 September 14, 2022 10:00 am

Canadian deal brutally illustrates CBD sector’s loss in value

Canadian deal brutally illustrates CBD sector’s loss in value
Canadian deal brutally illustrates CBD sector’s loss in value

Canada’s RAMM Pharma Corp. said it has purchased European CBD maker HemPoland from The Green Organic Dutchman Holdings Ltd. (TGOD) for roughly $920,000 (C$1.2 million)…

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Canadian deal brutally illustrates CBD sector’s loss in value


September 14, 2022 4:38 am

PubMed: Impact of cannabis-infused edibles on public safety and regulation

PubMed: Impact of cannabis-infused edibles on public safety and regulation

J Forensic Sci. 2022 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.15135. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Popularity of cannabis-infused products has bloomed since legalization for recreational use of marijuana started. Consumption of cannabis edibles has steadily increased, as restrictions on recreational cannabis smoking have become tighter. This phenomenon enhanced the possibility of these products crossing the state line. The most psychoactive component of cannabis, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is infused in “edibles” and linked to physiological and psychological effects. Consumers unfamiliar with these edibles may mistake them for non-THC containing products, causing unintended use or overconsumption. In addition, these cannabis-infused edibles are posing significant health risks. The FDA has recognized the potential dangers and recommended that cannabis remain as a Schedule I substance and illegal at the federal level. However, states maintain control of determining the legality of cannabis related products, and creating guidelines distinguishing cannabis edibles from the non-cannabis containing products. Recently, the State of Maine offers a blueprint for edible regulation that should be implemented in all states that are considering or have legalized marijuana.

PMID:36097671 | DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.15135

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36097671/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220913162017&v=2.17.8 September 13, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Neuroprotective potential of Cannabis sativa-based oils in Caenorhabditis elegans

PubMed: Neuroprotective potential of Cannabis sativa-based oils in Caenorhabditis elegans

Sci Rep. 2022 Sep 13;12(1):15376. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-19598-3.

ABSTRACT

Substances from the Cannabis sativa species, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), have attracted medical attention in recent years. The actions of these two main cannabinoids modulate the cholinergic nervous system (CholNS) involving development, synaptic plasticity, and response to endogenous and environmental damage, as a characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. The dynamics of these diseases are mediated by specific neurotransmitters, such as the GABAergic nervous system (GNS) and the CholNS. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important experimental model, which has different neurotransmitter systems that coordinate its behavior and has a transgene strain that encodes the human β-amyloid 1-42 peptide in body wall muscle, one of the main proteins involved in Alzheimer´s disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective potential of terpenoids found in C. sativa in the GNS and CholNS of C. elegans. The effect of two C. sativa oils with variations in CBD and THC concentrations on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, lipid peroxidation, and behavior of C. elegans was evaluated. C. sativa oils were efficient in increasing pharyngeal pumping rate and reducing defecation cycle, AChE activity, and ROS levels in N2 strains. In the muscle:Abeta1-42 strain, mainly when using CBD oil, worm movement, body bends, and pharyngeal pumping were increased, with a reduced AChE activity. Consequently, greater investments in scientific research are needed, in addition to breaking the taboo on the use of the C. sativa plant as an alternative for medicinal use, especially in neurodegenerative diseases, which have already shown positive initial results.

PMID:36100636 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-19598-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36100636/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220914162032&v=2.17.8 September 13, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Cannabis and the heart: unchartered territory

PubMed: Cannabis and the heart: unchartered territory

Future Cardiol. 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.2217/fca-2022-0018. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. It is a psychoactive drug with tetrahydrocannabinol being the main active ingredient. With increasing decriminalization and legalization of marijuana use in the USA, it is essential to study its long-term effects on cardiovascular diseases, a leading cause of death in the USA. Cannabis can trigger acute myocardial infarction in otherwise healthy young individuals, affect atherogenesis, arrhythmia, develop Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and cannabis arteritis. The only definitive treatment for these pathologies is complete abstinence. In this review we focus on discussing the long-term effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on cardiovascular pathologies, its pathophysiology and a brief discussion on its clinical features and definitive management.

PMID:36098056 | DOI:10.2217/fca-2022-0018

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36098056/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220913162017&v=2.17.8 September 13, 2022 10:00 am

Pre-fab hempcrete construction materials offer alternative to traditional builds

Pre-fab hempcrete construction materials offer alternative to traditional builds
Pre-fab hempcrete construction materials offer alternative to traditional builds

Pre-fabricated hemp building solutions will get special attention at this year’s 10th edition of the International Hemp Building Symposium, set for Lacapelle Marival, France, Oct. 11-12, 2022….

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Pre-fab hempcrete construction materials offer alternative to traditional builds


September 13, 2022 8:24 am

PubMed: Modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor activity by cannabinoid by-products from <em>Cannabis sativa</em> and non-cannabis phytomolecules

PubMed: Modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor activity by cannabinoid by-products from <em>Cannabis sativa</em> and non-cannabis phytomolecules

Front Pharmacol. 2022 Aug 26;13:956030. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.956030. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa contains more than 120 cannabinoids and 400 terpene compounds (i.e., phytomolecules) present in varying amounts. Cannabis is increasingly available for legal medicinal and non-medicinal use globally, and with increased access comes the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the pharmacology of phytomolecules. The main transducer of the intoxicating effects of Cannabis is the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (∆9-THCa) is often the most abundant cannabinoid present in many cultivars of Cannabis. Decarboxylation converts ∆9-THCa to ∆9-THC, which is a CB1R partial agonist. Understanding the complex interplay of phytomolecules-often referred to as “the entourage effect”-has become a recent and major line of inquiry in cannabinoid research. Additionally, this interest is extending to other non-Cannabis phytomolecules, as the diversity of available Cannabis products grows. Here, we chose to focus on whether 10 phytomolecules (∆8-THC, ∆6a,10a-THC, 11-OH-∆9-THC, cannabinol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, olivetol, palmitoylethanolamide, piperine, and quercetin) alter CB1R-dependent signaling with or without a co-treatment of ∆9-THC. Phytomolecules were screened for their binding to CB1R, inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and βarrestin2 recruitment in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human CB1R. Select compounds were assessed further for cataleptic, hypothermic, and anti-nociceptive effects on male mice. Our data revealed partial agonist activity for the cannabinoids tested, as well as modulation of ∆9-THC-dependent binding and signaling properties of phytomolecules in vitro and in vivo. These data represent a first step in understanding the complex pharmacology of Cannabis– and non-Cannabis-derived phytomolecules at CB1R and determining whether these interactions may affect the physiological outcomes, adverse effects, and abuse liabilities associated with the use of these compounds.

PMID:36091813 | PMC:PMC9458935 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2022.956030

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36091813/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220912162146&v=2.17.8 September 12, 2022 10:00 am

PubMed: Review: Cannabinoids as Medicinals

PubMed: Review: Cannabinoids as Medicinals

Curr Addict Rep. 2022 Sep 7:1-17. doi: 10.1007/s40429-022-00438-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been many debates, discussions, and published writings about the therapeutic value of cannabis plant and the hundreds of cannabinoids it contains. Many states and countries have attempted, are attempting, or have already passed bills to allow legal use of cannabinoids, especially cannabidiol (CBD), as medicines to treat a wide range of clinical conditions without having been approved by a regulatory body. Therefore, by using PubMed and Google Scholar databases, we have reviewed published papers during the past 30 years on cannabinoids as medicines and comment on whether there is sufficient clinical evidence from well-designed clinical studies and trials to support the use of CBD or any other cannabinoids as medicines.

RECENT FINDINGS: Current research shows that CBD and other cannabinoids currently are not ready for formal indications as medicines to treat a wide range of clinical conditions as promoted except for several exceptions including limited use of CBD for treating two rare forms of epilepsy in young children and CBD in combination with THC for treating multiple-sclerosis-associated spasticity.

SUMMARY: Research indicates that CBD and several other cannabinoids have potential to treat multiple clinical conditions, but more preclinical, and clinical studies and clinical trials, which follow regulatory guidelines, are needed to formally recommend CBD and other cannabinoids as medicines.

PMID:36093358 | PMC:PMC9449267 | DOI:10.1007/s40429-022-00438-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36093358/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20220912162146&v=2.17.8 September 12, 2022 10:00 am

Patent: CONFIGURABLE APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR DECORTICATING, COMMINUTING, AND LIBERATING FIBERS AND HURD FROM HEMP STALKS AND RELATED MATERIALS USING SELECTIVE DIFFERENTIAL FRAGMENTATION

Patent:
CONFIGURABLE APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR DECORTICATING, COMMINUTING, AND LIBERATING FIBERS AND HURD FROM HEMP STALKS AND RELATED MATERIALS USING SELECTIVE DIFFERENTIAL FRAGMENTATION


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https://register.epo.org/application?number=EP22712690&lng=en&tab=main
September 10, 2022 8:26 pm

Dolphin Study Identifies Hitherto Unknown Endocannabinoid

Dolphin Study Identifies Hitherto Unknown Endocannabinoid

Newly discovered endogenous fatty acid compound promotes healthy metabolism and mental wellbeing by binding to cannabinoid receptors.

#CBD #Hemp https://www.projectcbd.org/dolphin-study-identifies-hitherto-unknown-endocannabinoid September 10, 2022 4:09 pm