CannaSearch Daily on CBD + Hemp

Delta-8: Legal + Illicit

DEA doesn’t have much room to mess with Delta-8 THC (D8). After all, Congress knew when it legalized THC in hemp that there was as much as 6 pounds of it per acre, when they expressly allowed it in the Agriculture Improvement Act (2018 Farm Bill).

Although I studied not chemistry but linguistics (marketing), I don’t consider it synthetic but rather a product of conversion, like CBDa > CBD. Besides, DEA rules are just for DEA Licensees, the rest of us are RICO felons to them.

DEA has been permanently enjoined from enforcing the CSA on hemp since 2004 by the Ninth Circuit. If we’re ever going to disabuse the government of its irrational, unconstitutional, and anti-science stigma against THC, here’s a good place to draw a line in the sand and not acquiese to every unconstitutional whim of every unelected bureaucrat.

While we should be united to push back against D8 prohibition, there’s money in it for associations and others who don’t have members selling it, sacrificing D8 to DEA in order to look good. It’s the same reason smokable hemp is at risk: it’s regulatory chum.

Are D8 products sometimes made in low quality? Maybe, but many other FDA approved drugs, foods, devices, and supplements are as well, and they aren’t banned nor punished. The industry can’t fix it if it’s illegal, that just drives it underground.

We need constructive engagement with the bad actors among the producers to raise quality, not give them license to cut even more corners because it is illegal anyway.

Plus Cannabis is Cannabis is Cannabis: hating on one aspect is a slipperly slope to hating on many more, and we’ve had 84 years of that already. Enough is enough. Don’t be a Hempocrite.

CBD is equally “illegal” to DEA if you’re not a Licensee of it. It too has a drug code, 7350. It too is a product of conversion, CBDa > CBD.

Entrepreneurs might just consider DEA’s statements then go ahead and market D8 products anyway. Sometimes the better part of compliance is doing the thing that built the industry in the first place: ignore the law, like AirBnB, Tesla, and Uber did when they started.

Same with CBD in Europe: what’s to stop a company from making it in a liberal jurisdiction then shipping EU-wide, ignoring Novel Food laws? See the Kannavape case in France.

These kind of pronouncements from the Feds are a good thing if it reduces the number of Cannabinoid Cowboys. That leaves more room for the lion-hearted.

Investors Get Early Win In Power Struggle For Mass. Pot Co.

Investors Get Early Win In Power Struggle For Mass. Pot Co. Two European investors who wrested control of a Massachusetts cannabis business after accusing its founders of “corporate anarchy” can keep in place a new board of directors and interim chief executive, a state court judge said. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376998?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 20, 2021 11:29 am

First food safety applications for CBD advance in UK

First food safety applications for CBD advance in UK
First food safety applications for CBD advance in UK

Three CBD brands may remain on the market in the United Kingdom after three food safety applications were approved under Novel Foods rules. The Food…

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#CBD #Hemp

First food safety applications for CBD advance in UK


April 20, 2021 10:33 am

Proposed CBD law in Illinois draws ‘major concerns’

Proposed CBD law in Illinois draws ‘major concerns’
Proposed CBD law in Illinois draws ‘major concerns’

Critics of a proposed bill on CBD in Illinois say the law would be a burden to the sector, which is already battling an oversupplied…

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#CBD #Hemp

Proposed CBD law in Illinois draws ‘major concerns’


April 20, 2021 6:08 am

USDA approves hemp plan by Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho

USDA approves hemp plan by Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho
USDA approves hemp plan by Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho

The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho says it is proceeding with final rules on hemp growing after the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) approved the…

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#CBD #Hemp

USDA approves hemp plan by Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho


April 20, 2021 5:03 am

Pot Co. Jushi To Snap Up Mass. Operator In $110M Deal

Pot Co. Jushi To Snap Up Mass. Operator In $110M Deal Multistate cannabis operator Jushi Holdings Inc. announced Monday that it will enter the Massachusetts marijuana market with the $110 million purchase of a company with two retailers and a manufacturing facility. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376557?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 19, 2021 8:37 pm

CBD Co. Strikes Back At Rival's Trademark Claims

CBD Co. Strikes Back At Rival's Trademark Claims A small CBD company targeted in a trademark infringement case over the name CBD MD has hit back with counterclaims accusing rival cbdMD Inc. of infringing trademarks and filing suit in an attempt to avoid an ongoing U.S. Patent and Trademark Office proceeding. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376607?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 19, 2021 8:28 pm

House Approves Bill Giving Pot Industry Access To Banks

House Approves Bill Giving Pot Industry Access To Banks The U.S. House of Representatives on Monday once again passed a bipartisan bill to expand the cannabis industry’s access to financial services, advancing for the second time a broadly supported piece of federal marijuana reform. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376569?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 19, 2021 7:15 pm

2 Firms Rep Cannabis Lender For $8M Funding Round

2 Firms Rep Cannabis Lender For $8M Funding Round Represented by Cooley LLP and NovusGC, Bespoke Financial revealed Monday it scored $8 million in its Series A financing, as the commercial cannabis lender, which bills itself as the first fintech to provide debt financing to the industry, drew support from Snoop Dogg’s Casa Verde Capital and Sweat Equity Ventures. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376728?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 19, 2021 5:49 pm

Court Tosses Investor Suit Against Cannabis Firm, For Now

Court Tosses Investor Suit Against Cannabis Firm, For Now A California federal judge has tossed a proposed investor class action against a Canadian cannabis grower launched after the company lost a third of its value amid allegations of self-dealing and sham distribution deals, though he granted the investors permission to amend the complaint. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376248?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 19, 2021 4:30 pm

Cannabis dabbing: An emerging trend

Cannabis dabbing: An emerging trend

Nursing. 2021 Apr 3. doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000743108.72528.d8. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis dabbing refers to the recreational inhalation of extremely concentrated tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic cannabinoid derived from the marijuana plant. The practice carries significant health and legal risks. This article discusses what nurses need to know about dabbing and how they can educate patients who may be engaging in risky behavior.

PMID:33871423 | DOI:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000743108.72528.d8

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33871423/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210420032619&v=2.14.3 April 19, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabis-Induced Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Cognitive Decline in Humans: Embracing Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis

Cannabis-Induced Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Cognitive Decline in Humans: Embracing Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis

Front Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 30;12:623403. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.623403. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Over years, the regular use of cannabis has substantially increased among young adults, as indicated by the rise in cannabis use disorder (CUD), with an estimated prevalence of 8. 3% in the United States. Research shows that exposure to cannabis is associated with hypodopaminergic anhedonia (depression), cognitive decline, poor memory, inattention, impaired learning performance, reduced dopamine brain response-associated emotionality, and increased addiction severity in young adults. The addiction medicine community is increasing concern because of the high content of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) currently found in oral and vaping cannabis products, the cognitive effects of cannabis may become more pronounced in young adults who use these cannabis products. Preliminary research suggests that it is possible to induce ‘dopamine homeostasis,’ that is, restore dopamine function with dopamine upregulation with the proposed compound and normalize behavior in chronic cannabis users with cannabis-induced hypodopaminergic anhedonia (depression) and cognitive decline. This psychological, neurobiological, anatomical, genetic, and epigenetic research also could provide evidence to use for the development of an appropriate policy regarding the decriminalization of cannabis for recreational use.

PMID:33868044 | PMC:PMC8044913 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.623403

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33868044/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210420032619&v=2.14.3 April 19, 2021 10:00 am

Investigation of in vitro odonto/osteogenic capacity of cannabidiol on human dental pulp cell

Investigation of in vitro odonto/osteogenic capacity of cannabidiol on human dental pulp cell

J Dent. 2021 Apr 16:103673. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103673. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vital pulp treatment (VPT) maintains tooth vitality with certain dental materials by protecting pulp from noxious stimulation and promoting repair through enhancing cell proliferation/differentiation, migration, and inducing odontogenesis. As a non-psychotropic cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD) process the properties of analgesic, anti-inflammation, and osteogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that CBD may induce the odonto/osteogenesis of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), a critical feature using as effective pulp capping agent for VPT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, the cytotoxicity of CBD on HDPCs was determined by MTT assay. Scratch assay was performed to analyze HDPCs migration. The biomineralization was examined by collagen synthesis and calcium nodule formation and related odonto/osteogenic and angiogenic genes. Cannabinoid receptor (CB) specificity was evaluated by Western blotting and Von Kossa staining using specific antagonists AM251 for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and AM 630 targeted at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). In addition, the underlying molecular mechanism of CBD-induced biomineralization were investigated by examining CB-dependent MAPK signaling pathways.

RESULTS: CBD demonstrated bi-phasic effects on HDPCs viability in tested concentrations. We found CBD significantly promoted cell migration, enhanced collagen synthesis and mineralized deposits in HDPCs when treated by 1 μM CBD supplemented in the differentiation media. RT-PCR revealed CBD-induced increased the expression of angiogenic and odontogenic genes, such as DSPP, DMP-1, OPN, ALP, Runx2, VEGFR1 and ICAM-1. These effects were via MAPK activation in a manner mainly mediated by CB2.

CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggested that CBD can induce odonto/osteogenesis from HDPCs and has the potential to develop new therapeutics in VPT in dentistry.

PMID:33872753 | DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103673

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33872753/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210420152614&v=2.14.3 April 19, 2021 10:00 am

Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Terpenes in Cannabis Coupled With Various Injection Techniques for GC-MS Analysis

Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Terpenes in Cannabis Coupled With Various Injection Techniques for GC-MS Analysis

Front Chem. 2021 Apr 1;9:619770. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2021.619770. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

The cannabis market is expanding exponentially in the United States. As state-wide legalization increases, so do demands for analytical testing methodologies. One of the main tests conducted on cannabis products is the analysis for terpenes. This research focused on implementation of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), utilizing surrogate matrix matching, and evaluation of traditional vs. more modern sample introduction techniques for analyzing terpenes via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Introduction techniques included Headspace-Syringe (HS-Syringe), HS-Solid Phase Microextraction Arrow (HS-SPME Arrow), Direct Immersion-SPME Arrow (DI-SPME Arrow), and Liquid Injection-Syringe (LI-Syringe). The LI-Syringe approach was deemed the most straightforward and robust method with terpene working ranges of 0.04-5.12 μg/mL; r 2 values of 0.988-0.996 (0.993 average); limit of quantitation values of 0.017-0.129 μg/mL (0.047 average); analytical precisions of 2.58-9.64% RSD (1.56 average); overall ASE-LI-Syringe-GC-MS method precisions of 1.73-14.6% RSD (4.97 average); and % recoveries of 84.6-98.9% (90.2 average) for the 23 terpenes of interest. Sample workflows and results are discussed, with an evaluation of the advantages/limitations of each approach and opportunities for future work.

PMID:33869138 | PMC:PMC8047638 | DOI:10.3389/fchem.2021.619770

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33869138/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210420032619&v=2.14.3 April 19, 2021 10:00 am

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev. 2021 Apr 19;5(4). doi: 10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-21-00047.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoids are an increasingly popular therapy among orthopaedic patients for musculoskeletal conditions. A paucity of evidence to support their use in orthopaedics exists, likely because of the incongruence of federal and state legalization and the stigma surrounding cannabis. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sentiments and knowledge base of the orthopaedic trauma community with regard to cannabinoid-containing compounds.

METHODS: A 21-question online survey was distributed to the members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association with a response window of 3 months.

RESULTS: We evaluated 251 responses. Most (88%) of the respondents did not believe that they were knowledgeable about the mechanism of action of cannabis/cannabidiol (CBD) but did feel that cannabis or CBD products play a role in managing postoperative pain (73%). Most respondents did not believe that they would be stigmatized if they suggested CBD (83%) or cannabis (67%) to patients. Despite this, fewer respondents have suggested CBD (38%) or cannabis (29%) to their patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Sentiment toward cannabinoids among orthopaedic traumatologists is remarkably favorable; however, in-depth understanding is admittedly poor and routine use is uncommon. More clinical research for cannabinoids is needed to help orthopaedic traumatologists provide guidance for patients seeking advice for this recently popular therapeutic.

PMID:33872227 | DOI:10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-21-00047

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33872227/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210420032619&v=2.14.3 April 19, 2021 10:00 am

Italian ‘eco-leather’ is new use for dust from hemp fiber

Italian ‘eco-leather’ is new use for dust from hemp fiber
Italian ‘eco-leather’ is new use for dust from hemp fiber

Italian developers have introduced Napee, an “eco-leather” textile containing hemp waste powder that does not use toxic solvents in the production process, is recyclable and…

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#CBD #Hemp

Italian ‘eco-leather’ is new use for dust from hemp fiber


April 19, 2021 6:01 am

Seizure and Interictal Electroencephalographic (EEG) Changes with Cannabinoid Concentrate Use

Seizure and Interictal Electroencephalographic (EEG) Changes with Cannabinoid Concentrate Use

Am J Case Rep. 2021 Apr 18;22:e931360. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.931360.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The electroencephalographic (EEG) findings associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use, particularly in concentrated form, are not well-described, despite the current widespread availability of these products. There is a lack of prior research describing the EEG findings in adolescent cannabis users, and the effects of THC on the seizure threshold have been variably reported. CASE REPORT A 17-year-old girl with no prior history of seizures or known seizure risk factors presented to an Emergency Department with acutely abnormal behavior in the setting of daily vaping of highly concentrated THC marijuana (“wax”). On admission, she had a witnessed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Urine toxicology was positive for THC, and an extensive evaluation for other etiologies of her encephalopathy was unrevealing. Extended EEG on admission showed mild diffuse background slowing with occasional bifronto-centrally predominant sharp and spike wave discharges. Seven days later, without interim antiseizure medications, a repeat extended EEG showed resolution of the previously seen interictal findings. CONCLUSIONS The clinical and EEG findings were temporally associated with the patient’s use of concentrated THC and may represent a constellation of symptoms of a THC wax toxidrome. In this case, THC was associated with lowering the seizure threshold and triggering a provoked seizure in an adolescent with no prior evidence of seizure tendency. This case also suggests the possibility of THC concentrate itself generating epileptiform discharges, as has previously been described with synthetic cannabinoid use.

PMID:33866321 | DOI:10.12659/AJCR.931360

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33866321/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210419032601&v=2.14.3 April 18, 2021 10:00 am

Investigating sex differences in acute intoxication and verbal memory errors after ad libitum cannabis concentrate use

Investigating sex differences in acute intoxication and verbal memory errors after ad libitum cannabis concentrate use

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Apr 15;223:108718. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108718. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An innovative naturalistic at-home administration procedure was used to investigate sex differences in subjective drug effects and verbal memory errors after ad libitum use of high potency state legal market Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrate.

METHODS: Regular concentrate users were randomly assigned to ad libitum administration of one of two cannabis concentrate products (70 % or 90 % THC) that they purchased from a dispensary. 65 participants (N = 34 men, N = 31 women) were assessed in a mobile pharmacology lab before, immediately after, and 1 -h after ad libitum concentrate use. Plasma cannabinoids (THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD), subjective drug effects, and verbal memory errors were assessed at all three time points.

RESULTS: Although men and women exhibited similar plasma 11-OH-THC levels across time (p = .10), sex differences were found in plasma THC and CBD after legal market concentrate use, with men displaying significantly higher levels of plasma THC and CBD immediately after cannabis concentrate use (plasma THC [ng/mL]: Mmen = 489.88, Mwomen = 135.08, p < .001; plasma CBD [ng/mL]: Mmen = 1.14, Mwomen = 0.53, p = .04). Despite this, sex differences in subjective effects and verbal memory errors did not emerge, although women reported a steeper decrease in drug liking after use (p = .04).

CONCLUSION: These data provide the first look at sex differences after acute naturalistic cannabis concentrate use, and suggest much higher THC exposure in men versus women, but similar acute drug and impairment effects across the sexes. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms (e.g. tolerance, cannabinoid metabolism, smoking topography) behind these findings.

PMID:33866072 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108718

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33866072/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210419032601&v=2.14.3 April 18, 2021 10:00 am

Okla. Cannabis Co. Sues State Over Pot Tracking System

Okla. Cannabis Co. Sues State Over Pot Tracking System An Oklahoma medical marijuana business has filed a proposed class action against the state’s medical marijuana regulators, alleging they created a monopoly through their contract with a seed-to-sale tracking system and improperly required businesses to pay for its services. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376190?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 10:51 pm

Cannabis Bill Roundup: SAFE Banking Will Get A Floor Vote

Cannabis Bill Roundup: SAFE Banking Will Get A Floor Vote The week began with New Mexico becoming the 18th state to legalize recreational cannabis and ended with Democratic leaders scheduling a floor vote for a bipartisan federal bill to broaden cannabis companies’ access to banks. Here are the major developments in marijuana policy reform from the past week. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376080?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 8:19 pm

NLRB OKs Casino's Firing Of Worker Who Piped Up About Pot

NLRB OKs Casino's Firing Of Worker Who Piped Up About Pot The National Labor Relations Board has cleared Las Vegas’ Circus Circus Casinos of allegations that it illegally fired a worker for voicing concerns about exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376041?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 7:10 pm

Hemp Machine Co. Must Take Its CBP Suit To Trade Court

Hemp Machine Co. Must Take Its CBP Suit To Trade Court A federal judge in Washington state burned a hemp company’s suit over U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures Friday, backing the agency’s argument that the U.S. Court of International Trade could adjudicate the company’s claims. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376146?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 7:01 pm

Okla. Pot Officials Want Out-Of-State Licensing Row Tossed

Okla. Pot Officials Want Out-Of-State Licensing Row Tossed Oklahoma’s medical marijuana regulators have pushed back on a Washington state-based pot company’s renewed attempt to challenge the Sooner State’s licensing laws, saying the claims should be tossed again because marijuana is federally illegal. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1376160?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 6:18 pm

CBD Maker Says Ex-Partners Can't Land Quick Win In IP Row

CBD Maker Says Ex-Partners Can't Land Quick Win In IP Row A Florida CBD maker urged a federal judge Friday not to grant its former business partners’ bids for quick wins in a trade secrets suit over misappropriating a secret CBD formula, doubling down on its claims that the companies conspired to steal its topical cream formula. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375988?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 16, 2021 4:28 pm

The Cannabis + Cannabinoid Curator // So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish

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#CBD #Hemp https://mailchi.mp/texerenewsletters.com/the-cell-gene-curator-issue-10120074 April 16, 2021 2:00 pm

Development of central precocious puberty following cannabinoid use for paediatric epilepsy: causal or coincidence?

Development of central precocious puberty following cannabinoid use for paediatric epilepsy: causal or coincidence?

BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Apr 15;14(4):e239678. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-239678.

ABSTRACT

Research suggests a role for cannabidiol oil in managing certain forms of paediatric onset epilepsy. However, studies on the impact of cannabis on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have conflicting results. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) acutely inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, reducing testosterone levels by 65% in rhesus monkeys. Additionally, there have been reports of pubertal arrest and delayed puberty in male cannabis users. In contrast, other studies have reported higher testosterone levels following long-term cannabis use.A 2-year-old boy presented with testicular enlargement, increased penile length and growth of coarse pubic hair developing over 6 months. His mother procured cannabidiol oil online, which he started taking 7 months earlier for severe epilepsy refractory to medical management. Subsequent investigations confirmed central precocious puberty. While it is unclear whether the precocious puberty is a direct consequence of HPG axis activation by Δ9-THC, this case demonstrates a temporal association between cannabis use and development of precocious puberty.

PMID:33858879 | DOI:10.1136/bcr-2020-239678

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33858879/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210416152620&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) offers effective alternative over statins in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia associated nephropathy

Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) offers effective alternative over statins in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia associated nephropathy

Clin Biochem. 2021 Apr 13:S0009-9120(21)00111-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2021.04.008. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A direct link between hypercholesterolemia (HC) and renal pathologies has been established. Statins, the drugs of choice for HC management, have been associated with various side effects and toxicities, including nephropathy and other renal insults. Thus, natural dietary products based-alternative strategies for HC and associated pathologies are being considered.

OBJECTIVES: Based on the unique nutritional composition and numerous health benefits of Hempseeds (Cannabis sativa), currently the potential anti-inflammatory and redox modulatory effects of hempseeds lipid extract (HEMP) against HC associated renal damage were evaluated and compared with statins (Simvastatin) in HFD induced experimental model of HC in rats. Design & Methods The hempseed lipid fractions (HEMP) were prepared and their ameliorating effects on HFD induced lipid profiles, renal function markers (RFT), histopathological/morphological changes, renal oxidative stress, and inflammation markers were studied and compared with statins (HFD+STATINS). Further, HEMP-mediated modulation of lipid metabolism mediators (APO B/E) was studied.

RESULTS: Not only, HEMP administration improved the lipid profiles and morphological signs of HC, but it also was safe compared to Simvastatin in terms of hepatic and renal function markers. Further, changes in renal histoarchitecture, biochemical markers of oxidative stress, and expression profiles of lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways (Cox-1/2, PGDS, PGES) revealed that HEMP positively modulating the redox homeostasis activated the resolution pathways against HC associated renal insults.

CONCLUSION: The outcomes of the current study indicated HEMP’s ameliorative and therapeutic potential against hypercholesterolemia-associated nephropathies and other systemic effects.

PMID:33861983 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2021.04.008

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33861983/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210417152523&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Effects of fluopyram and azadirachtin integration with sunn hemp on nematode communities in zucchini, tomato and sweet potato in Hawaii

Effects of fluopyram and azadirachtin integration with sunn hemp on nematode communities in zucchini, tomato and sweet potato in Hawaii

J Nematol. 2021 Mar 6;53:e2021-30. doi: 10.21307/jofnem-2021-030. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Fluopyram (Velum® One) is a synthetic nematicide and azadirachtin (Molt-X®) is a biological nematicide. Both have shown promise against plant-parasitic nematodes on several agriculturally important crops. There is a lack of information on integration of pre-plant sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) cover crop with these post-plant nematicides, aiming to improve plant-parasitic nematodes management and mitigate any detrimental effects on free-living nematodes. Three field trials were conducted to investigate the effects of fluopyram alone or in combination with pre-plant sunn hemp cover crop, and azadirachtin combined with pre-plant sunn hemp on Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne spp., and free-living nematodes. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were grown in Trials I and II, and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) only was grown in Trial III. In all three trials, early applications of fluopyram at crop planting were effective in suppressing the abundance of Meloidogyne spp. (M. incognita and M. javanica) but it was not effective in reducing R. reniformis in the soil. Combining sunn hemp with fluopyram was suppressive to R. reniformis on short-term zucchini crop, but not on longer term tomato and sweet potato crops. In addition, application of fluopyram at transplanting was the key to successful suppression of Meloidogyne spp. as later fluopyram chemigation (at 2 weeks after planting in Trial II or 1 month after planting in Trial III) had no effect against Meloidogyne spp. On the other hand, planting of sunn hemp followed by monthly post-plant azadirachtin application consistently suppressed R. reniformis, but this treatment did not suppress Meloidogyne spp. Integrating sunn hemp with fluopyram increased zucchini yield by >2.3 folds and that with azadirachtin increased the zucchini yield by >1.7 folds. Although no yield improvement was observed on tomato in Trial II, integrating sunn hemp with azadirachtin and fluopyram increased tomato yield by 0.23 and 1.12 folds, respectively, in Trial I. Marketable yield of sweet potato was increased by 4.5-6.4 folds in all the fluopyram treatments but was only increased 61.5% by sunn hemp plus azadirachtin treatment. While fluopyram alone often reduced the abundance of free-living nematodes, integrating with sunn hemp mitigated the negative impacts of fluopyram on soil health.

PMID:33860266 | PMC:PMC8040139 | DOI:10.21307/jofnem-2021-030

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33860266/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210416152528&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Pharmacological Properties of the Plant-Derived Natural products Cannabinoids and Implications for Cardiovascular Health

Pharmacological Properties of the Plant-Derived Natural products Cannabinoids and Implications for Cardiovascular Health

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1308:249-255. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-64872-5_17.

ABSTRACT

The global march towards legalization of marijuana consumption is pursued in reason of the supposed harmless properties of this plant. Actually, a wide range of cannabinoids is endogenously produced and interacts with different classes of receptors ubiquitously distributed in the human body. Such endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates several functions in health and disease. However, studies on synthetic ligands with selective agonist/antagonist activity on specific cannabinoid receptors, have clarified how complex the cannabinoid system is. The whole biological activity of cannabis sativa remains difficult to establish, due to the fact that it is a complex mixture of phytocannabinoids with different or even opposing effects. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the most represented phytocannabinoid in the marijuana plant and then the most studied compound. It has been widely associated with adverse CV effects in marijuana smokers. Conversely, less is known about the role of other phytocannabinoids. Here, we summarized the current knowledge about the effects of phytocannabinoids in CV disease, mainly focusing on atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. We critically discussed clinical and experimental evidence linking phytocannabinoids to CV disease, attempting at explaining some controversies and suggesting the direction for future studies.

PMID:33861448 | DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-64872-5_17

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33861448/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210416152620&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabis sativa terpenes are cannabimimetic and selectively enhance cannabinoid activity

Cannabis sativa terpenes are cannabimimetic and selectively enhance cannabinoid activity

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8232. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87740-8.

ABSTRACT

Limited evidence has suggested that terpenes found in Cannabis sativa are analgesic, and could produce an “entourage effect” whereby they modulate cannabinoids to result in improved outcomes. However this hypothesis is controversial, with limited evidence. We thus investigated Cannabis sativa terpenes alone and with the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212 using in vitro and in vivo approaches. We found that the terpenes α-humulene, geraniol, linalool, and β-pinene produced cannabinoid tetrad behaviors in mice, suggesting cannabimimetic activity. Some behaviors could be blocked by cannabinoid or adenosine receptor antagonists, suggesting a mixed mechanism of action. These behavioral effects were selectively additive with WIN55,212, suggesting terpenes can boost cannabinoid activity. In vitro experiments showed that all terpenes activated the CB1R, while some activated other targets. Our findings suggest that these Cannabis terpenes are multifunctional cannabimimetic ligands that provide conceptual support for the entourage effect hypothesis and could be used to enhance the therapeutic properties of cannabinoids.

PMID:33859287 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-87740-8

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33859287/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210416152620&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabidiol in low back pain: scientific rationale for clinical trials in low back pain

Cannabidiol in low back pain: scientific rationale for clinical trials in low back pain

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 16. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2021.1917379. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: : The pooled worldwide prevalence of low-back pain related presentations in primary care varies between 6.8% and 28.4% in the high-income countries rendering it a major healthcare/economy problem. To best manage this complex bio-psycho-social condition a 360-degree approach is needed, as the psycho-social components are often more important than the scant pathophysiology. Pattern analysis of cannabis users suggested that attempts to alleviate Musculo-skeletal pain is often seen as a major drive to use cannabinoids.

AREAS COVERED: : Unlike NSAIDs/opioids, cannabidiol might directly affect more than one modality of pain signalling/perception. The 2019 guideline of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommended further studies with cannabidiol in pain medicine because of its excellent safety profile and presumed therapeutic potential. Therefore, we have researched relevant databases for pharmaco-physiological papers published between 2000-2021 to collate evidence in a narrative fashion to determine the clinical rationale for this cannabinoid in low-back pain.

EXPERT OPINION: : Observational research reported good results with CBD in pain and fear reduction, which are both key factors in low-back pain. Given the paucity of high-quality evidence, further research is needed to determine the efficacy/non-inferiority of CBD in primary/emergency care setting, using multimodal assessment of various patient-reported outcomes.

PMID:33861675 | DOI:10.1080/17512433.2021.1917379

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33861675/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210417032544&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) offers effective alternative over statins in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia associated nephropathy

Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) offers effective alternative over statins in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia associated nephropathy

Clin Biochem. 2021 Apr 13:S0009-9120(21)00111-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2021.04.008. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A direct link between hypercholesterolemia (HC) and renal pathologies has been established. Statins, the drugs of choice for HC management, have been associated with various side effects and toxicities, including nephropathy and other renal insults. Thus, natural dietary products based-alternative strategies for HC and associated pathologies are being considered.

OBJECTIVES: Based on the unique nutritional composition and numerous health benefits of Hempseeds (Cannabis sativa), currently the potential anti-inflammatory and redox modulatory effects of hempseeds lipid extract (HEMP) against HC associated renal damage were evaluated and compared with statins (Simvastatin) in HFD induced experimental model of HC in rats. Design & Methods The hempseed lipid fractions (HEMP) were prepared and their ameliorating effects on HFD induced lipid profiles, renal function markers (RFT), histopathological/morphological changes, renal oxidative stress, and inflammation markers were studied and compared with statins (HFD+STATINS). Further, HEMP-mediated modulation of lipid metabolism mediators (APO B/E) was studied.

RESULTS: Not only, HEMP administration improved the lipid profiles and morphological signs of HC, but it also was safe compared to Simvastatin in terms of hepatic and renal function markers. Further, changes in renal histoarchitecture, biochemical markers of oxidative stress, and expression profiles of lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways (Cox-1/2, PGDS, PGES) revealed that HEMP positively modulating the redox homeostasis activated the resolution pathways against HC associated renal insults.

CONCLUSION: The outcomes of the current study indicated HEMP’s ameliorative and therapeutic potential against hypercholesterolemia-associated nephropathies and other systemic effects.

PMID:33861983 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2021.04.008

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33861983/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210417152607&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Comparative study of Dissolution for Cannabidiol in EU and US Hemp oil products by HPLC

Comparative study of Dissolution for Cannabidiol in EU and US Hemp oil products by HPLC

J Pharm Sci. 2021 Apr 13:S0022-3549(21)00198-2. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

For the first time, a simple and robust HPLC method has been developed for dissolution studies for cannabidiol (CBD) in hemp oil products. An isocratic elution of samples performed on SOLAS™ C18 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm column with a mobile phase consisting of 75:25 acetonitrile-water v/v, delivered at a flow rate 1.5 mL/minutes to variable wavelength detector using 214 nm. An in-house validated assay test was executed for calculating the purity of hemp oil products and also for considering the dissolution medium to be used. For dissolution studies, equivalent of 5 mg and/or 10 mg of the active was introduced into 500 mL of simulated gastric and intestinal fluids separately, and dissolution was performed at 50 rpm using paddles for 180 minutes. Dissolution profiles for hemp oil products purchased from the United States and Europe were compared. Additionally, dissolution testing was conducted to study the effect of percentage CBD release on increased agitation speed of 75 and 100 rpm and also, on extended dissolution runtime of 240 minutes.

PMID:33862070 | DOI:10.1016/j.xphs.2021.03.028

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33862070/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210417152523&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabidiol modulation of hippocampal glutamate in early psychosis

Cannabidiol modulation of hippocampal glutamate in early psychosis

J Psychopharmacol. 2021 Apr 16:2698811211001107. doi: 10.1177/02698811211001107. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence supports the antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol, a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, in people with psychosis. Preclinical findings suggest that this antipsychotic effect may be related to cannabidiol modulating glutamatergic signalling in the brain.

AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on the neurochemical mechanisms underlying psychosis.

METHODS: We investigated the effects of a single oral dose of cannabidiol (600 mg) in patients with psychosis, using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject cross-over design. After drug administration, 13 patients were scanned using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure left hippocampal glutamate levels. Symptom severity was rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale 60 min before drug administration (pre-scan), and 270 min after drug administration (post-scan). Effects of cannabidiol on hippocampal glutamate levels, symptom severity, and correlations between hippocampal glutamate and symptoms were investigated.

RESULTS: Compared to placebo, there was a significant increase in hippocampal glutamate (p=0.035), and a significantly greater decrease in symptom severity (p=0.032) in the psychosis patients under cannabidiol treatment. There was also a significant negative relationship between post-treatment total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score and hippocampal glutamate (p=0.047), when baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score, treatment (cannabidiol vs placebo), and interaction between treatment and glutamate levels were controlled for.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a link between the increase in glutamate levels and concomitant decrease in symptom severity under cannabidiol treatment observed in psychosis patients. Furthermore, the findings provide novel insight into the potential neurochemical mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol.

PMID:33860709 | DOI:10.1177/02698811211001107

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33860709/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210416152620&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Cocaine-Induced Fos Expression in the Rat Brain: Modulation by Prior Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Adolescence and Sex-Specific Effects

Cocaine-Induced Fos Expression in the Rat Brain: Modulation by Prior Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Adolescence and Sex-Specific Effects

Brain Res. 2021 Apr 13:147480. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147480. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that cannabis consumption during adolescence may be an initial step to cocaine use in adulthood. Indeed, previous preclinical data show that adolescent exposure to cannabinoids (both natural and synthetic) potentiates cocaine self-administration in rats. Here we aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the cellular activation patterns induced by cocaine as revealed by Fos imaging and how these patterns may change due to adolescent exposure to THC. Male and female Wistar rats were administered every other day THC (3 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle from postnatal day 28 to 44. At adulthood (PND90) they were given an injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg i.p.) or saline and sacrificed 90 minutes later. Cocaine-induced Fos activation was measured by immunohistochemistry as an index of cellular activation. We found that cocaine-induced activation in the motor cortex was stronger in THC-exposed rats. Moreover, there was significant sex-dependent interaction between cocaine and adolescent THC exposure in the dorsal hypothalamus, suggesting that cocaine induced a more robust cellular activation in THC-exposed females but not in THC-treated males. Other THC- and cocaine-induced effects were also evident. These results add to the previous literature suggesting that the behavioral, cellular, molecular, and brain-activating actions of cocaine are modulated by early experience with cannabinoids and provide additional knowledge that may explain the enhanced actions of cocaine in rats exposed to cannabinoids during their adolescence.

PMID:33861997 | DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147480

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33861997/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210417152607&v=2.14.3 April 16, 2021 10:00 am

Australian project will set technical plan for fiber production

Australian project will set technical plan for fiber production
Australian project will set technical plan for fiber production

A project in Australia will map out technical needs for a processing value chain that makes use of stems from hemp plants grown mainly for…

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#CBD #Hemp

Australian project will set technical plan for fiber production


April 16, 2021 5:21 am

Pharma Co. Says PE Firm Owes $6.7M After Merger

Pharma Co. Says PE Firm Owes $6.7M After Merger 180 Life Sciences Corp., a newly minted pharmaceutical company whose work includes cannabinoid research, hit a private equity firm with a breach of contract suit in New York state court on Thursday, alleging it is owed $6.7 million in connection with a merger that closed last year. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375737?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 15, 2021 10:16 pm

Buyer Blasts 'Gall' Of Hemp Co.'s THC Suit Dismissal Bid

Buyer Blasts 'Gall' Of Hemp Co.'s THC Suit Dismissal Bid A woman who claims she failed a drug test and lost her job because of misrepresentations by health supplements business Total Life Changes LLC has fired back at the company’s bid to shed her suit. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375454?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 15, 2021 8:55 pm

Fla. High Court Won't Review $25M Cannabis Crash Verdict

Fla. High Court Won't Review $25M Cannabis Crash Verdict The Florida Supreme Court on Thursday said it will not take up an appeal seeking to reinstate a $25 million award to the families of three people killed by a driver who had ingested a synthetic cannabinoid, saying it declined to exercise jurisdiction on the case. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375719?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 15, 2021 5:41 pm

NY Pot-Potency Tax Raises Compliance, Complexity Concerns

NY Pot-Potency Tax Raises Compliance, Complexity Concerns New York’s entrance into the legal cannabis market with a unique potency-based tax structure could add unnecessary complexity and compliance issues for a burgeoning industry despite supporters’ arguments that it could steer users toward less-powerful products. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375265?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 15, 2021 4:53 pm

Cannabis Cos. Tell Justices To Allow $1.9M Tax Bill Dispute

Cannabis Cos. Tell Justices To Allow $1.9M Tax Bill Dispute Two cannabis companies that filed petitions in the U.S. Tax Court one day late shouldn’t be barred from disputing a $1.9 million tax bill in the court, the companies told the U.S. Supreme Court. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375569?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 15, 2021 3:20 pm

Montana law advances hemp seed as food for animals

Montana law advances hemp seed as food for animals
Montana law advances hemp seed as food for animals

Montana has included hemp seed food ingredients and substances in the definition of commercial feed, opening up the market for producers of products for pets,…

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#CBD #Hemp

Montana law advances hemp seed as food for animals


April 15, 2021 1:07 pm

Oral CBD-rich cannabis induces clinical but not endoscopic response in patients with Crohn's disease, a randomized controlled trial

Oral CBD-rich cannabis induces clinical but not endoscopic response in patients with Crohn's disease, a randomized controlled trial

J Crohns Colitis. 2021 Apr 15:jjab069. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab069. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite reports that medical cannabis improves symptoms in Crohn’s disease (CD), controlled studies evaluating disease response are lacking. This study assessed the effect of cannabidiol (CBD)-rich cannabis oil for induction of remission in CD.

METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled single center trial, patients received orally eithercannabis oil containing160/40mg/ml cannabidiol/ tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD/THC) or placebo for eight weeks. Disease parameters including CD activity index (CDAI), and simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD) were assessed before and after treatment. In a subgroup of patients, blood samples were collected for CBD and THC plasma levels.

RESULTS: The study included 56 patients, age 34.5±11 years, men/women 30/26 (54/46%), 30 in cannabis and 26 in placebo groups. CDAI at recruitment and after eight weeks was282(IQR243-342) and 166 (IQR 82-226) and 264(IQR 234-320) and 237(IQR 121-271) (p<0.05) in the cannabis and placebo groups, respectively. Median QOL score improved from 74 for both groups at baseline to 91 (IQR 85-102) and 75 (IQR 69-88) after 8 weeks in the cannabis and placebo groups, respectively (p=0.004). SES-CD was 10 (7-14) and 11 (IQR7-14), and 7 (4-14) and 8 (IQR 4-12;p=0.75)before and after treatment, in the cannabis and placebo groups, respectively. Inflammatory markers (CRP, calprotectin) remained unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of CBD-rich cannabis treatment induced significant clinical and QOL improvement without significant changes in inflammatory parameters or endoscopic scores. The oral CBD-rich cannabis extract was well absorbed. Until further studies are available, cannabis treatment in Crohn’s disease should be used only in the context of clinical trials.

PMID:33858011 | DOI:10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab069

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33858011/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210416032549&v=2.14.3 April 15, 2021 10:00 am

South Africa lays out a road map for hemp and marijuana

South Africa lays out a road map for hemp and marijuana
South Africa lays out a road map for hemp and marijuana

South Africa could have a hemp program in place by 2023 under a recently released draft National Cannabis Master Plan (NCMP) that sees the plant…

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#CBD #Hemp

South Africa lays out a road map for hemp and marijuana


April 15, 2021 7:12 am

Michigan hemp firm stakes claim in advanced manufacturing

Michigan hemp firm stakes claim in advanced manufacturing
Michigan hemp firm stakes claim in advanced manufacturing

A Michigan hemp startup said it secured financing to build a hemp fiber processing factory that is planned to be operational this summer. Heartland Corporate…

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#CBD #Hemp

Michigan hemp firm stakes claim in advanced manufacturing


April 15, 2021 4:25 am

Recidivist Going By 'Richard Richman' Charged With Fraud

Recidivist Going By 'Richard Richman' Charged With Fraud Brooklyn federal prosecutors unsealed an indictment on Wednesday accusing a convicted securities fraudster going by “Richard Richman” of masterminding a pair of schemes to defraud investors in a purported energy company and a purported cannabis company. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375342?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 14, 2021 11:03 pm

Florida Grower Says Pot Co. Tilray Sabotaged Applications

Florida Grower Says Pot Co. Tilray Sabotaged Applications A Florida nursery has alleged in a new lawsuit that Canadian cannabis company Tilray pulled a “bait and switch” in 2015, promising to use its industry expertise to help the grower secure a low-THC medical marijuana license only to intentionally sabotage the application. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375326?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 14, 2021 9:20 pm

LA Pot Cos. Say Detroit Judge's Decision Bolsters Their Case

LA Pot Cos. Say Detroit Judge's Decision Bolsters Their Case A trio of companies claiming Los Angeles discriminated against their applications for cannabis licenses told a California federal judge Tuesday that a recent decision in Michigan federal court that paused Detroit’s marijuana dispensary licensing program bolsters their case. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375294?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 14, 2021 9:03 pm

Miss. Medical Pot Measure Faces Fire From State Justices

Miss. Medical Pot Measure Faces Fire From State Justices Although they barely mentioned marijuana, a few Mississippi Supreme Court justices indicated Wednesday they are likely to vote to throw out the ballot measure that legalized the drug for medical uses — but it was unclear if a majority would go in that direction. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375193?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 14, 2021 7:13 pm

Calif. Cannabis Co. Notches $30M Fundraise For Expansion

Calif. Cannabis Co. Notches $30M Fundraise For Expansion California-based cannabis grower and retailer Connected Cannabis Co. announced Wednesday that it has raised $30 million in a funding round led by Navy Capital and One Tower Group, as the company focuses on expanding to more states. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1375300?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 14, 2021 4:44 pm

A systematic review of neuroimaging and acute cannabis exposure in age-of-risk for psychosis

A systematic review of neuroimaging and acute cannabis exposure in age-of-risk for psychosis

Transl Psychiatry. 2021 Apr 13;11(1):217. doi: 10.1038/s41398-021-01295-w.

ABSTRACT

Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discovered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.

PMID:33850098 | DOI:10.1038/s41398-021-01295-w

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33850098/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210414152633&v=2.14.3 April 14, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabis sativa and Skin Health: Dissecting the Role of Phytocannabinoids

Cannabis sativa and Skin Health: Dissecting the Role of Phytocannabinoids

Planta Med. 2021 Apr 13. doi: 10.1055/a-1420-5780. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The use of Cannabis sativa is currently recognized to ease certain types of chronic pain, reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea, and improve anxiety. Nevertheless, few studies highlighted the therapeutic potential of C. sativa extracts and related phytocannabinoids for a variety of widespread skin disorders including acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pruritus, and pain. This review summarized the current evidence on the effects of phytocannabinoids at the cutaneous level through the collection of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies published on PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science until October 2020. Phytocannabinoids have demonstrated potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-acne properties by various mechanisms involving either CB1/2-dependent and independent pathways. Not only classical immune cells, but also several skin-specific actors, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and sebocytes, may represent a target for phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol, the most investigated compound, revealed photoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms at the cutaneous level, while the possible impact on cell differentiation, especially in the case of psoriasis, would require further investigation. Animal models and pilot clinical studies supported the application of cannabidiol in inflammatory-based skin diseases. Also, one of the most promising applications of non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids is the treatment of seborrheic disorders, especially acne. In conclusion, the incomplete knowledge of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skin disorders emerged as an important limit for pharmacological investigations. Moreover, the limited studies conducted on C. sativa extracts suggested a higher potency than single phytocannabinoids, thus stimulating new research on phytocannabinoid interaction.

PMID:33851375 | DOI:10.1055/a-1420-5780

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33851375/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210415032541&v=2.14.3 April 14, 2021 10:00 am

Drinks campaign protests lack of clarity on CBD in Nordics

Drinks campaign protests lack of clarity on CBD in Nordics
Drinks campaign protests lack of clarity on CBD in Nordics

Finnish beverage maker YSUB has launched “Not for sale,” an advertising campaign on 54 street kiosks in Helsinki to encourage change in laws affecting sales…

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#CBD #Hemp

Drinks campaign protests lack of clarity on CBD in Nordics


April 14, 2021 7:00 am

$500k is ‘down payment’ to re-establish U.S. hemp seed bank

$500k is ‘down payment’ to re-establish U.S. hemp seed bank
$500k is ‘down payment’ to re-establish U.S. hemp seed bank

The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has received $500,000 in initial federal funding to create the nation’s only industrial…

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#CBD #Hemp

$500k is ‘down payment’ to re-establish U.S. hemp seed bank


April 14, 2021 5:18 am

Steve Fox, Leader In Cannabis Reform, Dies At 53

Steve Fox, Leader In Cannabis Reform, Dies At 53 Steve Fox, a cannabis reform pioneer who fought for nearly two decades to end prohibition and was instrumental in the passage of landmark adult-use legalization in Colorado, has died, his law firm Vicente Sederberg LLP announced on Tuesday. He was 53. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374843?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 13, 2021 8:51 pm

Digital Media Co. Hit With $101M Weed App Suit

Digital Media Co. Hit With $101M Weed App Suit A company formed to invest in a digital media app focused on cannabis culture filed a $101 million Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act suit against its former business partner Ownzones, claiming it took the cash but never produced the product. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374484?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 13, 2021 7:44 pm

Pot Property Co. Wants To Arbitrate Lender's Libel Claims

Pot Property Co. Wants To Arbitrate Lender's Libel Claims A cannabis cultivation space developer has asked a New York federal court to steer into arbitration a defamation lawsuit brought by a commercial mortgage lender after a failed $6.5 million loan agreement, saying the loan commitment included a binding arbitration agreement. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374544?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 13, 2021 4:52 pm

Instagram Celeb Hit With Copyright Suit Over Sample Photos

Instagram Celeb Hit With Copyright Suit Over Sample Photos A marketing agency hit social media personality and cannabis entrepreneur Dan Bilzerian and his beverage line with a copyright infringement suit, claiming they used sample photographs owned by the agency to market their vodka product after they decided against hiring the agency. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374558?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 13, 2021 3:49 pm

NJ Justices Say Medical Pot Order Doesn't Flout Federal Law

NJ Justices Say Medical Pot Order Doesn't Flout Federal Law The New Jersey Supreme Court on Tuesday said employers can be compelled to reimburse workers’ medical cannabis expenses despite the federal marijuana prohibition under the Controlled Substances Act, finding that a congressional budgetary provision has suspended that statute with respect to the Garden State’s medical marijuana law. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374633?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 13, 2021 2:14 pm

Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

J Cannabis Res. 2021 Apr 12;3(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s42238-021-00066-0.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of humanity’s oldest crops with several uses, from food to clothing and medicine. It remains one of the most controversial crops whose production, possession, and usage are regulated differently across jurisdictions. Academic research and advocacy have resulted in the redefinition of the legal status of cannabis in several countries. Ghana recently reviewed its laws on cannabis, allowing for the cultivation of industrial hemp. The legislation paves the way for Ghana to benefit from industrial hemp and include it in the agricultural cash crop list. This paper looks at the economic prospects of industrial hemp in the wake of the new law.

METHODS: A systematic electronic research was conducted to identify journal articles, reports, news, blogs, and other relevant materials on cannabis, marijuana, and industrial hemp. The electronic search was done primarily on Google, Google Scholar, Bing, and “Baidu Xueshi” to identify cannabis-related publications. The search was expanded beyond Ghana to find other perspectives on cannabis. The search began in January 2020 on Google using search terms like “cannabis in Ghana” and “which countries have legal cannabis.” Materials on history, financial prospects, industrial uses, and legislations on cannabis and industrial hemp were reviewed.

RESULTS: Existing research on cannabis in Ghana has focused on the psychotic effects of cannabis other than its industrial aspects, which has potentials for the economy. Industrial hemp has CBD with no psychotic effects and is very useful in making medicine, paper, and textiles. Ghana has both the land and workforce to produce hemp to feed local industries and the international market.

CONCLUSION: The new legislation can put Ghana in a position to benefit from the current cannabis industry. Therefore, policymakers should implement a registration regime that would favor local investors and farmers to reduce illegal production. The regulatory framework should establish a well-equipped agency that will supervise production and research into hemp development.

PMID:33845918 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-021-00066-0

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33845918/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210413152654&v=2.14.3 April 13, 2021 10:00 am

Validation of a high-throughput method for analysis of pesticide residues in hemp and hemp products

Validation of a high-throughput method for analysis of pesticide residues in hemp and hemp products

J Chromatogr A. 2021 Mar 27;1645:462097. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462097. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp has been an agricultural commodity for millennia, and it has been undergoing a resurgence in interest and production due to its high content of cannabinoids, protein, fiber and other ingredients. For legal possession and use throughout the USA, hemp and hemp products must have delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration < 0.3%. As with most crops, pesticides may be applied when farming hemp, which need to be monitored in food, feed, and medicinal products. The aim of this work was to evaluate and validate the recently developed "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe, efficient, and robust" (QuEChERSER) sample preparation mega-method to determine pesticide residues in hemp plants, flowers, powders, oils, and pellets. High-throughput analysis of final extracts for 106 targeted pesticides and metabolites from North American monitoring lists entailed: 1) ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with column back-flushing, and 2) instrument-top sample preparation + low-pressure gas chromatography (ITSP+LPGC-MS/MS). In QuEChERSER, 2 g sample is extracted with 10 mL 4/1 (v/v) acetonitrile/water by mechanical shaking for 10 min, followed by 3 min centrifugation. For LC, 0.2 mL of extract is taken and solvent exchanged into initial mobile phase followed by 5 min ultra-centrifugation prior to the 10 min analysis. For GC-amenable pesticides, the remaining initial extract is partitioned with 4/1 (w/w) anh. MgSO4/NaCl, and 1 mL is taken for automated ITSP cleanup in parallel with 10 min LPGC analysis. In the former case, the UHPLC column is back-flushed with 1/1 (v/v) methanol/acetonitrile for 3 min between each injection to keep the system clean and avoid ghost peaks. Multi-level, multi-day validation results achieved 70-120% recoveries with RSDs < 20% for more than 80% of the analytes in hemp protein powder, oil, pellets, and fresh plant (dried hemp plant and flower were too complex). Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 13,000 analyte results in the spiked samples. The QuEChERSER method was demonstrated to meet the challenge for several complex hemp matrices.

PMID:33848664 | DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462097

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33848664/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210414032610&v=2.14.3 April 13, 2021 10:00 am

Validation of a high-throughput method for analysis of pesticide residues in hemp and hemp products

Validation of a high-throughput method for analysis of pesticide residues in hemp and hemp products

J Chromatogr A. 2021 Mar 27;1645:462097. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462097. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp has been an agricultural commodity for millennia, and it has been undergoing a resurgence in interest and production due to its high content of cannabinoids, protein, fiber and other ingredients. For legal possession and use throughout the USA, hemp and hemp products must have delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration < 0.3%. As with most crops, pesticides may be applied when farming hemp, which need to be monitored in food, feed, and medicinal products. The aim of this work was to evaluate and validate the recently developed "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe, efficient, and robust" (QuEChERSER) sample preparation mega-method to determine pesticide residues in hemp plants, flowers, powders, oils, and pellets. High-throughput analysis of final extracts for 106 targeted pesticides and metabolites from North American monitoring lists entailed: 1) ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with column back-flushing, and 2) instrument-top sample preparation + low-pressure gas chromatography (ITSP+LPGC-MS/MS). In QuEChERSER, 2 g sample is extracted with 10 mL 4/1 (v/v) acetonitrile/water by mechanical shaking for 10 min, followed by 3 min centrifugation. For LC, 0.2 mL of extract is taken and solvent exchanged into initial mobile phase followed by 5 min ultra-centrifugation prior to the 10 min analysis. For GC-amenable pesticides, the remaining initial extract is partitioned with 4/1 (w/w) anh. MgSO4/NaCl, and 1 mL is taken for automated ITSP cleanup in parallel with 10 min LPGC analysis. In the former case, the UHPLC column is back-flushed with 1/1 (v/v) methanol/acetonitrile for 3 min between each injection to keep the system clean and avoid ghost peaks. Multi-level, multi-day validation results achieved 70-120% recoveries with RSDs < 20% for more than 80% of the analytes in hemp protein powder, oil, pellets, and fresh plant (dried hemp plant and flower were too complex). Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 13,000 analyte results in the spiked samples. The QuEChERSER method was demonstrated to meet the challenge for several complex hemp matrices.

PMID:33848664 | DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462097

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33848664/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210414032452&v=2.14.3 April 13, 2021 10:00 am

Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

J Cannabis Res. 2021 Apr 12;3(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s42238-021-00066-0.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of humanity’s oldest crops with several uses, from food to clothing and medicine. It remains one of the most controversial crops whose production, possession, and usage are regulated differently across jurisdictions. Academic research and advocacy have resulted in the redefinition of the legal status of cannabis in several countries. Ghana recently reviewed its laws on cannabis, allowing for the cultivation of industrial hemp. The legislation paves the way for Ghana to benefit from industrial hemp and include it in the agricultural cash crop list. This paper looks at the economic prospects of industrial hemp in the wake of the new law.

METHODS: A systematic electronic research was conducted to identify journal articles, reports, news, blogs, and other relevant materials on cannabis, marijuana, and industrial hemp. The electronic search was done primarily on Google, Google Scholar, Bing, and “Baidu Xueshi” to identify cannabis-related publications. The search was expanded beyond Ghana to find other perspectives on cannabis. The search began in January 2020 on Google using search terms like “cannabis in Ghana” and “which countries have legal cannabis.” Materials on history, financial prospects, industrial uses, and legislations on cannabis and industrial hemp were reviewed.

RESULTS: Existing research on cannabis in Ghana has focused on the psychotic effects of cannabis other than its industrial aspects, which has potentials for the economy. Industrial hemp has CBD with no psychotic effects and is very useful in making medicine, paper, and textiles. Ghana has both the land and workforce to produce hemp to feed local industries and the international market.

CONCLUSION: The new legislation can put Ghana in a position to benefit from the current cannabis industry. Therefore, policymakers should implement a registration regime that would favor local investors and farmers to reduce illegal production. The regulatory framework should establish a well-equipped agency that will supervise production and research into hemp development.

PMID:33845918 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-021-00066-0

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33845918/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210413152510&v=2.14.3 April 13, 2021 10:00 am

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Spectrum Red Softgels in Healthy Participants

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Spectrum Red Softgels in Healthy Participants

J Anal Toxicol. 2021 Apr 13:bkab035. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkab035. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Due to a lack of published pharmacokinetic (PK) and/or pharmacodynamic (PD) data, informed physician and patient decision-making surrounding appropriate dosing of cannabis for medical purposes is limited. This Phase 1, multiple-dose study evaluated the safety, tolerability, PK, and PD of Spectrum Red softgels (2.5 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and < 0.25 mg cannabidiol (CBD)). Participants (N = 41) were randomized to one of five groups: 5 mg THC and 0.06 mg CBD daily (Treatment A), 10 mg THC and 0.12 mg CBD daily (Treatment B), 15 mg THC and 0.18 mg CBD daily (Treatment C), 20 mg THC and 0.24 mg CBD daily (Treatment D), or placebo. Study medication was administered in divided doses, every 12 hours, approximately 60 minutes after a standardized meal, for seven consecutive days. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (65/65) were of mild to moderate severety; none was serious. The highest number of TEAEs (30/65) occurred on the first day of treatment. The most common TEAEs included somnolence, lethargy, and headache (reported by 8, 7, and 5 participants, respectively). On Day 7, maximum observed plasma concentration of 11-carboxy-THC increased by 2.0- and 2.5-fold as the dose doubled between Treatments A and B and between Treatments B and D, respectively. Mean peak post-treatment ratings of self-reported subjective effects of "feel any effect" and "dazed" differed between Treatment D and placebo on Days 1, 3, and 7. Over a week of twice-daily dosing of Spectrum Red softgels, daily doses of THC up to 20 mg and of CBD up to 0.24 mg were generally safe and became better tolerated after the first day of treatment. A prudent approach to improve tolerability with Spectrum Red softgels might involve initial daily doses no higher than 10 mg THC and 0.12 mg CBD in divided doses, with titration upwards over time as needed based on tolerability.

PMID:33848338 | DOI:10.1093/jat/bkab035

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33848338/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210414032610&v=2.14.3 April 13, 2021 10:00 am

CanXchange: ‘Looking for new ways to disrupt and innovate’

CanXchange: ‘Looking for new ways to disrupt and innovate’
CanXchange: ‘Looking for new ways to disrupt and innovate’

Alex Arkentis is the CEO and Co-Founder of CanXchange, the European commodities exchange for physical hemp and CBD products. A serial technology entrepreneur and investor,…

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#CBD #Hemp

CanXchange: ‘Looking for new ways to disrupt and innovate’


April 13, 2021 3:01 am

NJ Pot Regulators Prioritize Equity, Patients' Access

NJ Pot Regulators Prioritize Equity, Patients' Access At its inaugural meeting on Monday, members of the New Jersey Cannabis Regulatory Commission pitched a vision of regulating cannabis with a focus on restoring communities harmed by the war on drugs and ensuring patients’ continued access to medicinal marijuana in the Garden State. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374355?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 12, 2021 8:13 pm

Detroit Pot Licensing Halted Amid Residency Fight

Detroit Pot Licensing Halted Amid Residency Fight A Michigan federal judge has halted Detroit’s marijuana dispensary licensing program in response to a lawsuit that accused the city of unconstitutionally discriminating against nonresidents. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374342?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 12, 2021 7:35 pm

Minn. House Panel OKs Legalizing, Taxing Recreational Pot

Minn. House Panel OKs Legalizing, Taxing Recreational Pot A Minnesota House committee advanced a bill Monday to legalize recreational cannabis and impose gross receipts and use taxes on sales of cannabis products. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374415?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 12, 2021 6:20 pm

Pot Co. Can't Shake Investor's Fraud Suit, Judge Told

Pot Co. Can't Shake Investor's Fraud Suit, Judge Told An investor suing a cannabis entrepreneur for allegedly misleading him into funding federally illegal drug operations and failing to return his investment plus interest urged a Colorado federal judge Friday not to extinguish racketeering claims, saying “this is exactly the type of conduct RICO was designed to discourage and punish.” #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374310?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 12, 2021 5:39 pm

New Mexico Becomes Latest State To Legalize Marijuana

New Mexico Becomes Latest State To Legalize Marijuana New Mexico Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham signed off Monday on legislation that legalizes marijuana for adult use and expunges criminal records for certain marijuana-related convictions, making the state the 18th in the country to launch a recreational cannabis industry. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1374341?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 12, 2021 4:28 pm

Anticancer property of Hemp Bioactive Peptides in Hep3B liver cancer cells through Akt/GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway

Anticancer property of Hemp Bioactive Peptides in Hep3B liver cancer cells through Akt/GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway

Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Feb 9;9(4):1833-1841. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1976. eCollection 2021 Apr.

ABSTRACT

Foodborne protein hydrolysates exhibit biological activity that may be therapeutic in a number of human disease settings. Hemp peptides (HP) generated by controlled hydrolysis of hemp proteins have a number of health benefits and are of pharmaceutical value. In the present study, we produce small molecular weight HP from hemp seed and investigate its anticancer properties in Hep3B human liver cancer cells. We demonstrate that HP treatment increased apoptosis, reduced cell viability, and reduced cell migration in Hep3B human liver cancer cells without affecting the normal liver cell line L02. We correlate these phenotypes with increased cellular ROS levels, upregulation of cleaved caspase 3 and Bad, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2. HP treatment led to increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, with subsequent downregulation of β-catenin, suggesting β-catenin signaling modulation as a critical mechanism by which HP exhibits anticancer properties. Our findings suggest HP are of potential therapeutic interest for liver cancer treatment.

PMID:33841802 | PMC:PMC8020916 | DOI:10.1002/fsn3.1976

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33841802/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210412152517&v=2.14.3 April 12, 2021 10:00 am

Anticancer property of Hemp Bioactive Peptides in Hep3B liver cancer cells through Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway

Anticancer property of Hemp Bioactive Peptides in Hep3B liver cancer cells through Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway

Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Feb 9;9(4):1833-1841. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1976. eCollection 2021 Apr.

ABSTRACT

Foodborne protein hydrolysates exhibit biological activity that may be therapeutic in a number of human disease settings. Hemp peptides (HP) generated by controlled hydrolysis of hemp proteins have a number of health benefits and are of pharmaceutical value. In the present study, we produce small molecular weight HP from hemp seed and investigate its anticancer properties in Hep3B human liver cancer cells. We demonstrate that HP treatment increased apoptosis, reduced cell viability, and reduced cell migration in Hep3B human liver cancer cells without affecting the normal liver cell line L02. We correlate these phenotypes with increased cellular ROS levels, upregulation of cleaved caspase 3 and Bad, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2. HP treatment led to increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, with subsequent downregulation of β-catenin, suggesting β-catenin signaling modulation as a critical mechanism by which HP exhibits anticancer properties. Our findings suggest HP are of potential therapeutic interest for liver cancer treatment.

PMID:33841802 | PMC:PMC8020916 | DOI:10.1002/fsn3.1976

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33841802/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210412152613&v=2.14.3 April 12, 2021 10:00 am

Gabapentin attenuates somatic signs of precipitated THC withdrawal in mice

Gabapentin attenuates somatic signs of precipitated THC withdrawal in mice

Neuropharmacology. 2021 Apr 9:108554. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108554. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is the most frequently used federally illicit substance in the United States. However, there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies to mitigate the withdrawal symptoms associated with cessation in heavy users. A promising, readily available non-cannabinoid therapy are the gabapentinoids. Although currently approved for epilepsy and neuropathic pain, gabapentinoids are increasingly used for their “off-label” efficacy in treating various psychiatric conditions and substance abuse. Gabapentin (GBP) synergizes with cannabinoid agonism in neuropathic pain models, substitutes for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in drug discrimination procedures, and reduced withdrawal symptoms in an outpatient clinical trial. However, there are limited data on the biological plausibility of the therapeutic action of gabapentinoids in cannabinoid withdrawal in preclinical models. The purpose of the current study was to determine the efficacy of GBP on attenuating THC withdrawal in mice, using an array of tests targeting withdrawal-induced and withdrawal-suppressed behaviors. Separate cohorts of male and female mice were administered THC (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle for 5.5 days, and withdrawal was precipitated by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant (2 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) on the sixth day. GBP (≥10 mg/kg) reduced somatic signs of withdrawal (i.e., paw tremors and head twitches), but had no effect in locomotor activity or conditioned place preference. GBP (50 mg/kg) also restored withdrawal-suppressed responding on a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. However, GBP (50 mg/kg) had no effect in withdrawal-suppressed marble burying or tail suspension struggling and did not normalize the stress response induced by THC withdrawal, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. These data suggest gabapentin may be effective at treating cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms including somatic and affective symptoms but may act independently of endocrine stress activation.

PMID:33845073 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108554

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33845073/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210413032702&v=2.14.3 April 12, 2021 10:00 am

Industrial hemp fiber is better than wood in every way

Industrial hemp fiber is better than wood in every way
Industrial hemp fiber is better than wood in every way

By Robert Ziner | CIHC, Canada Hemp has always been a better natural resource than trees. The truth is, because hemp was not legal throughout most…

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#CBD #Hemp

Industrial hemp fiber is better than wood in every way


April 12, 2021 2:56 am

Immunohistochemical analyses on two distinct internodes of stinging nettle show different distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in the cell walls of bast fibers

Immunohistochemical analyses on two distinct internodes of stinging nettle show different distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in the cell walls of bast fibers

Protoplasma. 2021 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s00709-021-01641-1. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Stinging nettle is a perennial herbaceous species holding value as a multi-purpose plant. Indeed, its leaves and roots are phytofactories providing functional ingredients of medicinal interest and its stems produce silky and resistant extraxylary fibers (a.k.a. bast fibers) valued in the biocomposite sector. Similarly to what is reported in other fiber crops, the stem of nettle contains both lignified and hypolignified fibers in the core and cortex, respectively, and it is therefore a useful model for cell wall research. Indeed, data on nettle stem tissues can be compared to those obtained in other models, such as hemp and flax, to support hypotheses on the differentiation and development of bast fibers. The suitability of the nettle stem as model for cell wall-related research was already validated using a transcriptomics and biochemical approach focused on internodes at different developmental stages sampled at the top, middle, and bottom of the stem. We here sought to complement and enrich these data by providing immunohistochemical and ultrastructural details on young and older stem internodes. Antibodies recognizing non-cellulosic polysaccharides (galactans, arabinans, rhamnogalacturonans) and arabinogalactan proteins were here investigated with the goal of understanding whether their distribution changes in the stem tissues in relation to the bast fiber and vascular tissue development. The results obtained indicate that the occurrence and distribution of cell wall polysaccharides and proteins differ between young and older internodes and that these changes are particularly evident in the bast fibers.

PMID:33839957 | DOI:10.1007/s00709-021-01641-1

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33839957/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210412152517&v=2.14.3 April 11, 2021 10:00 am

Extensive phytocannabinoid profiles of seized cannabis and cannabis-based medicines – Identification of potential distinguishing markers

Extensive phytocannabinoid profiles of seized cannabis and cannabis-based medicines – Identification of potential distinguishing markers

Forensic Sci Int. 2021 Mar 31;322:110773. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.110773. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

As the frequency of cannabis-based therapy increases, the ability to distinguish intake of cannabis-based medicines from recreational cannabis use becomes desirable. Minor cannabinoids have been suggested to indicate recreational cannabis use in biological matrices but are unreliable when presumably also present in directly plantderived medicines. Thus, for therapeutics such as medical cannabis, Sativex® and Dronabinol, a more thorough investigation of cannabinoid profiles is required to identify possible distinguishing markers. In this study, 16 phytocannabinoids were quantified in samples of seized and medical cannabis, Sativex® and Dronabinol from two different manufacturers, using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Analytes included delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydocannabinolic acid A, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerol, cannabigerolic acid, cannabinol, cannabinolic acid, cannabichromene, cannabichromenic acid, cannabicyclol, cannabicyclolic acid, tetrahydrocannabivarin, tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid, cannabidivarin and cannabidivarinic acid. Resultant cannabinoid profiles were compared, and markers were suggested. Characteristics of Sativex® included a specific cannabidiol/tetrahydrocannabinol ratio and presence of cannabichromene, while acidic cannabinoids, cannabigerol and cannabinol occurred in only low amounts. As expected, the predominant ingredient in Dronabinol was tetrahydrocannabinol, but minor cannabinoids were quantified as well. Medical marihuana and seized cannabis were compared separately in a principal component analysis. Several medical marihuana varieties were found to significantly differ from seized cannabis, mostly regarding contents of tetrahydocannabinolic acid A and tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid and cannabidiolic and cannabidivarinic acid respectively.

PMID:33839545 | DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.110773

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33839545/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210412152613&v=2.14.3 April 11, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabis and driving ability

Cannabis and driving ability

Curr Opin Psychol. 2021 Mar 17;38:75-79. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.03.003. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to discuss recent evidence on cannabis and driving ability. In particular, the review examines experimental research on the acute effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on driving-related neurobehavioral skills and driving performance based on simulator and road course studies. The evidence indicates that certain driving abilities are significantly, albeit modestly, impaired in individuals experiencing the acute effects of THC. Treatment effects are moderated by dose, delivery method, recency of use, and tolerance development, with inconclusive evidence concerning the moderating influence of cannabidiol. Emerging research priorities include linking neurobehavioral deficits to specific decrements in driving performance, estimating the real-world implications of experimental impaired driving research, understanding how tolerance differentially affects driving impairment across subgroups, and developing more evidence on cannabidiol’s potential role in mitigating THC-induced impairment.

PMID:33839427 | DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.03.003

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33839427/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210412152613&v=2.14.3 April 11, 2021 10:00 am

Case of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) in London, UK

Case of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) in London, UK

BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Apr 9;14(4):e240700. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-240700.

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 38-year-old man with no medical comorbidities who presented to the hospital with haemoptysis and shortness of breath on a background of vaping home-manufactured cannabis oil. He developed e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) visible on chest X-ray requiring oxygen, and corticosteroid treatment before making a recovery. Research reports that the contents vitamin E acetate and tetrahydrocannabinol are frequently found in substances acquired from informal sources which increase the likelihood of EVALI developing. Further research into their synergistic effect is ongoing. Although safer than smoking, vaping is not risk free and EVALI should be considered in patients presenting with respiratory disease.

PMID:33837028 | DOI:10.1136/bcr-2020-240700

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33837028/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210410152544&v=2.14.3 April 10, 2021 10:00 am

Cannabis Bill Roundup: Mont. Weighs How To Dole Out Funds

Cannabis Bill Roundup: Mont. Weighs How To Dole Out Funds The Montana House of Representatives advanced multiple bills implementing voter-approved adult-use legalization, but with dueling proposals on how to spend the tax revenue, while North Carolina lawmakers pitched medical and recreational cannabis legislation on the same day. Here are the major developments in cannabis reform from the past week.  #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1373807?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 9, 2021 8:30 pm

6th Circ. Upholds IRS Summons For Cannabis Biz Docs

6th Circ. Upholds IRS Summons For Cannabis Biz Docs A Michigan federal court correctly dismissed a suit by cannabis business owners seeking to quash a third-party summons issued by the IRS requesting their companies’ records because the summons aided a criminal investigation, the Sixth Circuit said Friday. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1373994?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 9, 2021 7:20 pm

Key Takeaways From FDA Warnings To CBD Cos.

Key Takeaways From FDA Warnings To CBD Cos. Two warning letters the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently issued to makers of CBD products highlight the agency’s chief enforcement concerns, but leave some uncertainties regarding the future of CBD regulation, say Kristi Wolff and Donnelly McDowell at Kelley Drye. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1373589?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 9, 2021 5:21 pm

Medical Pot Co. Sues Detroit Over School Zoning Decision

Medical Pot Co. Sues Detroit Over School Zoning Decision A medical marijuana company has filed suit Thursday against the city of Detroit, alleging it wrongfully denied the company permission to operate a facility when it ruled that the proposed facility was too close to a Roman Catholic parochial school. #CBD #Hemp https://www.law360.com/cannabis/articles/1373574?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=section April 9, 2021 4:24 pm

The Cannabis + Cannabinoid Curator // We've moved home!

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#CBD #Hemp https://mailchi.mp/texerenewsletters.com/the-cell-gene-curator-issue-10120058 April 9, 2021 1:30 pm

Cannabidiol inhibits the skeletal muscle Nav1.4 by blocking its pore and by altering membrane elasticity

Cannabidiol inhibits the skeletal muscle Nav1.4 by blocking its pore and by altering membrane elasticity

J Gen Physiol. 2021 May 3;153(5):e202012701. doi: 10.1085/jgp.202012701.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the primary nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, which has been proposed to be therapeutic against many conditions, including muscle spasms. Among its putative targets are voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), which have been implicated in many conditions. We investigated the effects of CBD on Nav1.4, the skeletal muscle Nav subtype. We explored direct effects, involving physical block of the Nav pore, as well as indirect effects, involving modulation of membrane elasticity that contributes to Nav inhibition. MD simulations revealed CBD’s localization inside the membrane and effects on bilayer properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed these results, showing CBD localizing below membrane headgroups. To determine the functional implications of these findings, we used a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay to show that CBD alters membrane elasticity or thickness, which could alter Nav function through bilayer-mediated regulation. Site-directed mutagenesis in the vicinity of the Nav1.4 pore revealed that removing the local anesthetic binding site with F1586A reduces the block of INa by CBD. Altering the fenestrations in the bilayer-spanning domain with Nav1.4-WWWW blocked CBD access from the membrane into the Nav1.4 pore (as judged by MD). The stabilization of inactivation, however, persisted in WWWW, which we ascribe to CBD-induced changes in membrane elasticity. To investigate the potential therapeutic value of CBD against Nav1.4 channelopathies, we used a pathogenic Nav1.4 variant, P1158S, which causes myotonia and periodic paralysis. CBD reduces excitability in both wild-type and the P1158S variant. Our in vitro and in silico results suggest that CBD may have therapeutic value against Nav1.4 hyperexcitability.

PMID:33836525 | DOI:10.1085/jgp.202012701

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33836525/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210410152544&v=2.14.3 April 9, 2021 10:00 am

Complex coacervate formation between hemp protein isolate and gum Arabic: Formulation and characterization

Complex coacervate formation between hemp protein isolate and gum Arabic: Formulation and characterization

Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Apr 6:S0141-8130(21)00755-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.003. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In this study, intermolecular interactions and structure formation between hemp protein isolate (HPI) and gum Arabic (GA) were investigated to unravel their complexation mechanisms. For this purpose, structural transition as a function of pH (2.0-7.0) and protein to polysaccharide ratio (HPI:GA, R = 0.5:1-13:1 w/w) was evaluated via turbidimetric analysis, ζ-potentiometry, state diagram construction and coacervate yield. It was proved that critical phase transition pH shifted to higher values with R increase, until reaching a plateau at ratio 10:1, with complexes to be formed even at pH region where both biopolymers were negatively charged. The shift of pH value, where maximum turbidity was noticed (pHopt), was well in accordance with net charge neutrality of HPI-GA mixtures found by electrophoretic mobility measurements. Maximum coacervation, occurred at ratio R = 2:1 and pHopt = 3.5, was depicted by the highest yield (92%), while morphological characteristics of liquid as well as freeze-dried HPI-GA coacervates, obtained through optical and scanning electron microscope measurements, gave a further perception of the associative processes during complex coacervation. Additionally, the molecular interactions between HPI and GA were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing primarily electrostatic interactions with secondary stabilization of hydrogen bonds. Therefore, these findings could provide useful information for the development of HPI – GA coacervates as a potential bioactive encapsulation means.

PMID:33836200 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.003

#Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33836200/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=12OY-2YuXEtecDR7WE-A2c-rtPCJqs0e275YvMbwhvRR34bgib&fc=None&ff=20210410152459&v=2.14.3 April 9, 2021 10:00 am

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