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PubMed: The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: failures and potentials

PubMed: The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: failures and potentials

Neurosci Lett. 2021 Jun 16:136064. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136064. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Owing to its psychotropic effects, Cannabis has been stigmatized by its recreational use leading to a dramatic decline in the experimentations about its medical use in the twentieth century. The medical properties of the plant – known since ancient times – has received increased attention over recent years; yet, the research on its potential application in the field of psychiatry is still nascent. In this connection, the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a phytocannabinoid compound with promising antipsychotic effects. In addition, advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, along with accumulating evidence implicating this system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, have stimulated research by the pharmaceutical industry to explore whether alteration of this system can be of medical benefit. This review examines the current state of evidence regarding the clinical potential of cannabinoid-based drugs as a treatment for schizophrenia, while discussing various limitations with the therapeutic approaches considered so far. In the second part, the author highlights the most promising strategies, as well as the most interesting directions one could follow, in the emerging field of cannabinoid therapies for schizophrenia.

PMID:34146641 | DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136064

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34146641/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210620065906&v=2.14.4 June 19, 2021 10:00 am

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Quick Hits: More States Legalize Cannabis

Quick Hits: More States Legalize Cannabis

Connecticut Legalizes Cannabis

Members of the state House and Senate approved S.B. 1201 on Thursday, legalizing the adult-use marijuana market.

Next, they submitted the measure to Democratic Gov. Ned Lamont, who is expected to sign the bill into law.

The Nutmeg State will be the fifth after New York, New Mexico, Virginia, and technically New Jersey that approved legalization this year. 

Rhode Island Senate Approves Adult-Use Cannabis 

The Senate Judiciary Committee approved a bill on Monday that would legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana for adult use, marking the first time such a bill has moved to the floor of either chamber of the General Assembly in Rhode Island.

The bill would create an independent cannabis control commission to oversee the program and issue licenses for cannabis retailers passed 6 to 2.

It’s expected to go to the full Senate next Tuesday.

Legalization in Virginia

Cannabis becomes legal in Virginia on July 1.

According to Virginia’s chapter of NORML, the legalization law allows for possession by adults 21+ of up to one ounce and personal, home cultivation of up to 4 plants per household by adults 21+ at their primary residence, if the plants have labels, are out of public view, and kept away from children. 

Additionally, adult-sharing of up to one ounce in private without remuneration; and continued participation in the medical cannabis program, which allows buying marijuana. It delivers at Virginia dispensaries. 

However, the selling of marijuana seeds will still be illegal, and so will transporting seeds across state lines. 

Full story here. 

Product Launches

Photo courtesy of Gem + Jane.

CannaCraft launched its new brand Gem + Jane: A sparkling botanical beverage that blends simple ingredients with microdoses of cannabinoids, including THCV, Delta-8 THC, and CBD.

The drink will be available exclusively at Sweet Flower dispensary locations throughout greater Los Angeles beginning June 17th. 

The original, pioneering edibles editor for High Times magazine and author of cannabis cookbook Bong Appetit, Chef Elise McDonough, serves as Brand Manager for Gem + Jane.  

Emphasizing the natural tastes and aroma of citrus, berries, herbs, and flowers (Think Petal with cannabis added), the Gem + Jane beverage line blends complex layers of playful flavors on the palate.

It delivers a light, manageable dose of cannabis for most consumers.

It comes in four sophisticated flavors, as well as an unflavored, pure Simply Seltzer for mixing up mocktails or enjoying on its own.

The Elderflower Pear, Lemon Blueberry Lavender, and Strawberry Hibiscus varieties contain a blend of 4mg Delta-8 THC and 2mg CBD for more mellow moments like relaxing with friends. 

The Simply Seltzer and Yuzu Rose Raspberry flavor each contain 4mg THCV and <2mg THC. 

Drop 2.0

Drop Delivery, an all-in-one delivery technology suite for cannabis retail businesses, announced Wednesday the launch of a new white-labeled consumer e-commerce web-based app, Drop 2.0.

The app includes a more customizable homepage, improved product search capabilities, highly detailed product filtering, and a more engaging way for consumers to take advantage of retailers’ deals.

Drop Delivery CEO and Co-founder Vanessa Gabriel cite wanting to emulate and elevate the best mainstream e-commerce experiences with the development of Drop 2.0. 

Expanding upon ordering ahead, Drop 2.0 offers retailers an app-based e-commerce shopping experience akin to Sephora or Instacart.

The new app provides more freedom to customize the web-based app based on their specific hyperlocal preferences and provides customers with fresh, powerful shopping tools. 

“While cannabis e-commerce is relatively new, e-commerce is not, and consumers expect certain features to be a part of that shopping experience,” said Gabriel. “That includes being able to search for products based on current and past searches, highly categorized product filters, and being able to take advantage of discounts and deals all in the same place. 

Mendi CBD

Because the world needs yet another celebrity-endorsed CBD brand, Mendi Founder and CEO Rachael Rapinoe, sister to 2x World Cup Champion Olympic gold medalist Megan Rapinoe, and co-founder Brett Schwager have created Mendi.

The Portland, Oregon-based brand is “championing their cause to level the playing field by innovating natural alternatives to sports medicine.”

Their “proprietary blends of all-natural hemp CBD products target pain relief, inflammation, and mood to improve sleep and recovery.” 

Like Carli Lloyd using CBD Medic before it, Mendi aims to soothe the shin splints for the athlete or gym rat in all of us. 


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/quick-hits-more-states-legalize-cannabis/
June 18, 2021 6:22 pm

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PubMed: A method and its application to determine the amount of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and biosolids

PubMed: A method and its application to determine the amount of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and biosolids

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jun 18. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-14921-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Xenobiotic cannabinoids (phyto and synthetic) are highly lipophilic compounds and have been shown to accumulate within the particulate fraction of wastewater. Limited research has been conducted to investigate the occurrence of cannabinoids in sewage sludge and/or biosolids. The analysis of excreted cannabinoids from sewage sludge or biosolids can provide information about community health, as well as potentially long-term environmental impacts. In this study, a liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for the extraction and detection method for 50 cannabinoids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including the cannabis urinary biomarker 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and a variety of different generation synthetic cannabinoids and their respective metabolites. Method validation assessed criteria including linearity, selectivity, recovery, and matrix effects. The method was applied to samples collected from a conventional activated sludge reactor treatment facility from various stages of the treatment process. Three cannabinoids were abundant in primary sludge including THC, THC-COOH, and CBD, where THC was the most ubiquitous with concentrations up to 3200 μg kg-1. Only THC and THC-COOH were detectable in aged biosolids. The detection of some cannabinoids in biosolids demonstrated that these compounds are stable throughout the treatment process.

PMID:34143389 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-021-14921-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34143389/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210619070005&v=2.14.4 June 18, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Health Claims About Cannabidiol Products: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters from 2015 to 2019

PubMed: Health Claims About Cannabidiol Products: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters from 2015 to 2019

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 17. doi: 10.1089/can.2020.0166. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) products are increasingly available to consumers in the United States and are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CBD products cannot be marketed as unapproved new drugs with claims of therapeutic benefit. In addition, because CBD is the active ingredient in a FDA-approved CBD product, Epidiolex, CBD cannot be marketed as, or in, food products or dietary supplements. The FDA has issued Warning Letters to promote voluntary regulatory compliance. These letters provide insights as to the types of violations for CBD products detected in the U.S. market. Objective: The goal of this retrospective study was to content analyze Warning Letters issued by the FDA to identify illicit marketing of CBD products. Design: Warning Letters issued by the FDA between 2015 and 2019 were content analyzed using a deductive approach. We extracted year of issuance, issuing office, and claim types that are currently prohibited by the FDA, including (i) unapproved new drug, (ii) misbranded drug, (iii) false and/or misleading, (iv) FDA-approved/endorsed, (v) dietary supplement, and (vi) adulterated food product. In addition, we documented the disease or conditions the product claimed to affect, pharmacological effects, and location of violation. Results: Of the 39 Warning Letters issued, 97% were for violations made on company websites and 56% were for social media accounts. Almost all letters (97%) cited violations of marketing CBD as an unapproved new drug. These illicit therapeutic claims were made for >125 unique health problems, including cancer (87.2%), diabetes (71.8%), inflammation (66.7%), pain (66.7%), and arthritis (66.7%). The majority of letters (79.5%) also cited illicit marketing of CBD as a dietary supplement or food product. CBD was promoted as having 16 unique pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory (53.8%), anticancer (43.6%), and antipsychotic (30.8%). Conclusions: CBD products have been unlawfully advertised online as unauthorized drugs with health claims that promote therapeutic benefits and as dietary supplements. Efforts are needed to regulate and monitor illicit advertising so consumers are not misled about the risks and benefits of CBD use.

PMID:34142863 | DOI:10.1089/can.2020.0166

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34142863/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210619070005&v=2.14.4 June 18, 2021 10:00 am

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Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market

Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market
Amendments to Lithuania’s hemp law could spark €100 million market

Lithuania’s Seimas, the parliament’s upper house, has overwhelmingly passed a set of amendments clearly indicating an intention to allow the production and sale of products…

Read More


#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/amendments-to-lithuanias-hemp-law-could-spark-e100-million-market/
June 18, 2021 8:00 am

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2017: Hemp Flower Products Pre-DSHEA

Hempseed and other hemp flower products have been in the human and animal diet for many millennia. There is much documentation of that, evidence from around the world including the U.S.

Therefore when in 2017 FDA announced it was soliciting comments for which food ingredients should be on the official list as existing before October 1994, I saw the opportunity present our case. Ingredients introduced after that date would require FDA notification and possibly much more testing and validation.

I submitted an 18-page fact-filled document arguing for all hemp flower products being on the list, including flowers and the compounds found therein such as CBD (and thus logically, THC). Seed and seed oil became GRAS about a year later, but CBD and hemp flower are still sitting in limbo.

FDA could take advantage of this elegant approach to regulating CBD and include hemp flower products in the official list of ingredients existing before DSHEA. It could overcome Food and Drug Act, DSHEA, Exclusionary Rule, New Dietary Ingredient, Generally Recognized As Safe, Investigative New Drug, and Orphan Drug Status objections, depending on product, form, marketing, content, and other factors.

Comments of Richard Rose to FDA’s Request for Comments on the ‘Development of a List of Pre-Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act Dietary Ingredients’ and the reasons Hemp Flower Products should be considered an ingredient existing before the passage of DSHEA” can be downloaded at: https://downloads.regulations.gov/FDA-2017-N-4625-0024/attachment_1.pdf.

The Docket FDA-2017-N-4625 with 37 comments can be seen at: https://www.regulations.gov/docket/FDA-2017-N-4625.

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PubMed: Cannabinoids and Terpenes: How Production of Photo-Protectants Can Be Manipulated to Enhance Cannabis sativa L. Phytochemistry

PubMed: Cannabinoids and Terpenes: How Production of Photo-Protectants Can Be Manipulated to Enhance Cannabis sativa L. Phytochemistry

Front Plant Sci. 2021 May 31;12:620021. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.620021. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated for its secondary metabolites, of which the cannabinoids have documented health benefits and growing pharmaceutical potential. Recent legal cannabis production in North America and Europe has been accompanied by an increase in reported findings for optimization of naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoid production. Of the many environmental cues that can be manipulated during plant growth in controlled environments, cannabis cultivation with different lighting spectra indicates differential production and accumulation of medically important cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG), as well as terpenes and flavonoids. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation shows potential in stimulating cannabinoid biosynthesis in cannabis trichomes and pre-harvest or post-harvest UV treatment merits further exploration to determine if plant secondary metabolite accumulation could be enhanced in this manner. Visible LED light can augment THC and terpene accumulation, but not CBD. Well-designed experiments with light wavelengths other than blue and red light will provide more insight into light-dependent regulatory and molecular pathways in cannabis. Lighting strategies such as subcanopy lighting and varied light spectra at different developmental stages can lower energy consumption and optimize cannabis PSM production. Although evidence demonstrates that secondary metabolites in cannabis may be modulated by the light spectrum like other plant species, several questions remain for cannabinoid production pathways in this fast-paced and growing industry. In summarizing recent research progress on light spectra and secondary metabolites in cannabis, along with pertinent light responses in model plant species, future research directions are presented.

PMID:34135916 | PMC:PMC8200639 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.620021

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34135916/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210618065954&v=2.14.4 June 17, 2021 10:00 am

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SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel

SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel

SC Labs, a cannabis testing company with roots in Santa Cruz, California, announced this week that they have developed a comprehensive hemp testing panel that covers a number of contaminants on a national regulatory level. In the press release, the company says they aim to fill the void of national hemp testing requirements.

The hemp testing panel they have developed purportedly meets testing standards in states that require contaminant levels below a certain action limit. The SC Labs hemp testing panel could theoretically be used for regulatory compliance testing across the country, reaching action limits and analyte levels that meet the strictest state requirements.

The panel tests for pesticides, heavy metals, microbiology, mycotoxins, residual solvents and water activity. In the press release, the company says they have received ISO accreditation for the panel, although it’s not immediately clear to what standard it has been accredited.

Still, the test panel is one sign of progress in the long road to nationally harmonized testing standards. “As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now,” says Jeff Gray, CEO of SC Labs. “The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act. As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now. The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act.”

SC Labs is headquartered in Santa Cruz, but has licenses in California, Oregon, Texas and Colorado (pending). Their California and Oregon locations are both ISO 17025-accredited and conducting THC-containing cannabis testing, as well as hemp testing.

The post SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

SC Labs Develops Comprehensive Hemp Testing Panel


June 16, 2021 6:55 pm

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Dems Discover the Overton Window, Slam It Hard to the Left

Finally Democrats have discovered the Overton Window (OW) and are using it properly. While the GOP has long used it (using the Luntzian dystopia “Death to drug dealers,” and “Cannabis has no medical value, FDA says so”), Dems have not tried to shift the OW until now, with the Drug Policy Reform Act (DRPA) decriminalizing all controlled substances at the federal level.

Some were so bad at the OW that even a Congressman from ultra-liberal Boulder proposed putting marijuana into the BATF for regulation, and another liberal Representative from Oregon wanted to tax workers and businesses like tobacco. Both “friends of Cannabis” actually wanted the excise tax at 50%, whereas the MORE Act pegs it at 5%; that’s how badly Dems mismanaged the OW.

Ideas that are inside the two policy extremes (inside the OW) are politically viable, those outside are not. Events can shift the Window in the minds of the public and become politically viable quickly, or it might take decades.

How DRPA uses the OW is like this: currently there are a number of marjuana descheduling bills in Congress, including the new and improved MORE Act, a version of which passed last December. Currently in the OW model, that MORE Act defines one extreme of the Window, being the most liberal. With the DRPA they have shifted that left boundary further to the left from the MORE Act. Suddenly, the MORE Act doesn’t look nearly as liberal when viewed against “legalizing all drugs,” like DRPA does. Ironically, DRPA is really not that extreme, at least in the minds of the public: the ACLU released a national poll that found 66% of American voters were in support of removing criminal penalties for all drugs and replacing them with health-centered approaches.

Oregon voters passed a drug decriminalization initiative handily last year, as did a few cities more slated to do so next year. This creates a Constitutional crisis between state decrim policy and federal CSA, just as marijuana legalization does. The more states do it, the more other states will follow. The pernicious persistent venality of Schedule 1 must end, and state-by-state decrim is a great way to force the federal to act while in the meantime saving citizens from a life destroyed by the law.

It’s the little things that can mean a lot, like this. Frank Luntz made this his career, such as by framing laws such as the estate tax as a “Death Tax,” and the like. By framing it thusly he helped ensure its success and provided political cover for politicians from their constituents ever knowing they sold them out. It was as brilliant as it was evil. BTW, George Lakoff is the left’s answer to Luntz, check him out.

And as for those on our side who are fatalistic about these bills and their prospects for success, the simple reason I no longer join you after 49 years of advocacy is that I wish to maintain pressure on those in power to do the right thing, and fatalism removes that pressure. Giving them an energetic or political “out” such as “they’ll never do it” or “it’s impossible” ensures that they’ll never do it and that it’s impossible. Instead, I demand they step up and do what 92% of the public want, the right thing. The man who says it can’t be done and the one who says it can are both right, so I intend to hold “Jailin’ Joe” and “Kamala the Kop” accountable for their past policy failures when it comes to drug laws. Please join me.

From the Drug Policy Alliance on the Drug Policy Reform Act:

Two days before the 50th anniversary of when President Richard Nixon declared the “war on drugs,” Representatives Bonnie Watson Coleman (D-NJ) and Cori Bush (D-MO) unveiled the Drug Policy Reform Act (DPRA), alongside the Drug Policy Alliance, which has been a strategic partner on the development of the legislation. The bill would end criminal penalties for drug possession at the federal level, shift the regulatory authority from the Attorney General to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), expunge records and provide for resentencing, and reinvest in alternative health-centered approaches. The bill also eliminates many of the life-long consequences associated with drug arrests and convictions, including the denial of employment, public benefits, immigration status, drivers’ licenses, and voting rights.

“Every 23 seconds, a person’s life is ruined for simply possessing drugs. Drug possession remains the most arrested offense in the United States despite the well-known fact that drug criminalization does nothing to help communities, it ruins them. It tears families apart, and causes trauma that can be felt for generations. The drug war has caused mass devastation to Black, Latinx, Indigenous and low-income communities and today we say, ‘Enough is enough!’” said Queen Adesuyi, Policy Manager for the Office of National Affairs at the Drug Policy Alliance.

In addition to eliminating criminal penalties for drug possession at the federal level, the bill also incentivizes state and local governments to adopt decriminalization policies by otherwise limiting their eligibility to receive funds in the Byrne and COPS grant programs.

Aside from eliminating criminal penalties for drug possession, the Drug Policy Reform Act:

  • Automatically expunges and seals records.
  • Provides relief for people currently incarcerated or on supervision for certain drug convictions.
  • Shifts the regulatory authority for substances listed under the Controlled Substances Act from the Attorney General to the Secretary of HHS.
  • Reinvests funds to support programs that work on expanding access to substance use treatment, support harm reduction services, and reduce the criminalization of individuals who use drugs by supporting the development or expansion of pre-arrest diversion programs.
  • Promotes evidence-based drug education.
  • Prohibits the denial of employment or termination based upon a criminal history for drug possession.
  • Explicitly prohibits drug testing for individuals to receive federal benefits.
  • Prevents drug use charges/convictions from being held against an individual in order to receive SNAP/TANF, housing assistance and other federal benefits.
  • Prevents individuals in the U.S. from being denied immigration status due to personal drug use.
  • Prevents individuals from being denied the right to vote regardless if they have served their sentence or not, and restores voting rights to those who have been impacted in the past.
  • Ensures individuals with drug convictions can gain access to drivers’ licenses.
  • Prohibits the use of civil asset forfeitures related to personal drug possession cases.
  • Charges HHS with establishing a “Commission on Substance Use, Health and Safety,” to determine the benchmark amounts for drug possession and publish an online report on their findings within 180 days. The report will also include recommendations for preventing the prosecution of individuals possessing, distributing or dispensing personal use quantities of each drug.
  • Improves research on impact of drug criminalization and enforcement.
  • Funds data collection and transparency on all available data related to enforcement of drug laws, including local arrests for drug possession and distribution offenses, possession of drug paraphernalia, public or intoxication, loitering, and all other drug-related violations.

For a summary of the DPRA from DPA, click here: https://drugpolicy.org/sites/default/files/dpra_summary.pdf

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PubMed: Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs

PubMed: Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs

FP Essent. 2021 Jun;505:28-34.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies Cannabis sativa as marijuana. The term cannabis refers to all products derived from Cannabis plants. The active compounds in cannabis are cannabinoids, which include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the psychoactive component, whereas CBD has no psychoactive effects. There are three Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cannabis-related drugs. Dronabinol and nabilone (Cesamet) are approved for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; cannabidiol (Epidiolex) is approved for two pediatric epilepsy syndromes. FDA-approved cannabis-related drugs, marijuana, and cannabis formulations have been studied for the management of other conditions and symptoms (eg, cachexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, chronic pain, muscle spasticity) and have shown varying effectiveness. CBD formulations have been shown to be effective for certain forms of epilepsy. However, marijuana, cannabis-containing products, and cannabis-derived products in general are not approved by the FDA for any indication. Adverse effects include impaired executive function, cognition, and driving. Physicians can recommend use of marijuana under medical marijuana laws but cannot prescribe it, as it is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. Laws regulating use of marijuana and cannabis products vary among states.

PMID:34128629

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34128629/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210616065939&v=2.14.4 June 15, 2021 10:00 am

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Canada: 54,964 acres in 2020

On May 4 Health Canada finally released 2020 hemp production data.

Canada grew 54,964 acres of hemp in 2020, 67% as much as in 2019.

AB grew more than MB and SK, perhaps for the first time. Top varieties, in order: Finola, Katani, CanMa, CFX-2, X-59, Carmagnola. Finola, Carmagnola and Katani were grown for flowers. X-59 acres dropped, Katani rose.

Acres grown for planting seed: 4,734; grain: 41,237; fiber: 16,188; flowers (CBD): 26,677 (multiple for each, does not add to 100%).

Ever since the first Farm Bill allowing U.S. hemp was signed in 2014, hemp in Canada has had problems. The prospect of that is why those with investments in Canadian hemp were for years not keen on seeing the U.S. legalize, turning its biggest customer into its biggest competitor. Unfortunately, those were the same people funding lobbying in the USA, mostly Americans.

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EU Member Nations Still Angling About Limiting Hemp THC

EU Member Nations Still Angling About Limiting Hemp THC

thc hemp EU

By Oliver Bennett, Special Contributor to New Frontier Data

For several years, despite legalization and reform legislation. the percentage of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — commonly understood as the psychoactive component of cannabis and inherent to hemp, CBD, and other cannabis products — has been stuck in something of a confusing regulatory purgatory. Every European country  respectively limits THC content (e.g., ranging from 0.0% in France, to 0.2% in the U.K., and 0.6% in Italy), and across the continent allowable THC tends to stand around 0.3% or below – the historic premise being that it should not be possible for people using freely available hemp and CBD products to gain any narcotic effects from doing so.

But change is afoot: In the Czech Republic, a recent bill aims to establish its THC limit for industrial hemp at 1.0% effective in January 2022.

That might put the Czech Republic in potentially conflict with the stance of the EU, to which it belongs among 27 member states. While the Czech Republic already enjoys liberal cannabis laws with decriminalised personal possession, it might be argued that the country is following the example of non-EU Switzerland, where rules limiting open-market products to 1.0% THC have met with great success.  Meanwhile, a new report in the U.K. suggests that that country (the biggest consumer of CBD in Europe) adopt a rise to 1.0%.

Legislation is beginning to iron out the uneven THC limits. Last year, the EU raised the THC cap for hemp to 0.3% from 0.2%, effective in 2023. Daniel Kruse of the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) welcomed the change, saying that the Parliament’s decision “reflects a renewed approach of our society to this wonderful plant that has the potential of decarbonising many different manufacturing sectors and provide farmers with a consistent and green source of revenues.”

Since the European Parliament also voted to establish marketing standards for hemp, the Czech Republic is ahead of the curve, and will likely revive a global movement to establish 1.0% THC standard for hemp.

European THC limits for hemp were established around 0.5% in 1984, before pressure downward to 0.3%, and finally in 1999 to  0.2% following research. While the global average has wavered around 0.2% or 0.3%, those ceilings have long been deemed arbitrary in the industry, according to New Frontier Data hemp segment analyst Trevor Yahn-Grode,  and took their rationales  from an outdated understanding of cannabis.

“The very definition of hemp is based on the THC limit,” says Yahn-Grode. “Below 0.3% is typically said to be ‘hemp’ while above [that] is said to be ‘marijuana’.” Adding to the categorical mix is the distinction between cannabis sativa and cannabis indica – the former strain non-intoxicating, and the latter strain marked by higher THC content.

Nevertheless, adds Yahn-Grode, the more learned about cannabis and its entourage effects, the less clear it all becomes. “Research is in a very opaque and grey place right now, and boundaries between medical and hemp and CBD are becoming increasingly blurred,” he says.

There are more than 113 different cannabinoids, and the list keeps growing; in the increasingly complex picture, old THC limits are not easily applicable.

Increasingly, it is surmised that a move to a widely observed, 1.0% classification would be more fair to farmers, who are often penalised for unwittingly growing higher-THC plants. Lower limits put farmers at a disadvantage — not just for those growing hemp for industrial uses, but also for CBD producers, as CBD levels are believed to rise accordingly to THC levels. Plus, lower limits restrict research into products associated with higher THC and CBD strains.

“In the U.S., if a farmer’s crop tests ‘hot’ – that is, over 0.5% – they have to destroy their crop with no financial compensation,” says Yahn-Grode.

While a case could be made for caution involving ingestible CBD products, such restrictions are not necessary for hemp used in industries such as construction or automotive parts. “It puts a burden on farmers that doesn’t need to exist,” says Yahn-Grode.

The hemp industry, then, is moving towards a 1% classification for THC. The higher level is expected to provide farmers with some latitude, so that if their cannabis becomes hot, it need not be destroyed. It would also impact the legal marketing of CBD-based extracts as foods, following the EU’s guidance on CBD last year in ruling in a French case that CBD should not be considered a narcotic. More liberal allowable percentages of THC might have other knock-on effects, designing out discrepancies in an immature market with better testing. One analysis of over-the-counter CBD found huge differences, wherein the advertised CBD content was 4.5%, but the actual mean measured CBD content of products stood at 3.2%.

Overall, as Kruse added, it “will give [Europe] a chance to gain momentum and catch up with the world.” The EIHA believes that 0.3% THC will make no difference to hemp with 0.2% THC, but will be far better for producers. For now, eyes are trained on the Czechs, to see whether their initiative sails forward or gets knocked back.

The post EU Member Nations Still Angling About Limiting Hemp THC appeared first on New Frontier Data.

#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/eu-member-nations-still-angling-about-limiting-hemp-thc/ June 14, 2021 11:58 pm

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Five Cannabis Leaders Forecast Industry Changes

Five Cannabis Leaders Forecast Industry Changes

There’s no question that the cannabis industry is booming and changing daily. MJBizDaily recently released a publication that expects marijuana sales to boost the economy by $92 billion in 2021 alone. That statistic is up 30% from last year, and the same analysis predicts it will reach upwards of $160 billion by 2025.

With all of this incredible growth, significant changes are on the horizon. So, we decided to ask five top leaders in the cannabis and CBD industries about the changes they anticipate happening in the next five years. 

Here’s what they shared. 

1 . Products Will Become More Accessible to the Consumer

“[The majority of CBD products] are trying to be luxury brands and premium brands. And that just isn’t a sustainable marketplace, nor what serves most consumer needs,” explains Sequoia Prince-Lazarus, Founder and CEO of Lazarus Naturals.

He founded his company to fill a void in the marketplace, and his mission was to make farm-to-bottle CBD products that were both effective and affordable. He believes we’ll see more accessible products like his in the future, and in the next five years the industry will normalize, and prices will fall. 

“I think [brands] are trying to effectively milk it for all it’s worth before the prices come down,” he shared. And the high prices are coming at the expense of consumers.

Because luxury brands are nearly ten times the cost of typical supplements, it’s difficult for the average consumer to include CBD as part of their health routine. 

As more and more brands enter the marketplace, Price-Lazarus predicts that we’ll see a lot more commoditization and more affordable brands. “Eventually, the prices will be no more than twice the price of normal supplements, and they may even be more affordable than over-the-counter drugs or at least similar prices,” he shared. 

2. Tailored Delivery Methods to Fit Each Use Case

As more and more scientists research cannabinoids from a medical perspective, Price-Lazarus also predicts that we’ll see delivery methods tailored to each use case. “Right now, we’re operating off of anecdotal evidence for the most part—and also a few research papers,” he shared. 

But as medical research expands, he predicts scientists will know which delivery methods are most effective for treating each ailment. “You’ll have to understand market trends and consumer preference and pair that in.

But I think it will be more important to know what type of cannabinoids, at what exact levels, and determining the right and proper serving,” he explained.

As the industry better understands the answers to these questions, more brands will take a scientific approach to how CBD should be delivered. Delivery methods that fit the use case of those substances will reign supreme, meaning more effective products for consumers. 

3. Brands Will Understand the Power of Cannabinoid Combos

Because there’s not very much research done on isolated cannabinoids that aren’t THC, Marcus Quinn, CEO of Your CBD Store, says there’s tons of opportunity to study the combination of cannabinoids. “[Medical research] hasn’t even begun to look at how [certain cannabinoids] work together,” he explained.

Quinn and his wife, Rachael Quinn, founded their company after using CBD products to treat Rachael’s Crohn’s disease. After finding much-sought-after relief from the hemp products, the duo realized they could help heal others with the supplement.

And they even began creating their own products, which are tested and certified by ISO-accredited labs.

“[The industry] looks totally different than it did five years ago. And I think five years from now, it’s going to look totally different, too,” Quinn explained. “We know CBD somewhat blocks THC, but we don’t know if that affects the efficacy of the THC. And now, we know about even more cannabinoids, like CBG and CBN.”

Quinn believes that as interest peaks and regulations change, more researchers will start asking the right questions. “Like, what [cannabinoid combos] are the best? Does it vary from person to person? Or are there different ratios that give you better [results]?”

If brands want to survive in the next five years, their offerings can’t remain stagnant. Because more innovative brands will force the industry to stay on the cutting edge.

Brands that thrive will identify the cannabinoid combination trends. They’ll work with the research and listen to the science.  And they’ll adapt their products accordingly to provide the best in the market. 

4. Brands Will Focus More on Developing People

According to Nichole LaMay, Head of HR and Culture at Mammoth Distribution, cannabis brands have left employee development on the table for far too long. “There’s an opportunity for growing and developing people in this industry,” she explained. “So being able to have solid learning, development and succession plans that continue to evolve and grow employees will be important.”

She says brands will need to take an innovative and unique approach to these programs if they want to reach and resonate with their audience. They’ll also need to invest in performance-proven c-suite leaders who align with their culture. 

“Having people who are passionate about what they do helps you drive everything you’re doing,” she explained. “When you have a healthy, robust culture where people want to come to work and want to collaborate for the greatest good, you see the greatest results.”

5. More Small Businesses to Help Local Communities and Support The Global Good

Thomas Rimbach, Co-Founder, and CEO at Baked Bros, says predicting the next five years is challenging. “Because where I want to see it and where we might end up —with a bunch of money and corporate backing —are two different directions.” 

He hopes that small businesses in America will be able to keep and maintain the footing they’ve helped build thus far. “I’d like to see small businesses helping local communities and supporting globally, but I don’t know how it’s going to work out once it’s federally legal and big money opens up.”

Rimbach told us there’s one thing he knows for sure: Small businesses (like his) will drive the industry forward with more sustainable business practices and put consumers first. “We want to prevent [the cannabis industry] from going to this corporate setting—where people are forgotten and treated as a ticket,” he shared.

Predicting what’s next in cannabis is a tall order. With rules that vary from state to state, constant regulation changes, and a chance to become federally legal, this industry is constantly changing. Whatever happens next will make or break the brands that built the industry—and only the most innovative will survive. 


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/five-cannabis-leaders-forecast-industry-changes/
June 14, 2021 4:06 pm

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PubMed: Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People

PubMed: Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001427. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonintoxicating constituent of cannabis, exhibits anxiolytic properties in preclinical and human studies and is of interest as a novel intervention for treating anxiety disorders. Existing first-line pharmacotherapies for these disorders include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and other antidepressants. Cannabidiol has well-described inhibitory action on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug-metabolizing enzymes and significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between CBD and various anticonvulsant medications (eg, clobazam) have been described in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, we examined the likelihood of DDIs when CBD is added to medications prescribed in the treatment of anxiety.

METHODS: The effect of CBD on CYP450-mediated metabolism of the commonly used antidepressants fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and mirtazapine were examined in vitro. Cannabidiol-citalopram interactions were also examined in vivo in patients (n = 6) with anxiety disorders on stable treatment with citalopram or escitalopram who received ascending daily doses of adjunctive CBD (200-800 mg) over 12 weeks in a recent clinical trial.

RESULTS: Cannabidiol minimally affected the metabolism of sertraline, fluoxetine, and mirtazapine in vitro. However, CBD significantly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of citalopram and its stereoisomer escitalopram at physiologically relevant concentrations, suggesting a possible in vivo DDI. In patients on citalopram or escitalopram, the addition of CBD significantly increased citalopram plasma concentrations, although it was uncertain whether this also increased selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-mediated adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: Further pharmacokinetic examination of the interaction between CBD and citalopram/escitalopram is clearly warranted, and clinicians should be vigilant around the possibility of treatment-emergent adverse effects when CBD is introduced to patients taking these antidepressants.

PMID:34121064 | DOI:10.1097/JCP.0000000000001427

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34121064/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210615070047&v=2.14.4 June 14, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Potency testing of cannabinoids by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography: Where we are, what we need

PubMed: Potency testing of cannabinoids by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography: Where we are, what we need

J Chromatogr A. 2021 Jun 1;1651:462304. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462304. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp and cannabis industry is undergoing a renewed interest due to legalization of marijuana (a topic that all countries are discussing, especially in recent years) and the growing importance of therapeutic properties of cannabinoids. Together with an increment in the production of hemp and recreational cannabis, there has been an increasing demand for accurate potency testing of products (i.e. quantification of main cannabinoids present in the plant in terms of weight percentage) prior commercialization. This translates in an urgent need of reliable analytical methods to characterize cannabis and hemp samples. Cannabis and hemp preparations are commercialized under various forms (e.g., flowers, oils, candies or even baked goods) usually containing a large number of often very similar compounds making their separation very challenging. Strictly connected to this, another emerging topic concerns the need for the developing of large scale separation techniques for the purification of cannabinoids from complex matrices and for the preparation of analytical-grade standards (including the chiral ones). This paper reviews the most recent achievements in both these aspects. Cutting-edge applications and novel opportunities in potency testing by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection (which is becoming the golden standard, according to several pharmacopeias, for this kind of measurements) are discussed. The focus has been given to the very important topic of enantio-discrimination of chiral cannabinoids, for which supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) appears to be particularly suitable. The last part of the work covers the purification of cannabinoids through preparative chromatography. In this regard, particular attention has been given to the most innovative multi-column techniques allowing for the continuous purification of target molecules. The most recent advancements and future challenges in this field are discussed.

PMID:34118531 | DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462304

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34118531/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 12, 2021 10:00 am

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Quick Hits: Criminal and Social Justice Reform in Cannabis Industry

Quick Hits: Criminal and Social Justice Reform in Cannabis Industry

The NFL and NFLPA will award $1M in up to five grants as the league seeks to know more about the efficacy of cannabis and CBD for pain management.

The National Football League and its Players Association are providing $1 million in funding for research into pain management and cannabinoids through its joint pain management committee, the NFL announced on Tuesday.

The league and union launched the committee last year and said cannabis is included in its research into alternative therapies for pain management.

According to Gangapreneur, “Up to five grants are expected to be awarded by Thanksgiving as the league seeks to learn more about the efficacy of cannabis and CBD and their potential as alternatives to opioids.”

Full story here. 

Zelira Therapeutics has licensed its ZTL-106 proprietary cannabinoid formulation to Levin Health for a chronic pain treatment clinical trial on retired athletes.

Zelira Therapeutics Ltd (ASX: ZLD, OTCQB: ZLDAF), a company that focuses on the development of clinically validated cannabinoid-based medicines, announces that it has licensed a proprietary cannabinoid formulation to Levin Health Limited (Levin Health) to undertake a clinical trial to test the efficacy of the formulation in treating sports-related chronic pain experienced by retired professional and amateur athletes.

Studies show that retired athletes are more likely to suffer chronic pain and associated conditions such as depression and anxiety due to injuries and physical exertion over long periods.

While clinical data is currently limited, medicinal cannabis may provide a safe and effective targeted treatment option for this large cohort.

The clinical trial to be conducted by Levin Health will address this.

In addition to licensing the proprietary formulation to Levin Health, Zelira and Levin Health have entered into a Project Management Agreement, whereby Levin Health will pay for the trial and engage Zelira to project manage the clinical trial to be undertaken at La Trobe University’s Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre in Victoria, Australia.

Morocco’s House of Councilors finally passes their cannabis legalization bill.

After several amendments, Morocco’s House of Councilors has finally approved the intensely debated measure on the limited legalization of cannabis.

Morocco’s Parliament put Bill No. 13.21, concerning the commercialization and legal uses of cannabis, up for a vote during today’s governmental plenary session.

It passed by a majority vote, with 41 advisers voting in favor and 11 voting against. 

The bill aims to improve Moroccan farmers’ income and give rise to “promising and sustainable” job opportunities in the country’s rural regions. 

Full story here.   

Connecticut: Senate Lawmakers Advance Adult Use Marijuana Legalization Bill

(Via NORML) Members of the Connecticut state Senate have approved legislation, Senate Bill 1118, to legalize the adult use of marijuana, regulate its commercial retail sales, and tax the potency of THC. 

SB 1118 allows adults 21 and older to legally purchase and possess up to 1.5 ounces of marijuana in public and up to five ounces of marijuana in their private residence. 

Beginning October 2021, state-registered medical cannabis patients will be permitted to cultivate up to three mature and three immature marijuana plants.

Non-patients must wait until 2023 until they are legally allowed to home-cultivate marijuana for personal use.

Those with past criminal records for activities involving up to four ounces of cannabis will automatically expunge their convictions.

Those with convictions for more serious offenses can petition the courts to take action.  

The proposed measure also limits the discriminatory actions that employers, hospitals, and others may take against those who test positive for past cannabis exposure.

The bill also provides protections for parents and tenants who use cannabis in compliance with the law.

It mandates that the odor of marijuana alone cannot be used as a basis for police to search an individual.

It prohibits jail time as a penalty for those under 21 years of age who are caught in possession of marijuana.

Under the legislation, marijuana flowers available at retail facilities will be capped at 30 percent THC, while concentrated products (except vape cartridges) will be capped at 60 percent THC.

Senate lawmakers approved the bill with a 19 to 17 vote.

House lawmakers are expected to consider the proposal shortly.

Lawmakers face a tight deadline of Wednesday, June 9, 2021, at midnight to move SB 1118 through the House and to the Governor’s desk before the legislative session adjourns for the year.

The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation Announce New Grants

Today, the Hawthorne Gardening Company (Hawthorne) announced the first grantees of The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation.

These organizations are contributing to criminal and social justice reform for the cannabis industry. 

The $2.5 million fund is dedicated to non-profit organizations working toward social justice reform within state-regulated cannabis industries.

The recipients include Minorities for Medical Marijuana and United Returning Citizens.

In addition, Hawthorne is funding the NuLeaf Project, an organization that provides direct support for minority cannabis entrepreneurs through a corporate donation. 

As North America’s household name in indoor and hydroponic growing supplies, Hawthorne has committed to using its influence and resources to help drive criminal justice reform related to cannabis prohibition and contribute to shaping a more equitable post-prohibition cannabis industry. 

“Our commitment to being a good company is what drove us to create The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund within The Scotts Miracle-Gro Foundation. As we announced earlier this year, establishing the fund with an initial investment of $2.5 million to support non-profit organizations with cannabis social justice missions,” said Chris Hagedorn, Executive Vice President and Division President of Hawthorne. “This fund deepens Hawthorne’s commitment to sparking change as policy reform advances across the country and states address the legacy of racial inequity tied to cannabis prohibition. We promise to support programming that helps communities and individuals who have been negatively affected by the long-standing and systemic inequality related to cannabis prohibition in the United States.”

The Hawthorne Social Justice Fund grantees were chosen because of the powerful work they’re doing to address the negative impacts caused by the disproportionate number of cannabis-related arrests and incarcerations involving persons of color to support minority entrepreneurs and increase investments in minority communities. 

The work of the Fund’s grantees includes:

 

  • Minorities for Medical Marijuana provides advocacy, outreach, research, and training related to business, social reform, public policy, and health/wellness in the cannabis industry. Its Project Clean Slate program offers expungement clinics and wraparound services nationwide for those affected by past marijuana possession charges. At the same time, Project Safe Access NV assists members of the Latino community in accessing medical marijuana. 

 

  • NuLeaf Project is working to build intergenerational wealth via the legal cannabis industry for the communities disproportionately harmed by cannabis criminalization–including Black and Brown communities. Hawthorne is a corporate sponsor for the Nu School Accelerator Program, which offers financial support and technical expertise on cannabis startup financing and operating an ancillary business.

 

  • United Returning Citizens provides job search and training, life and financial literacy skills, and transitional and stable housing for citizens reentering society from correctional facilities. This partnership focuses on workforce development, helping people with cannabis convictions in a high-unemployment area (Youngstown, Ohio) find employment and start hemp and indoor cultivation businesses.

 

Product Launches:

Homie: Helping Homeless Youth One Hoodie At A Time

Homie was born in 2015 from a shared passion between three friends eager to break down the stigma associated with homelessness and help young people who found themselves living on the streets.

Homie continues to draw awareness to the faces and stories of everyday youth affected by homelessness and allows them to share their narrative in a dignified way – ultimately destigmatizing and humanizing the issue.

With its recent expansion in the U.S., Homie seeks to continue empowering young people and raising awareness across the globe from Melbourne to Los Angeles.

 Homie has designed trendy and comfortable all-season pieces, collaborating with Champion, a household name in hoodies,  to create a new line. 100% of profits go towards achieving their mission of supporting young people affected by homelessness or hardship and help them become their champions. 

House of Saka announces the release of Saka Spark Mimosa. 

Photo courtesy of House of Saka.

House of Saka, Inc., Napa Valley producers of the award-winning cannabis beverages Saka PINK and Saka WHITE, announced Tuesday the launch of much-anticipated single-serve offering, Saka Spark ‘Mimosa.’

House of Saka Spark ‘Mimosa’ is the first and only cannabis-infused beverage to blend alcohol-removed, premium, California sparkling Chardonnay with the natural essence of orange blossom, nectarine, and a Mimosa-strain specific live resin to bolster its organic cannabis emulsion. 

Available in single-serve, 187ml (6 ounces) champagne bottles with a micro-dose of 5mgs of full-spectrum THC per bottle, Saka Spark Mimosa delivers all the flavor and celebration of a traditional Mimosa, without the adverse health effects and excessive calories of alcohol. 

“Saka Spark Mimosa marks the next evolution in cannabis beverages,” explains Tracey Mason, Co-founder & CEO. “Offering enhanced bioavailability, a unique, strain-specific full spectrum experience, and unparalleled flavor, House of Saka continues to set the standard for quality and true innovation in the infused beverage sector.”

Just in time for summer imbibing, Mimosa is available wherever House of Saka Vinfusions™ are sold. 

Plus Pride Limited Edition Pride Rainbow Sherbet

Photo courtesy of PLUS.

PLUS announces the release of a celebratory rainbow-marbled gummy from California’s cannabis cube connoisseurs, featuring a rainbow sherbet flavor and an uplifting Sativa strain. 

Ten percent of the proceeds of Plus Pride sales will be donated to the San Francisco-based, Black trans-women led Transgender, Gender-Variant & Intersex Justice Project (TGIJP) to further their mission of ending the human rights abuses committed against Black and Brown TGI people inside of California prisons, jails, detention centers and beyond.

TGIJP provides advocacy, legal and re-entry services, direct life-saving services like temporary housing, employment, and transportation.

The gummies are $18 and contain 5mg THC. Pride and more varieties are available throughout California.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/quick-hits-criminal-and-social-justice-reform-in-cannabis-industry/
June 11, 2021 10:47 pm

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2000: Hemp Seed Delight

2000: Hemp Seed Delight, Health Supplement magazine.

Hempseed is positioned to replace soy products in the lives of many nutritionally savvy people. In an exclusive interview with Richard Rose, President of Rella Good Cheese Company and HempNut Incorporated, we see the challenges and opportunities in bringing hemp seed products to market.

Hemp Supplement Editor: You have quite a history in the natural foods market?

Richard Rose: We’ve been making natural foods for 20 years. We developed 60 to 70 tofu products in the eighties. About five years ago we came out with HempRella cheese alternative. Then we introduced the Hempeh Burger. We realized that after all these years of working with soy beans that hemp seed is every bit as good if not better than soy in functionality.

HSE: Describe your manufacturing process.

RR: We invented a process to shell hemp seeds and called the product HempNut. To me, using whole hemp seeds is like using whole walnuts. It just doesn’t make any sense. So we take the entire shell off. People eat it straight out of the can. It’s extremely high in essential fatty acids (EFA) like Omega-3 and contains a high quality protein.

HSE: Many people have misconceptions about hemp, don’t they?

RR: Yes, so we try to educate them. We have two web sites with over a hundred documents. We also founded The Hemp Food Association last year to bring more professionalism into the hemp food industry.

HSE: How concerned are you about the legalization attempts to allow hemp to be grown in the US?

RR: We don’t get involved in this. Our position is that we don’t really care so much where you grow it, but once it is grown, we want to turn it into food, and that’s where we come into play. The fact is that even if the current status persists and even if Canada didn’t sell it, we would still be able to make our food.

HSE: Where are the hemp sources now?

RR: Canada grows about 6,000 acres, but they have the highest priced material and the lowest quality. I can import from China at about 50 percent of Canadian farmers’ cost of production. If it were legalized in the US, prices would come down over time. The advantage the Chinese have is that they don’t have the government telling them what to grow and making them test for THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).

HSE: What’s keeping Canada from being a better supplier?

RR: In Canada they have certain THC tests and can grow only certain varieties. The Canadian government hasn’t given them much of a helping hand in terms of the usual assistance a government can give. So they are just left to their own devices and sort of try to feel their way through the dark and consequently the price is very high and the quality very low. Now l think that over time this will change, whether in two years or twenty years. Remember, China has a 10,000 year start on Canada in growing hemp.

HSE: Are there other sources besides China and Canada?

RR: Yes, in Europe. France grows half of the hemp seed in Europe and you can get it at about the same price as you can in China. Also Germany, Holland, England and Spain grow hemp.

HSE: Are the very large food companies going to give you increased competition?

RR: As of yet, that hasn’t happened. Monsanto has been quietly working on genetic material modifications, but it’s still too scary to them and not on their radar screens. It’s where organic was 10 years ago. Also, I think they are populated by older people still afraid of it or who think it is about drugs or simply just don’t get it.

HSE: What’s the quality of protein in hemp seed?

RR: It’s very high. It’s second only to egg whites. It’s even higher than mother’s milk or cow’s milk.

HSE: Does adding hemp oil change the taste of food?

RR: It actually improves it a little bit. The hemp nut tastes like sunflower seeds or pine nuts so it has a good flavor. For years I have been doing tofu demos and l couldn’t get people to try the products. They would turn their noses up. But now when we do demos of hemp nut, people flip over it. It’s not that tofu tastes bad it’s just a mind set. In the ‘80s they asked people what their most hated food was and tofu was number one and yogurt was number two. It’s all perception.

HSE: Isn’t there still an ongoing problem with THC in hemp seed, the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana?

RR: The problem is that as the hemp seed forms, some of the resin containing THC brushes up against the seed coat and sticks to it. So when you harvest the seed you have this bit of resin sticking to the outside of the coats. You need to get that off and the way we do that is to shell it and thereby remove the resin and the THC.

HSE: What happens if you don’t remove the shells?

RR: About three years ago one hemp seed oil company produced an oil that was 1,300 ppm (parts per million) of THC. They just took the seed and turned it into oil and the process of doing so put all of the THC on the outside of the coats into the oil. It caused a whole rash of positives in drug testing. We believe it is possible to make oil with zero THC.

HSE: So you really want to get it as THC-free as possible?

RR: We have to. The drug tests are now measuring down to ppb (parts per billion). The guy that lost his gold medal was tested at 17 ppb. And that was second hand smoke from two to three weeks earlier. The drug test industry is totally skewed toward marijuana. You can smoke crack on Saturday and be tested on Monday and not test positive. THC is a sitting duck.

HSE: So what message do you want to get out?

RR: There has been a lot of misinformation put out about hemp seed. The fact is that hemp seed is more nutritious than say beans and is super high in EFA. I believe the protein in hemp seed is of a higher quality. having worked with soy for 20 years. It’s a certain kind of protein that is found only in hemp seed. I think it will be the answer to someone’s medical condition like Crohn’s disease. I can’t believe that a protein of such high quality can’t be used for some malady.

Smirky photo of RR by Malcolm MacKinnon

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Trade Secrets: Innovators Share Their Strategies for Industry Domination

Trade Secrets: Innovators Share Their Strategies for Industry Domination

Each quarter, Cannabis & Tech Today speaks with innovative brands from around the country to discover who is leading the call for a more resilient, thoughtful, transparent cannabis industry.

This issue, we’re highlighting three brands receiving national attention for their commitment to excellence within the cannabis community. 

Clear Cannabis Inc.

Rich Batenburg Jr., has decades of experience developing scalable business models in various industries.

As president and chairman of Clear Cannabis, Inc., Batenburg is using his expertise to develop an infrastructure for the company capable of scaling to a national level.

Rich Batenburg Jr.: What was going to happen with cannabis in my mind was exactly what happened with cable.

Richard M Batenburg. Photo courtesy of Clear Cannabis, Inc.

A bunch of mom-and-pop operators who were very passionate about the product, very customer-centric, but did not have the skills and the foresight and capitalization to build heavy weight infrastructure that could scale to handle millions of customers as opposed to thousands of customers.

So I thought “Hey, this is my opportunity to fix all this stuff that’s been broken in cable before it happens in cannabis.”

Once we have ubiquitous legalization, big food, big pharma, big tobacco, and big agriculture will likely be taking over this industry.

It takes money to scale up.

There are thousands of inventive, creative, sincere, gentle geniuses in the business that have come up with products.

What you don’t see is the massive distribution and commercialization of those products.

That’s really our focus.

What I liked about Clear Cannabis is it has a trade secret component to it, it has a formula.

It’s not based on things you can’t own.

Nobody can own a strain name.

It’s not a capitalistic thing, but a brand needs to have its own identity and its own interpersonal and emotional connection to the customer and it needs to have a brand promise that can be replicated. 

GrowRay Technologies

Ash Ganley. Photo courtesy of GrowRay Technologies

The cannabis space, in many ways, is about collaboration.

The industry relies on different sectors coming together to create solutions.

Ash Ganley, CEO of GrowRay Technologies understands the fractured nature of the industry and is working to unite growers with technology and science to create a more efficient cultivation ecosystem. 

Ash Ganley: “We realized quickly that the market is not always going to be so high margin that you could hide bad business practices and hide a lack of efficiency in your operation and production.

And now that’s happening across the country.

As prices are coming down and regulations are increasing in terms of how much electricity you use per square foot, etc., a lot of growers who used pre-legal, scaled-up practices are losing their businesses because they’re not taking those low-margin, high-efficiency lessons from traditional agronomy.

That’s what we’re doing, is really learning cannabis from a whole systems technical point of view, knowing all the while that we have to get better.

Photo courtesy of GrowRay Technologies

We’re never going to be good enough.

You always have to keep learning.

But we’re pushing the envelope, and we know that.

So, we have to be curious.

We have to be hungry.

We have to learn together.

The whole issue of legality in cannabis has forced a lot of businesses to operate in a silo or in a vacuum.

So it’s a very fractured industry and that has hamstrung innovation in a big way.

We’re just trying to approach it from that point of view.

Aspen Green

Colorado-based Aspen Green is one of only seven USDA Organic certified full-spectrum hemp and CBD brands in the country.

Their products are free from toxins, formaldehyde, phthalates, parabens, and sulfates.

They’re one of five brands recognized by Realm of Caring for their commitment to transparency, quality, and integrity.

To learn more about the company’s commitment to serving the industry, we spoke with Aspen Green President and CEO Brandon Lewis.

Brandon Lewis. Photo courtesy of Aspen Green.

Brandon Lewis: We are filling the need for education around the hemp plant, it’s properties, and where to find the actual science that’s been conducted for decades — which can start with a simple search at the National Institute of Health. 

We are passionate about assisting people in what to look for in high-quality hemp & CBD products even if not from Aspen Green. 

We believe cannabis will be federally legal within 5 years and consumers will be educated on the value of the whole hemp plant and all of its properties. 

We also believe laws will become uniform versus how fragmented they are currently at the state level. 

We also see the industry maturing to focusing on various regions where the plant is grown, much like wine. 

In our opinion, what Napa is to wine — the Colorado Rockies are to hemp.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/trade-secrets/
June 11, 2021 11:00 am

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PubMed: Detectability of cannabinoids in the serum samples of cannabis users: Indicators of recent cannabis use? A follow-up study

PubMed: Detectability of cannabinoids in the serum samples of cannabis users: Indicators of recent cannabis use? A follow-up study

Drug Test Anal. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1002/dta.3110. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Forensic toxicologists are frequently required to predict the time of last cannabis consumption. Several studies suggested the utility of minor cannabinoids as indicators of recent cannabis use. Because several factors influence blood cannabinoid concentrations, the interpretation of serum cannabinoid concentrations remains challenging. To assess the informative value of serum cannabinoid levels in cannabis users (in total N = 117 patients, including 56 patients who stated an exact time of last cannabis use within 24 h before blood sampling), the detectability of cannabinoids, namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC, cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidivarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabicyclol, delta-8-THC, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A, cannabichromenic acid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid, cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH), and 11-nor-CBN-9-COOH, was investigated. Excluding CBDA and CBLA, all investigated cannabinoids were detected in at least one analyzed sample. The interval between cannabis consumption and sample collection (reported by the patients) was not correlated with cannabinoid concentrations. Minor cannabinoids tended to be more easily detected in samples obtained shortly after consumption. However, some samples tested positive for minor cannabinoids despite an interval of several hours or even days between consumption and sampling (according to patients’ statements). For instance, CBC, CBG, THCVCOOH, CBD, and CBN in certain cases could be detected more than 24 hours after the last consumption of cannabis. Thus, findings of minor cannabinoids should always be interpreted with caution.

PMID:34114750 | DOI:10.1002/dta.3110

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34114750/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210612065945&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

PubMed: Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun;6(3):211-220. doi: 10.1089/can.2020.0181.

ABSTRACT

Opioids are effective analgesics; however, there are many negative consequences of chronic use. One important side effect of chronic opioid use is the continuous engagement of the immune response that can exacerbate chronic pain. The opioid, morphine, initiates a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling cascade that drives the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome proteins, resulting in cytokine production and effectively creating a positive feedback loop for continuous TLR4 activation. In addition to driving cytokine production, morphine drives changes in proinflammatory lipid signaling. The alteration of both cytokine and lipid signaling systems by morphine suggests that its chronic use leads to a pathological immune response that would benefit from targeted therapy. Engaging the endogenous cannabinoid system has shown therapeutic benefit, particularly regarding its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Promising preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) is an effective adjuvant for treatment of symptoms of opioid use disorders; however, the mechanism through which CBD drives this outcome is unclear. One potential source of insight into this mechanism is in how CBD regulates immune regulators such as cytokines and lipid signaling systems, including endocannabinoids and related immune-responsive lipids. In this review, we outline the immune response to chronic opioid use as well as CBD in the context of a lipopolysaccharide-induced immune response and speculate on the mechanism of CBD as a modulator of chronic opioid-induced immune system dysregulation.

PMID:34115948 | DOI:10.1089/can.2020.0181

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115948/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

PubMed: Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0041. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing symptoms reported by oncology patients undergoing anticancer treatment. With the currently available treatments, vomiting and especially nausea remain problematic, highlighting the need for alternative treatments. Discussion: Here we review in vitro and in vivo evidence for the effectiveness of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) in managing nausea and vomiting. In addition, we also review the evidence for CBD’s acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and a methylated version of CBDA (CBDA-ME) in these phenomena. Finally, we explore the potential role of CBD in the treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Conclusions: CBD has demonstrated efficacy in reducing nausea and vomiting, with CBDA and CBDA-ME being more potent. The data suggest a need for these compounds to be evaluated in clinical trials for their ability to reduce nausea and/or vomiting.

PMID:34115951 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0041

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115951/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210613065831&v=2.14.4 June 11, 2021 10:00 am

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CBD Concentration: The Less Is More

CBD Concentration: The Less Is More

Products with a lower concentration of CBD are the better choice for consumers who need the presence of THC or other cannabinoids because the proportion of minor cannabinoids is falling with a higher concentration of CBD in the end product.

It is not about the concentration – it is about the dose.

At the moment, the market is overwhelmed with CBD products coming in different forms – from beverages to cosmetics, and now including even CBD clothes. The studies have shown that CBD is safe to consume in doses up to 20 times higher than recommended, and the recommended dose for healthy individuals is 70 mg daily.

However, the consumers might still find it difficult to determine the exact amount of CBD they need for their condition. Also, apart from different dosages needed for different symptoms, there is evidence that gender could also play a role in CBD dosage. Women and men don’t react the same way to the same formulations, and women should generally be more careful with the highest doses.

Unless you suffer from schizophrenia, scientific studies have determined there is no need for a high intake of CBD. In other words, for most conditions, when it comes to dosage, the less is more.

Even in schizophrenia, the best results are obtained with intermediate doses, and there is evidence of a bell-shaped response. This principle is identified in many conditions. For example, fighting anxiety in public speaking will be efficient only with a 300 mg single dose, while higher doses proved to be inefficient. In the same way, when CBD is taken for the treatment of glaucoma, the recommended dosage is 20 to 40 mg in a single sublingual dose. If the dose exceeds 40 mg, it will cause increased eye pressure. Parkison’s disease is treated with a CBD dose of 100–400 mg daily, but worsening of the symptoms has in some cases occurred with the dosage higher than 300 mg per day. In every case, it is strongly recommended to start with the lower doses and to lift them gradually.

Besides, it is becoming more and more evident that the effects of CBD depend on other components inside the formulation. Science has determined that the terpenes evoke the entourage effect, and some studies point to other factors contributing to the acceleration of CBD effects. As an example, the usage of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil as a base oil seems to produce accelerated effects and thus better results in humans; but in dogs, it leads to side effects like emesis and diarrhea.

For that reason, it might be wise to pay attention to the other components in CBD products, and not only the percentage of CBD itself. For CBD producers, the proportion of these ‘other’ components could show to be crucial for the complete product success.

At the beginning of the CBD industry development, the product designers were highly enthusiastic about Rick Simpson‘s paradigm, which follows the ‘the higher concentration – the better results’ rule. However, in medical treatment, the concentration of medicine is not as important as the dosage, or the quantity, points out Sasha Bajilo, the founder of Ilesol Pharmaceuticals.

”For the people whose condition demands full-spectrum oil or the products containing THC and other cannabinoids, to consume a product that is lower in CBD concentration is a much better solution. The reason lies in the proportion of THC:CBD in industrial hemp. Most commonly the ratio varies between 20 to 30. The products that contain 4-5% of CBD and 0,2% THC are the products containing that proportion, reflecting the natural ratio of the components in the cannabis plant. Such products are not enriched with isolate.

Producers that market their products as containing more than 10% CBD without additional processing or isolate are simply not telling the truth. In one dose of 5% product, the consumer will intake 20-30 times fewer minor cannabinoids than CBD. In one dose of 10% product, the consumer will intake 40-60 times fewer minor cannabinoids than CBD. The ratio is increasing. For some consumers who shouldn’t be taking THC, it is not advised to consume full-spectrum oils. For example, schizophrenia patients should be consuming pure isolate. But all the others should be aware of the importance of minor cannabinoids and additional components in the formulation.” – said Bajilo.

The post CBD Concentration: The Less Is More appeared first on ilesol.


#CBD #Hemp

CBD Concentration: The Less Is More


June 11, 2021 9:33 am

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NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management

NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management
NFL will spend $1 million to study cannabinoids in pain management

The U.S. National Football League (NFL) said it will award $1 million in grants for research into pain management and cannabinoids. The league is soliciting…

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/nfl-will-spend-1-million-to-study-cannabinoids-in-pain-management/
June 11, 2021 4:58 am

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Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market

Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market
Passage of law in Argentina could spark $500 million market

Regulated medical cannabis and hemp industries in Argentina could generate 10,000 new jobs, $500 million in domestic sales and $50 million in exports annually, Minister…

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/passage-of-law-in-argentina-could-spark-500-million-market/
June 11, 2021 3:30 am

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1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer

1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer
1995: An early hemp trial faces the bulldozer

Celebrating Hemp History Month – [Sonoma Business, May 1995] – In 1994, an experimental hemp crop was planted in the Imperial Valley which was intended to…

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/1995-an-early-hemp-trial-faces-the-bulldozer/
June 11, 2021 2:57 am

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Segment Differentiations Beginning to Redefine the Hemp Industry

Segment Differentiations Beginning to Redefine the Hemp Industry

U.S. cbd oversupply

By Trevor Yahn-Grode, Data Analyst, New Frontier Data

Though they are often lumped together under the same industry umbrella of hemp, the three subcategories which make up the sector – including cannabinoids, grain, and fiber – have less in common than it may seem.

Each segment has entirely different production needs when it comes to cultivating, sorting, and processing material, and their end markets are often entirely unrelated – be it cannabinoids, health foods, industrial materials, textiles, etc. Even the plants themselves differ noticeably: Most CBD cultivars are bushy and shorter than 4 feet, while fiber cultivars are tall and thin, with some reaching 20 feet tall. Indeed, the differences are almost great enough to constitute a separate plant species.

Before hemp was legalized again in the U.S., the differences were small enough that the whole industry could fit snugly beneath the same proverbial tent, but now that the segments are establishing themselves and continuing to expand, the disparate perspectives are becoming more apparent. The hemp industry, having fought for decades simply to bring itself into existence, now arrives at a crossroads, and yesterday’s ally may very well turn out to be today’s rival.

It has become clear that consumer demand for CBD is quite large, and not soon to go away, but it has also become clear that the requisite amount of acreage to supply that demand is but a fraction of what has been grown during the past three years. According to New Frontier Data’s estimates, the entirety of consumer retail demand for CBD in 2020 could have been supplied by just 25,000 acres of CBD hemp – a stark departure from the roughly 150,000 acres estimated to have been harvested. CBD acreage is certain to fall drastically in the following years (even as consumer demand increases steadily), while grain and fiber acreage is on pace to more than quadruple by 2025.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Left: A field of hemp plants being cultivated for CBD. Right: A field of hemp plants being cultivated for fiber

The significance is that the respective CBD and non-CBD sides of the hemp industry no longer share a common goal. Now that legalization has been achieved, the main objective for each subindustry is growth: What it will take to achieve that, however, is no longer a concerted effort from a coalition of stakeholders spanning the entirety of the industry, but instead individualized strategies from firms connected by common product lines to increase sales and lobby regulators for more favorable conditions.

Firms attempting to take a true whole-plant approach may find that the economies of scale envisioned by many in the industry between CBD, grain, and fiber may not be as strong as anticipated. Vertical integration can be very beneficial to an organization if the different parts of the supply chain complement each other and make it easier for the organization to do business. If they do not complement each other, however – if, for example, the skills and attributes that make a company good at cannabinoid processing do not translate to being good at decortication – then vertical integration can fail spectacularly.

In short, firms that attempt to do everything may find themselves unable to compete in any one specific product category. Therefore, New Frontier Data expects soon to see a deepening bifurcation between the hemp-derived cannabinoid industry and the hemp fiber-and-grain sectors. That would not preclude consolidation in the future, but rather make it likelier to occur along product lines, and not across them. At any rate, like triplets leaving home for the first time, hemp’s subindustries are growing up and apart from each other. From here on, the question of “Where is the hemp industry going?” should first be qualified by, “Which one?”

The post Segment Differentiations Beginning to Redefine the Hemp Industry appeared first on New Frontier Data.

#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/segment-differentiations-beginning-to-redefine-the-hemp-industry/ June 10, 2021 11:24 am

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PubMed: Characterization of chemotype-dependent terpenoids profile in cannabis by headspace gas-chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry

PubMed: Characterization of chemotype-dependent terpenoids profile in cannabis by headspace gas-chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021 Jun 1;203:114180. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114180. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A headspace method called full evaporation technique (FET) coupled to capillary gas chromatography with a mass detector operating in time-of-flight mode (HS-GC/MS-TOF) was developed to characterize the volatile components, especially the terpene fraction, in Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences. This analytical approach allows to reach a high equilibration temperature, that was able to obtain a complete quantification of the volatile components, providing simple sample preparation, specific qualitative detection, high sensitivity, a precise and accurate quantitative determination. The method was applied to 20 cannabis THC-dominant (I) and 13 CBD-dominant (III) chemotypes. The obtained results were then compared with a series of standard solutions consisting of 35 terpenoids and the mass spectra present in a computer library (NIST). The method has an accuracy of more than 90 % and a limit of detection of 5 ppm for all analytes. The main terpenoids in cannabis are namely (% Chemotypes III vs. I of the total terpene content): β-Caryophyllene (25 vs. 19.3), β-Mircene (18.2 vs. 20.0), Terpinolene (12.1 vs. 7.0), α-Humulene (6.5 vs. 8.5), D-Limonene (6.2 vs. 7.2), α-Pinene (5.8 vs. 4.9), β-Pinene (5.0 vs. 5.8) and cis-β-Ocimene (4.3 vs. 5.2), whose presence is confirmed in both plant chemotypes and account for more than 80 % of the total terpenoids amount. The terpenoids which can clearly distinguish the chemotype are α-Terpineol, Linalool, DL-Menthol, α-Cedrene, and Borneol. This application provides important data on the secondary volatile components of the plant, which may be useful for a better understanding of the therapeutic properties of the cannabis phyto-complex. It gives the possibility of establishing the aroma profile of different Cannabis batches, allowing possible similarities between samples and identifying any artificial adulteration such as hexyl butyrate ester and it provides the opportunity to highlight some target compounds characteristic of the different chemotypes.

PMID:34111731 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114180

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34111731/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210611070013&v=2.14.4 June 10, 2021 10:00 am

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Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies

Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies
Texas coalition fights off ban on delta-8 THC as proposed law dies

A Texas bill that would have outlawed products containing delta-8 THC has died in the legislature after agreement could not be reached on amendments between…

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https://hemptoday.net/texas-coalition-fights-off-ban-on-delta-8-thc-as-proposed-law-dies/
June 10, 2021 8:46 am

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Cannabis & Crony Capitalism: From Matt Gaetz to Trulieve

Cannabis & Crony Capitalism: From Matt Gaetz to Trulieve

The origins of Trulieve, a major cannabis company, trace back to a nexus of prominent Florida Republicans tied to disgraced Congressman Matt Gaetz. A special report from Project CBD.

An excerpt:

“CANNABIZ TYCOONS UNDERWRITE THE RIGHT

If a time-traveler from the Woodstock generation were to land in contemporary America, it would likely come as a shock how many captains of the legal cannabis industry are supporters of a Republican Party that is now lurching deeper into reaction than even Nixon dared to dream of on his worst day.

Legalization was supposed to take cannabis out of the hands of criminal networks, but the new model often looks like crony capitalism.

Recall the headlines of 2019, when four Rudolph Giuliani associates were busted on suspicion of influence-peddling related to the cannabis industry in California and Nevada — and two of them were directly linked to Giuliani’s Ukraine intrigues. Charges are still pending against the quartet.

An investigation last year by Cannabis Wire found that more than a dozen cannabis executives and investors focused their 2020 election funding on political action committees backing Republicans.

Among these was Trulieve CEO Kim Rivers, who gave $2,800 to the Tillis Daines Majority Committee — backing Republicans Steve Daines in Montana and Thom Tillis in North Carolina in their successful bids to hold on to their Senate seats.

Single-issue politics may be a partial explanation here. Cannabis Wire writes: “Neither Senator Tillis nor Senator Daines has expressed support for cannabis legalization. However, in the last couple of years … Senator Tillis co-sponsored a medical cannabis research bill, and Senator Daines introduced an amendment to expand medical cannabis access for veterans.”

Both Tillis and Daines voted against impeaching Trump after the January 6th Capitol insurrection.

Jason Vedadi, the former executive chair of Harvest Health & Recreation (Trulieve’s acquisition target), last year gave $1,000 to the Tillis Daines Majority Committee.

This is a far cry from the image Trulieve seeks to promote of itself. In a November 2020 press release, Trulieve boasted of its $40,000 donation to the Last Prisoner Project, a group seeking clemency for cannabis prisoners. The donation was part of the Last Prisoner Project’s “Roll it Up for Justice” campaign, which encourages cannabis businesses to support its clemency efforts. The press release boasted of “Trulieve’s ongoing efforts to support initiatives aimed at bringing restorative justice to the lives of those unfairly impacted by past cannabis convictions.”

Such efforts are to be applauded, but for those who view cannabis legalization in the context of a broader struggle for social justice, there is an unsettling dissonance here. Legalization was supposed to take cannabis out of the hands of criminal networks, but the new model often looks like crony capitalism.”

#CBD #Hemp #Trulieve #MattGaetz

Click to read: https://www.projectcbd.org/politics/cannabis-crony-capitalism-matt-gaetz-trulieve

June 10, 2021

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1995: Healthy Hemp Burgers in the NY Times

In May of 1995 the Sunday New York Times Magazine gushed about Hempeh Burger, and included a picture. Authentic momentum is hard to create, but when it happens, it’s magic. Like this.

Later, it was seen on CBS-TV’s Good Morning America, and sported the hemp food industry’s only FDA-legal health claim “reduces risk of heart disease.”

Carnivores and vegans alike enjoyed the hearty taste, made with real food not powders. The first hemp burger was also vegan, high in fiber, gluten-free, keto-friendly, and sold coast-to-coast, 1994-2002.

In May of 1995 the Sunday New York Times Magazine gushed about Hempeh Burger, and included a picture. Authentic momentum is hard to create, but when it happens, it’s magic. Like this.

Later, it was seen on CBS-TV’s Good Morning America, and sported the hemp food industry’s only FDA-legal health claim “reduces risk of heart disease.”

Carnivores and vegans alike enjoyed the hearty taste, made with real food not powders. The first hemp burger was also vegan, high in fiber, gluten-free, keto-friendly, and sold coast-to-coast, 1994-2002.


Healthy Hemp Burgers. The New York Times Magazine, Sunday section 6, May 28 1995

No, it won’t get you high. In fact, it’s supposed to be healthy. The Hempeh Burger, shown below, introduced last month by Sharon’s Finest, a California health food company, does contain cannabis seeds, but from a nonhallucinogenic variety of the plant.

            This kind of cannabis is known as hemp, and it’s getting more and more popular. Hemp paper is on the market. Shoes made with hemp sell at Bloomingdale’s. There is hemp skin lotion, hemp shampoo and even lingerie that is part silk and part hemp. For the burger, hemp seeds, which are rich in protein and essential fatty acids, are mixed with soybeans and rice to make a hemp version of tempeh (soy cake).

            Most nonhallucinatory cannabis used in the United States is imported from China and Eastern Europe. It’s been illegal to grow the stuff here since the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. But in Colonial times hemp was an important crop, and so thoroughly American that the Declaration of Independence was drafted on hemp paper.

#HempHistoryWeek #HempWeek #HempHistoryMonth #Hemp

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How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?

How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?

The word “audit” evokes various emotions depending on your role in an organization and the context of the audit. While most are familiar with and loathe the IRS’s potential for a tax audit, the audits we are going to discuss today are (or should be) welcomed – proactive internal quality audits. A softer term that is also acceptable is “self-assessment.” These are independent assessments conducted to determine how effective an organization’s risk management, processes and general governance is. 

“How do you know where you’re going if you don’t know where you’ve been” – Maya Angelou

Internal quality audits are critical to ensuring the safety of products, workers, consumers and the environment. When planned and performed periodically, these audits provide credible, consistent and objective evidence to inform the organization of its risks, weaknesses and opportunities for improvement. Ask yourself the question: do your clients/vendors rely on you to produce reliable, consistent and safe products? Assuming the answer is yes, what confidence do you have, and where is the documented evidence to support it?

Compliance units within cannabis businesses are typically responsible for ensuring a business stays legally compliant with state and federal regulations. This level of minimum compliance is critical to prevent fines and ensure licenses are not revoked. However, compliance audits rarely include fundamental components that leave cannabis operators exposed to many unnecessary risks.

Internal quality audits are critical to ensuring the safety of products, workers, consumers and the environment.

As a producer of medical and adult-use products that are ingested, inhaled or consumed in other forms by our friends, family and neighbors, how can you be sure that these products are produced safely and consistently? Are you confident that the legal requirements mandated by your state cannabis control board are sufficient? Judging by the number of recalls and frustrations voiced by the industry regarding the myriad of regulations, I would bet the answer is no.

What questions do internal audits address? Some examples include:

  • Are you operating as management intends?
  • How effective is your system in meeting specified objectives? These objectives could include quality metrics of your products, on-time delivery rates and other client/customer satisfaction metrics.
  • Are there opportunities to improve?
  • Are you doing what you say you do (in your SOPs), and do you have the recorded evidence (records) to prove it?
  • Are you meeting the requirements of all applicable government regulations?

There are potential drawbacks to internal audits. For one, as impartiality is essential in internal audits, it may be challenging to identify an impartial internal auditor in a small operation. If your team always feels like it is in firefighting mode, it may feel like a luxury to take the time to pull members out of their day-to-day duties and disrupt ongoing operations for an audit. Some fear that as internal assessments are meant to be more thorough than external assessments, a laundry list of to-do items may be uncovered due to the audit. But, these self-assessments often uncover issues that have resulted in operational efficiencies in the first place. This resulting “laundry list” then affords a proactive tool to implement corrective actions in an organized manner that can prevent the recurrence of major issues, as well as prevent new issues. The benefits of internal audits outweigh the drawbacks; not to mention, conducting internal audits is required by nearly every globally-recognized program, both voluntary (e.g. ISO 9001 or ASTM Internationals’s Cannabis Certification Program) and government required programs such as 21 CFR 211 for Pharmaceuticals.

Internal Auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. Additional benefits of internal audits include giving your organization the means to:

  • Ensure compliance to the requirements of internal, international and industry standards as well as regulations and customer requirements
  • Determine the effectiveness of the implemented system in meeting specified objectives (quality, environmental, financial)
  • Explore opportunities for improvement
  • Meet statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Provide feedback to Top Management
  • Lower the cost of poor quality

Findings from all audits must be addressed. This is typically done in accordance with a CAPA (Corrective Action Preventive Action) program. To many unfamiliar with Quality Management Systems, this may be a new term. As of Jan 1, 2021, this is now a requirement for all cannabis licensed operators in Colorado. Many other states require a CAPA program or similar. Continuing education units (CEUs) are available through ASTM International’s CAPA training program, which was developed specifically for the cannabis industry.

Examples of common audit findings that require CAPAs include:

  • Calibration – Production and test equipment must be calibrated to ensure they provide accurate and repeatable results.
  • Document and record control – Documents and records need to be readily accessible but protected from unintended use.
  • Supplier management – Most standards have various requirements for supplier management that may include auditing suppliers, monitoring supplier performance, only using suppliers certified to specific standards, etc.
  • Internal audits – Believe it or not, since internal audits are required by many programs, it’s not uncommon to have a finding related to internal audits! Findings from an internal audit can include not conducting audits on schedule, not addressing audit findings or not having a properly qualified internal auditor. Are you looking for more guidance? Last year, members of ASTM International’s D37 Committee on Cannabis approved a Standard Guide for Cannabis and Hemp Operation Compliance Audits, ASTM D8308-21.

If you are still on the fence about the value of an internal audit, given the option of an inspector uncovering a non-conformance or your own team discovering and then correcting it, which would you prefer? With fines easily exceeding $100,000 by many cannabis enforcement units, the answer should be clear. Internal audits are a valuable tool that should not be feared.

The post How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program? appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

How Effective is Your Internal Auditing Program?


June 9, 2021 3:58 pm

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Chilean Medicinal Market Crawling Towards Progress

Chilean Medicinal Market Crawling Towards Progress

cannabis latin america chile

By Esteban Rossi I., Ph.D., Analyst, New Frontier Data 

Markets and states interact in seemingly odd ways. While in some jurisdictions the regulation of medicinal cannabis de facto created a new industry, patient demand in Chile led to creation of an interesting market despite the precariousness of its existing regulatory framework. This dynamic context offers some opportunities for medically oriented companies, distribution platforms and associations, but has proved challenging for international firms aiming to enter the Chilean market.

Regulatory overview

In 2021, Chile lacks a customized regulatory framework for cannabis. The regulated market comprises mostly registered products authorized by its health agency: El Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP). Growers’ associations are officially authorized by Law 20,000 (2005), and medicinal products allowed by Decree 84 (2015). Presently, patients and their families can obtain generic formulations (e.g., compounded preparations), registered products, and imported drugs in pharmacies.

Large distribution chains like Salcobrand, Knop, and Bioformula distribute cannabis products through more than 500 pharmacies across the country. Those medicinal products, unfortunately, require medical prescriptions and remain overly expensive for average citizens. Generic formulations can cost up to $120 USD, while registered products are even more expensive; neither generic formulations nor registered products are covered by public insurance.

Knop Laboratories manufactures Cannabiol® in Chile. The product contains both THC (20mg/ml) and CBD (9mg/ml), and has been clinically tested for pain management in oncology patients. Remarkably, Cannabiol just obtained its approval by the Peruvian health agency (Digemid) in April, while the ISP has not authorized its domestic use in Chile. Interestingly, in 2016, ISP authorized the use of Sativex, a combined THC-CBD product, manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals.

Large-scale cultivation remains prohibited under Chile’s national narcotics law, but a few firms obtained special authorization from the Agricultural and Livestock Service (SAG), mostly for research purposes following Law 20,000 (2005) and Decree 867 (2007). The process remains opaque and time-consuming; only a handful of companies secured cultivation licenses, including Dayacann, Patagonia Farms, and six hemp companies.

So, while under the current framework it is possible to cultivate cannabis with SAG’s authorization, production and distribution of medicinal products falls under the authorization of the ISP, requiring a medical prescription. Private cultivation and consumption are also permitted, but both possession and carrying constitute serious offenses. Police officers and prosecutors often fail to distinguish between users and traffickers.

Associations opening the way

While Chile lacks cannabis legislation, patients and their families are left to themselves to access cannabis products. In response to the need, numerous associations of home-growers and educators emerged across the country. Local sources estimate that approximately 200 associations now operate across the country.

Numerous associations including Fundación Daya, Greenlife, Reforma, Mama Cultiva, and Fasim currently offer educational services or training and legal advice to consumers in need of medical cannabis. Fundación Daya is widely recognized throughout Chile; and the larger region. Back in 2014, Daya obtained its first cultivation permits, and has since collaborated with numerous research centers, local laboratories, and municipalities to investigate the medical uses of cannabis for chronic pain, cancer, or epilepsy.

Fundación Daya also plays a crucial health role educating the public, helping patients and spurring public dialogue about the urgent need for cannabis legislation. Back in 2015, they supported the draft bill that sought to update the narcotics law; the bill was approved by the lower chamber but senate leadership refused to discuss it.

More recently, the foundation promoted the Law for Safe Cultivation in collaboration with local political leaders. It seeks to modify the health code and Law 20,000 to protect home-growers from both law enforcement and punitive action. Considering that current legislation allows law enforcement to seize and destroy cannabis plants and prosecute medical users, it is imperative to update the legislation.

Legislative advances and the way forward

It seems clear that neither regulators nor legislators have been committed to advancing cannabis legislation during the current administration. However, a combination of factors suggests that the outlook for consumers and the industry is about to change. The reasons are straightforward: first, according to Fundación Daya, they have served over 70,000 patients. Moreover, Fundación Daya estimates that over 200,000 have used medical cannabis in Chile. Second, based on the prevalence of chronic conditions, New Frontier Data estimates that more than 5 million people currently suffering from chronic conditions could use medicinal cannabis were it readily available.

Third, the public at large supports cannabis regulation. Since 2015, it became clear that punitive approaches and policing violated users’ fundamental rights, and created numerous challenges for the legal system (as demonstrated in numerous judicial decisions overturning convictions and protecting the rights of home-growers. Consequently, updating cannabis legislation remains the best course of action for users and the executive branch.
As Chile sets about electing municipal governors and a new president before the end of the year, it is unavoidable that patients’ rights and drug reforms will be significant election issues.

The post Chilean Medicinal Market Crawling Towards Progress appeared first on New Frontier Data.

#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/chilean-medicinal-market-crawling-towards-progress/ June 9, 2021 3:58 pm

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PubMed: Medicinal cannabis and driving: the intersection of health and road safety policy

PubMed: Medicinal cannabis and driving: the intersection of health and road safety policy

Int J Drug Policy. 2021 Jun 6;97:103307. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103307. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent shifting attitudes towards the medical use of cannabis has seen legal access pathways established in many jurisdictions in North America, Europe and Australasia. However, the positioning of cannabis as a legitimate medical product produces some tensions with other regulatory frameworks. A notable example of this is the so-called ‘zero tolerance’ drug driving legal frameworks, which criminalise the presence of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in a driver’s bodily fluids irrespective of impairment. Here we undertake an analysis of this policy issue based on a case study of the introduction of medicinal cannabis in Australia.

METHODS: We examine the regulatory approaches used for managing road safety risks associated with potentially impairing prescription medicines and illicit drugs in Australian jurisdictions, as well as providing an overview of evidence relating to cannabis and road safety risk, unintended impacts of the ‘zero-tolerance’ approach on patients, and the regulation of medicinal cannabis and driving in comparable jurisdictions.

RESULTS: Road safety risks associated with medicinal cannabis appear similar or lower than numerous other potentially impairing prescription medications. The application of presence-based offences to medicinal cannabis patients appears to derive from the historical status of cannabis as a prohibited drug with no legitimate medical application. This approach is resulting in patient harms including criminal sanctions when not impaired and using the drug as directed by their doctor, or the forfeiting of car use and related mobility. Others who need to drive are excluded from accessing a needed medication and associated therapeutic benefit. ‘Medical exemptions’ for medicinal cannabis in comparable jurisdictions and other drugs included in presence offences in Australia (e.g. methadone) demonstrate a feasible alternative approach.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that in medical-only access models there is little evidence to justify the differential treatment of medicinal cannabis patients, compared with those taking other prescription medications with potentially impairing effects.

PMID:34107448 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103307

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34107448/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210610070031&v=2.14.4 June 9, 2021 10:00 am

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Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival

Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival
Turkish researchers say results signal promise for hemp’s revival

Hemp plants bred and studied by Turkish researchers have been harvested with promising results at the cannabis research center of Ondokuz Mayıs University in Samsun….

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/turkish-researchers-say-results-signal-promise-for-hemps-revival/
June 9, 2021 5:05 am

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Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University

Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University
Center with 100 researchers formalized at Washington State University

The Washington State University (WSU) Faculty Senate and Board of Regents have formalized the school’s extensive research into cannabis by establishing a Center for Cannabis Policy,…

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https://hemptoday.net/center-with-100-researchers-formalized-at-washington-state-university/
June 9, 2021 3:51 am

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1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp

1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp
1995: Seasoned entrepreneurs join startups in hemp

Celebrating Hemp History Month – [Details Magazine, April 1995] – “For all the new start-ups, there are also seasoned entrepreneurs venturing into hemp. Richard Rose is…

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https://hemptoday.net/1995-seasoned-entrepreneurs-join-startups-in-hemp/
June 9, 2021 3:00 am

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UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration

UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration
UK regulators trim 67 applications from novel food consideration

The fate of 67 CBD food safety applications is unclear as UK food safety authorities reported June 1 that only 250 are still under active…

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#CBD #Hemp
https://hemptoday.net/uk-regulators-trim-67-applications-from-novel-food-consideration/
June 8, 2021 12:31 pm

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PubMed: The Effects of Acute Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Striatal Glutamatergic Function: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

PubMed: The Effects of Acute Δ<sup>9</sup>-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Striatal Glutamatergic Function: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2021 Jun;6(6):660-667. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.04.013.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cannabis and its main psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit transient psychotic symptoms. A key candidate biological mechanism of how THC induces psychotic symptoms is the modulation of glutamate in the brain. We sought to investigate the effects of acute THC administration on striatal glutamate levels and its relationship to the induction of psychotic symptoms.

METHODS: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure glutamate levels in the striatum in 20 healthy participants after THC (15 mg, oral) and matched placebo administration in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory.

RESULTS: We found that THC administration did not significantly change glutamate (glutamate plus glutamine relative to creatine) concentration in the striatum (p = .58; scaled Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow Bayes factor = 4.29). THC increased psychotic symptoms, but the severity of these symptoms was not correlated with striatal glutamate levels.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that oral administration of 15 mg of THC does not result in altered striatal glutamate levels. Further work is needed to clarify the effects of THC on striatal glutamate.

PMID:34099186 | DOI:10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.04.013

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34099186/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210609070034&v=2.14.4 June 8, 2021 10:00 am

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Skin Serum

Skin Serum

Reviva Labs has added Calming Renewal Serum to its Revitalizing skin care collection. The Serum combines K-Beauty with Ayurvedic medicinal herbs and includes Argan, Rosehip, JoJoba, and Hemp Oils along with Ashwagandha, Shiitake, Chinaberry, Turmeric, and Red Seaweed. 

705 Hopkins Rd., Haddonfield, NJ 08033, www.revivalabs.com

The post Skin Serum appeared first on WholeFoods Magazine.

#CBD #Hemp https://wholefoodsmagazine.com/haba/new-products-haba/skin-serum/ June 7, 2021 7:48 pm

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Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution

Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution
Tech-driven processing critical to advancing the industrial hemp revolution

A fast-growing and cost effective hemp industry can fulfill its economic development and environmental promise only through widespread implementation of smart technology systems, a white…

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https://hemptoday.net/tech-driven-processing-critical-to-advancing-the-industrial-hemp-revolution/
June 7, 2021 6:01 pm

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1996: Let Them Eat Hemp

Let Them Eat Hemp. Hemp Times, Oct 1996, story by Peggy Matthews, photo by Dan Skye.

Pull quote: “My advisors even said not get into hemp—which of course led me to think that I should” –Richard Rose

Overnight successes usually aren’t. So when people wonder how Richard Rose got so successful so quickly, he laughs. “It happened real fast,” he says. “It only took 16 years!” For the last ten, he’s been guiding his own food products company, Sharon’s Finest, to dizzying heights: $3 million in sales last year, triple-digit growth and national recognition as one of the fast-growing firms of the decade. His unique food products include HempRella, a healthy cheese alternative, and the Hempeh Burger, which only looks like a hamburger. Both include hemp seeds. With their success, Rose has seen the need to start a new company in addition to Sharon’s Finest— The Hemp Corporation, to concentrate on developing and marketing new hemp-based foods. Rose donates 5% of all pre-tax profits to environmental foundations and provided over $70,000 in food to help with relief efforts for victims of the Los Angeles riots and Hurricane Andrew.

Why was it necessary to start The Hemp Corporation?

There are a lot of hemp products on our drawing board that don’t really fit into the Sharon’s Finest product line. We wanted to insulate Sharon’s Finest, because hemp is so different from ever thing else we do. It takes up a lot more time– my time.

Sharon’s Finest will continue to be the Rella line of food products– what it has been for the last ten years: marketers of TofuRella, AlmondRella, VeganRella, Zero-fat Rella and HempRella. The Hemp Corporation will market the Hempeh Burger. We’re going to be introducing a new hemp cheese which will be the most nutritious cheese alternative ever: forty-five vitamins and minerals and the essential fatty acids from the hemp seeds. We have about six to eight new products planned.

How did all of this evolve?

Sharon and l started in 1980 with tofu products and pioneered about seventy new soy foods. [When they divorced, Richard bought Sharon’s interest in the company and made her “very happy.” Richard is now the sole shareholder–Ed.] In the ‘80s, we were considered one of the most innovative and prolific soy companies around. But we stopped production to concentrate solely on TofuRella. That was 1986. When it became successful, we introduced more Rellas. HempRella arrived in September of 1994.

Was this the first time that you had considered developing hemp food products?

Yes. A couple years of earlier, I’d read Chris Conrad’s book [Lifeline to the Future], I learned that hemp seeds were in fact more nutritious then soybeans and were the best source of essential fatty acids known to man. They are almost as high in complete protein as soybeans and are far higher in fiber and certain vitamins and minerals.

When I aired the idea, literally everyone on my staff told me not to do it. My advisors and brokers even said not to do it, which of course led me to think that l should. When we introduced it at a Baltimore trade show in ‘94, our booth was mobbed the entire three days. Simultaneously, the largest natural-food distributing chain in the country said they would never carry this product in any of their distribution houses. The two largest retailing chains in the country said the same. Despite the prejudice toward hemp, it went on to become our most successful new-product introduction.

How do you describe yourself?

I usually don’t.

OK. You’re obviously a maverick of some sort. Your business is booming. To what do you attribute your success?

Busting my butt for the last 16 years. I got started doing this back in 1980. Most people in the hemp industry have been in business five years, at most, and are probably where l was 13 years ago. I have the success of Sharon’s Finest to build from. If l had introduced HempRella as part of a new, start-up company, it probably would have failed. Everyone would have thought it was a novelty or a fad. But it’s one of our best sellers.

How do the foods you manufacture help the environment?

By not harming it. Animal-based diets impact upon everything else we do. Did you realize that it takes 15 pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat? Is it really necessary to cut down the Brazilian rainforests for cattle grazing so we can have our Big Macs? The collusion of government and industry is creating a situation where we have to find alternatives.

What motivated you to personally get involved in the health-food industry?

Years ago, I was really sick and discovered I was allergic to dairy. So l stopped eating dairy and discovered tofu in the late ‘70s. I saw an opportunity to make all these interesting foods from tofu like ice cream, dips, dressings and all that. We started making tofu in June of 1980 and eventually began developing new foods. I think l was in the forefront of that segment of the industry back then. I’m in a similar situation with hemp foods now.

Your Web site is pretty entertaining.

The Internet intrigued me immediately. It’s a new means of communication and marketing. I’ve pursued it because l enjoy it and because it has application and usefulness to our business and if I don’t do it, nobody will. People tell me your e-mails are always posted during the wee hours of the morning. I’m a night person, no doubt about it, probably because I’ve been a musician for thirty-three years. I play guitar and bass– rock n roll, jazz, blues, dance stuff. With the success of Sharon’s Finest, I’ve been able to pursue music steadily. I have a ball at business seminars. I’m usually the only longhair there. If any entertainment is provided, I’ll get up on stage and play with the band and surprise everybody.

I do things differently but I have a good time.

#HempHistoryWeek #HempWeek #HempHistoryMonth #Hemp

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PubMed: Cannabidiol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

PubMed: Cannabidiol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

Front Psychiatry. 2021 May 21;12:643442. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.643442. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder) have broad health implications for children, with no definitive cure for the vast majority of them. However, recently medicinal cannabis has been successfully trialled as a treatment to manage many of the patients’ symptoms and improve quality of life. The cannabinoid cannabidiol, in particular, has been reported to be safe and well-tolerated with a plethora of anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, the current consensus is that the endocannabinoid system is a crucial factor in neural development and health; research has found evidence that there are a multitude of signalling pathways involving neurotransmitters and the endocannabinoid system by which cannabinoids could potentially exert their therapeutic effects. A better understanding of the cannabinoids’ mechanisms of action should lead to improved treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders.

PMID:34093265 | PMC:PMC8175856 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.643442

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093265/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Biomechanical Effects of delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model: A Pilot Study

PubMed: Biomechanical Effects of delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model: A Pilot Study

Am J Sports Med. 2021 Jun 7:3635465211016840. doi: 10.1177/03635465211016840. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of cannabis is common among athletes and the US population at large. Cannabinoids are currently being evaluated as alternatives to opioid medications for chronic pain management. However, the effects of recreational and/or medical use of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on musculoskeletal injury and healing remain largely unknown.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of CBD and THC on tendon-to-tendon healing in a rat Achilles tendon repair model. The hypothesis was that rats administered CBD would demonstrate decreased tensile load to failure of surgically repaired Achilles tendons compared with the THC and control groups.

STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.

METHODS: A total of 33 Sprague Dawley rats underwent Achilles tendon surgical transection and repair and were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of THC, CBD, or vehicle once daily starting on the day of surgery and for 5 total days. After sacrifice, biomechanical tensile load-displacement testing was performed to determine Achilles tendon load to failure and stiffness. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The THC group demonstrated the highest median load to failure, 18.7 N (95% CI, 15.3-19.2 N); the CBD group had the second highest at 16.9 N (95% CI, 15.1-19.8 N), and the control group had the lowest at 14.4 N (95% CI, 12.1-18.3 N). Stiffness was highest in the THC group at 4.1 N/mm (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 N/mm) compared with 3.6 N/mm (95% CI, 2.9-4.1 N/mm) for the CBD group and 3.6 N/mm (95% CI, 2.8-4.3 N/mm) for the control group. No statistically significant differences for strength and stiffness were observed between the groups.

CONCLUSION: In this pilot study using an animal tendon-to-tendon repair model, neither THC nor CBD resulted in altered biomechanical characteristics compared to control.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cannabinoids do not appear to adversely affect Achilles tendon healing.

PMID:34097540 | DOI:10.1177/03635465211016840

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34097540/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

PubMed: Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

Front Pharmacol. 2021 May 20;12:626010. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.626010. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Drug treatments available for the management of substance use disorders (SUD) present multiple limitations in efficacy, lack of approved treatments or alarming relapse rates. These facts hamper the clinical outcome and the quality of life of the patients supporting the importance to develop new pharmacological agents. Lately, several reports suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) presents beneficial effects relevant for the management of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, or Alzheimer’s diseases. Furthermore, there is a large body of evidence pointing out that CBD improves cognition, neurogenesis and presents anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and neuroprotective effects suggesting potential usefulness for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and SUD. Here we review preclinical and clinical reports regarding the effects of CBD on the regulation of the reinforcing, motivational and withdrawal-related effects of different drugs of abuse such as alcohol, opioids (morphine, heroin), cannabinoids, nicotine, and psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine). Furthermore, a special section of the review is focused on the neurobiological mechanisms that might be underlying the ‘anti-addictive’ action of CBD through the regulation of dopaminergic, opioidergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid systems as well as hippocampal neurogenesis. The multimodal pharmacological profile described for CBD and the specific regulation of addictive behavior-related targets explains, at least in part, its therapeutic effects on the regulation of the reinforcing and motivational properties of different drugs of abuse. Moreover, the remarkable safety profile of CBD, its lack of reinforcing properties and the existence of approved medications containing this compound (Sativex®, Epidiolex®) increased the number of studies suggesting the potential of CBD as a therapeutic intervention for SUD. The rising number of publications with substantial results on the valuable therapeutic innovation of CBD for treating SUD, the undeniable need of new therapeutic agents to improve the clinical outcome of patients with SUD, and the upcoming clinical trials involving CBD endorse the relevance of this review.

PMID:34093179 | PMC:PMC8173061 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.626010

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093179/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment is Associated With Quality of Life Improvement and Reduction of Analgesic Medication Consumption in Chronic Pain Patients

PubMed: Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment is Associated With Quality of Life Improvement and Reduction of Analgesic Medication Consumption in Chronic Pain Patients

Front Pharmacol. 2021 May 19;12:613805. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.613805. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is one of the most prevalent indications for medical cannabis (MC) treatment globally. In this study, we investigated CNCP parameters in patients during prolonged MC treatment, and assessed the interrelation between CNCP parameters and the chemical composition of MC chemovar used. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in one-month intervals for the duration of six months. Subjects were adult patients licensed for MC treatment who also reported a diagnosis of CNCP by a physician. Data included self-reported questionnaires. MC treatment features included administration route, cultivator, cultivar name and monthly dose. Comparison statistics were used to evaluate differences between the abovementioned parameters and the monthly MC chemovar doses at each time point. Results: 429, 150, 98, 71, 77 and 82 patients reported fully on their MC treatment regimens at six one-month intervals, respectively. Although pain intensities did not change during the study period, analgesic medication consumption rates decreased from 46 to 28% (p < 0.005) and good Quality of Life (QoL) rates increased from 49 to 62% (p < 0.05). These changes overlapped with increase in rates of (-)-Δ9trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and α-pinene high dose consumption. Conclusion: Even though we observed that pain intensities did not improve during the study, QoL did improve and the rate of analgesic medication consumption decreased alongside with increasing rates of high dose THC and α-pinene consumption. Understanding MC treatment composition may shed light on its long-term effects.

PMID:34093173 | PMC:PMC8172141 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.613805

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093173/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Kinetics of CBD, delta(9)-THC Degradation and Cannabinol Formation in Cannabis Resin at Various Temperature and pH Conditions

PubMed: Kinetics of CBD, delta(9)-THC Degradation and Cannabinol Formation in Cannabis Resin at Various Temperature and pH Conditions

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun 4. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0004. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are major cannabinoids in cannabis resin and products. The kinetic of the chemical reaction of resin cannabis is important for product development and storage. A few reports are available in the literature on the rate of CBD and Δ9-THC degradation, and CBN formation in dried resin and solutions of various pH. Materials and Methods: Thermal degradation of CBD, Δ9-THC, and formation of CBN was studied at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C for dried cannabis resin. The effect of pH and temperature on cannabinoids transformation in cannabis solution was also examined at pH 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 and at 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C. High-performance chromatography coupled with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used for the analysis of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC transformation. The values of activation energies (Ea), shelf-life (t90% – t110%), and rate constant (k) were calculated for the CBD, Δ9-THC, and CBN. The effect of temperature and pH on the dried cannabis resin was adequately modeled with the Arrhenius equation. Results: The results indicated that the chemical kinetics in the thermal degradation of CBD, Δ9-THC, and formation of CBN were the zero-order, pseudo-zero-order, and first-order reactions, respectively, in cannabis resin. The first-order and pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics were evidenced for CBD and Δ9-THC, respectively, in cannabis solutions, whereas the zero-order formation kinetic was detected for the CBN. The transformation rate of the CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC increased with increasing temperature, especially as temperature increased to 70°C at pH 2.0. The optimum pH for CBD stability was between pH 4 and 6, whereas the optimum pH for Δ9-THC stability was between pH 4 and 12. Conclusion: The major cannabinoids (CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC) reacted more quickly at high temperature and in an acidic solution. Especially, the minimum transformation of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC was achieved by using on a low temperature, slightly to moderately acidic pH values, and short-time processing. These results may help to improve the storage condition of CBD, CBN, and Δ9-THC products and in the manufacturing process.

PMID:34096805 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0004

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34096805/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210608065944&v=2.14.4 June 7, 2021 10:00 am

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CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases

CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases

A new study shows that a combination of CBD, terpenes, and flavonoids improves the results of compression therapy in venous leg ulcers. With the application of the topical solution containing molecules naturally present in cannabis, the wounds rapidly healed in patients with chronic conditions. The scientists believe in the efficiency of CBD for venous leg ulcers as a promising novel supportive therapy.

Venous leg ulcers are a chronic problem in many countries, especially in Northern Europe and the US. The overall prevalence of this condition is 1% rising to 3% in patients over 65 years of age. The venous leg ulcers are formed in the skin over the ankles and often are painful. Their treatment includes standardized care, which relies on a reliable diagnosis, compression, and local wound care. The healing of these wounds is variable, with common recurrence.

A recent analysis of 1323 patients reported that the proportion of patients who achieved complete closure using compression therapy at three and six months was 42.2% and 48.6%, respectively.

A new study published in May 2021 in Experimental Dermatology shows that a combination of cannabidiol, terpenes, and flavonoids leads to rapid wound closure of previously non-healing venous leg ulcers among elderly and highly complex patients.

This prospective open-label cohort trial recruited 14 patients with 16 chronic and non-healing leg ulcers referred to a regional consultative wound management clinic in Toronto, Canada.

The median age of the patients was 75.8 years, all with chronic wounds. One 81-year old patient with a surgically fused ankle was affected by his wound for 12.2 years. More than half of the patients had moderate to severe lipodermatosclerosis, edema, and peripheral arterial disease, all of which are significant factors against wound closure.

All patients had venous leg ulcers for longer than six months that failed to close despite at least four weeks of compression therapy. All patients underwent duplex venous dopplers that confirmed the presence of venous incompetency, and wound biopsies were carried out to rule out neoplasm, vasculitis, and rare vasculopathy. All patients provided informed consent for treatment using cannabis-based medicines – VS-12 and VS-14.

The cannabis-based medicines in this trial were composed of mixtures of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids applied topically to the wound beds and peri-wound tissues. VS-12 and VS-14 were chemically equivalent but compounded in separate vehicles. Formula VS-12, applied to wound bed consisted of CBD 3.8 mg/ml, THC <1 mg/ml, Quercetin 31.3 mg/ml, Diosmin 25.3 mg/ml, Hesperidin 2.5 mg/ml and Beta-Caryophyllene 152.7 mg/ml in the base carrier containing Hyaluronic acid + Aloe Vera Gel (1/1 v/v). Formula VS-14, applied to peri-wound, consisted of the same components but in liposomal base.

CBD for venous leg ulcers: The treatment

Great results obtained in this study on CBD for venous leg ulcers resulted with the following methodology:

Treatments were carried out every second day and continued until complete wound closure,
defined as the wound bed being 100% epithelialized. On their initial visits, all patients’ degrees of global medical complexity was calculated using both the M3 multimorbidity index tool and the Palliative Performance Scale score (PPS). Qualitative clinical assessments of their degrees of lipodermatosclerosis, edema, and peripheral arterial disease were also scored and documented. Following gentle cleansing with sterile normal saline, each patient underwent application of evenly applied thin layers of VS-12 to the wound beds, and VS-14 to a 4-6 cm radial cuff of peri-wound integument every second day. Tissues were then covered with one layer each of Jelonet and Mesorb. This was followed by the application of inelastic compression bandages, chosen based upon patient preferences, using a spiral technique, between the level of the metatarsal phalangeal joints and the infra-popliteal space.

Two-dimensional wound measurements, namely, widest width and longest length, were documented at each visit after debridement was carried out. Given the irregular and eclectic wound bed contours, the wound area calculations were approximated by matching them to various geometric shapes and applying their respective mathematical formulae. Data was also fitted to a linear regression model to report the general trend and the estimated time to complete wound closure. The observed time to complete wound closure, defined as the number of days since treatment onset to observe complete wound closure since the start of treatment, was calculated. The wound area data points were also fitted using a least-squares linear regression model. The slope was extracted to report both the absolute (cm² per 30 days) and relative (% of original wound area per 30 days) rates of wound healing. The estimated time to achieve wound healing, defined as the number of days since treatment onset for the linear fit line to reach zero was reported.

Rapid wound closure in 34 days

Complete wound closure, defined as being fully epithelialized, was achieved among 11 patients (79%) and 13 wounds (81%) within a median of 34 days. The three remaining patients were unavailable for follow-up because one of them moved out of the country, and two died of unrelated reasons. However, those three wounds also demonstrated progressive healing when last seen. There were no significant adverse reactions in any patients.

These positive outcomes are the result of potentiation and synergy between cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, the scientists conclude.

The rapid wound closure of previously non-healing venous leg ulcers among elderly and highly complex patients suggests that topical cannabis-based medicines may become effective adjuvants in conjunction with compression therapy. It may also indicate that they may have an even broader role within the skin and wound management.

The post CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases appeared first on ilesol.


#CBD #Hemp

CBD for Venous Leg Ulcers: Complete Wound Closure in 81% Chronic Cases


June 7, 2021 9:37 am

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PubMed: A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

PubMed: A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jun 3;140:111639. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111639. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a conserved physiological system emerged as a novel pharmacological target for its significant role and potential therapeutic benefits ranging from neurological diseases to cancer. Among both, CB1 and CB2R types, CB2R have received attention for its pharmacological effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic that can be achieved without causing psychotropic adverse effects through CB1R. The ligands activate CB2R are of endogenous, synthetic and plant origin. In recent years, β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene in cannabis as well as non-cannabis plants, has received attention due to its selective agonist property on CB2R. BCP has been well studied in a variety of pathological conditions mediating CB2R selective agonist property. The focus of the present manuscript is to represent the CB2R selective agonist mediated pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic potential of BCP. The present narrative review summarizes insights into the CB2R-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of BCP such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator. The available evidences suggest that BCP, can be an important candidate of plant origin endowed with CB2R selective properties that may provide a pharmacological rationale for its pharmacotherapeutic application and pharmaceutical development like a drug. Additionally, given the wide availability in edible plants and dietary use, with safety, and no toxicity, BCP can be promoted as a nutraceutical and functional food for general health and well-being. Further, studies are needed to explore pharmacological and pharmaceutical opportunities for therapeutic and preventive applications of use of BCP in human diseases.

PMID:34091179 | DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111639

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PubMed: Correction to: Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

PubMed: Correction to: Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

J Cannabis Res. 2021 Jun 5;3(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s42238-021-00076-y.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:34090535 | DOI:10.1186/s42238-021-00076-y

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CBD Greatly Improves Performance in Stressful Situations, Reduces Anxiety

Anxiety can lower our cognitive and creative abilities, and make us very uncomfortable. One aspect of it is negative self-evaluation, thinking that we did poorly at something.

It especially happens when having to be in social situations or when having to speak or perform before an audience. This 2011 study from Brazil found that 600 mg of CBD one to two hours before having to quickly create a speech then perform it will greatly reduce anxiety and improve performance, and reduce negative self-evaluation.

Anxious in front of people? Need peak performance while creating or performing in front of others, such as acting, speaking, dancing, or playing music? Then try 300-600 mg CBD with no THC.

Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 May; 36(6): 1219–1226, doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.6

“The anxiolytic effects of CBD had been extensively demonstrated in animal studies and in healthy volunteers submitted to anxiety induced by several procedures, including the simulation of public speaking (Crippa et al, 2010, 2011). However, there is only one published report of the anxiolytic effect of CBD in an anxiety disorder (Crippa et al, 2010, 2011). This study was performed with SAD patients and the anxiolyic effects of CBD were detected before provoking anxiety by the tracer injection and scanning procedure of SPECT, suggesting that CBD facilitates habituation of anticipatory anxiety. The SPECT analysis of this study and of a previous one with healthy volunteers (Crippa et al, 2004) showed that the CBD effects were associated with the activity of the parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) detected attenuated responses in the amygdala and in the cingulated cortex induced by CBD (600 mg) during the viewing of fearful facial stimuli (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009a). Moreover, CBD has shown to disrupt forward intrinsic connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate during the neural response to fearful faces (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009b). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the action of CBD in limbic and paralimbic brain areas, which are known to be associated with anxiety.

The anxiolytic action of CBD may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors, as it displaces the agonist [3H]8-OHDPAT from the cloned human 5-HT1A receptor in a concentration-dependent manner and exerts an effect as an agonist at the human 5-HT1A receptor in signal-transduction studies (Russo et al, 2005). Additionally, CBD injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze and elevated T-maze, and these effects were prevented by a 5HT1A receptor antagonist (Soares et al, 2010; Campos and Guimaraes, 2008).

Another important observation of this study was that the increase of negative self-evaluation during public speaking was almost abolished by CBD. In a previous study, we suggested that the negative self-evaluation during the phobic situation of public speaking would be important for the avoidance and impairment in social functioning that support the diagnosis of SAD (Freitas-Ferrari et al, submitted). In that way, the observed effect of CBD for improving the self-evaluation during public speaking, which is one of the pivotal aspects of SAD, will influence the therapy of SAD patients.”

This shows that using CBD, performance was little changed from normal compared to those using placebo, especially immediately before, during, and soon after performing:

This shows CBD reduced anxiety and discomfort, improved cognitive impairment (mental functioning), and people felt more calm:

Click here for the study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079847/

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PubMed: Urinary Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD), delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their Metabolites Following Oral and Vaporized CBD and Vaporized CBD-Dominant Cannabis Administration

PubMed: Urinary Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD), delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their Metabolites Following Oral and Vaporized CBD and Vaporized CBD-Dominant Cannabis Administration

J Anal Toxicol. 2021 Jun 5:bkab059. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkab059. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The market for products containing cannabidiol (CBD) is booming globally. However, the pharmacokinetics of CBD in different oral formulations and the impact of CBD use on urine drug testing outcomes for cannabis (e.g., 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THCCOOH)) are understudied. This study characterized the urinary pharmacokinetics of CBD (100 mg) following vaporization or oral administration (including 3 formulations: gelcap, pharmacy-grade syrup, or Epidiolex) as well as vaporized CBD-dominant cannabis (containing 100 mg CBD and 3.7 mg Δ9-THC) in healthy adults (n=18). A subset of participants (n=6) orally administered CBD syrup following overnight fasting (versus low-fat breakfast). Urine specimens were collected before and for 58 hours after dosing on a residential research unit. Immunoassay (IA) screening (cutoffs: 20, 50, 100 ng/mL) for ∆9-THCCOOH was performed, and quantitation of cannabinoids was completed via LC-MS-MS. Urinary CBD concentrations (ng/mL) were higher after oral (mean Cmax: 734; mean Tmax: 4.7 h, n=18) versus vaporized CBD (mean Cmax: 240; mean Tmax: 1.3 h, n=18), and oral dose formulation significantly impacted mean Cmax (Epidiolex=1274 ng/mL, capsule=776 ng/mL, syrup=151 ng/mL, n=6/group) with little difference in Tmax. Overnight fasting had limited impact on CBD excretion in urine, and there was no evidence of CBD conversion to ∆8- or ∆9-THC in any route or formulation in which pure CBD was administered. Following acute administration of vaporized CBD-dominant cannabis, 3 of 18 participants provided a total of 6 urine samples in which ∆9-THCCOOH concentrations ≥15 ng/mL. All 6 specimens screened positive at a 20 ng/mL IA cutoff, and 2 of 6 screened positive at a 50 ng/mL cutoff. These data show that absorption/elimination of CBD is impacted by drug formulation, route of administration, and gastric contents. Although pure CBD is unlikely to impact drug testing, it is possible that hemp products containing low amounts of ∆9-THC may produce a cannabis-positive urine drug test.

PMID:34089060 | DOI:10.1093/jat/bkab059

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34089060/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210606065912&v=2.14.4 June 5, 2021 10:00 am

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5 Laws Every Vape Company Owner in the U.S. Should Know

5 Laws Every Vape Company Owner in the U.S. Should Know

It’s always an advantage to know the vaping laws governing the marketing, sales, and use of vape products, especially if you’re a company in the e-cigarette industry. In the U.S, the sales and use of vape pens, liquid nicotine, e-cigarettes, e-liquids, or bulk import of such products aren’t without a list of requirements and regulatory guidelines.

You need to ensure compliance for your company and employees. This calls for an in-depth understanding of the rules and regulations surrounding customer age verifications, product placements and displays, sampling, internet and mail orders, restricted store sections, and many more.

Like most laws in the U.S, there are state and federal regulations for nicotine devices. Certain states in the U.S consider vaping companies to be manufacturers and retailers. What this implies is that you’ll have to deal with additional rules and laws. Ensuring that you’re compliant will save you a lot of delays, fees, and fines.

This article covers five essential laws you should understand as a vape company in the U.S. But before diving into it, let’s look at a general overview of vape regulations.

A Quick Overview

In the latter part of December 2020, a budget package saw the light of day after its passing by Congress.

The package included the likes of the coronavirus relief bill, but what would interest most vape companies was a 5000-page document also located inside the package.

This document was the law called the Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act.

It regulated several vape products, like the dual battery vape mods and the more sophisticated vape setups like the Tesla Punk Vape MOD. But this was just a piece of the iceberg, and laws such as these can easily go unnoticed if you’re not paying attention. So let’s take a closer look at five of them.

1.   Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act

President Trump signed this Act into law in 2020. In the vaping industry, this act is commonly called the “vape mail ban.”

However, vape companies will feel the effects of the Preventing Online Sales of E-Cigarettes to Children Act reaching past the postal delivery. Despite its popularity since December 2020, this law isn’t new.

It had previously passed the House back in 2019 and, in July 2020, made its way to the Senate in somewhat different forms. However, the Senate received a call-to-action from CASAA concerning the bill before its passing in the summer.

Overall, few vape businesses and vapers are alarmed by the possible impacts of its passage, not knowing its full impacts.

2.   Preventing All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT)

All vendors of vapor products and businesses that deal in devices that deliver flavor, the nicotine from an aerosolized solution, or other substances that enable users to inhale will have to comply with Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) from late March 2021. This law also goes by the name Jenkins Act.

It regulates regular vapor products that deliver nicotine and non-nicotine vapor products, which the government might regard as containing hemp oil.

Failure to abide by the rules and regulations stipulated by the Jenkins/PACT Act exposes vape companies to the possibility of heavy fines in the sums of $5,000 to $10,000 for each violation.

3.   FDA Regulation of ENDS

Electronic nicotine delivery systems, otherwise termed ENDS, are devices such as vape pens, electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and e-pipes, among many others. All these devices are non-combustible tobacco products.

The FDA in 2016 concluded a ruling that extended CTP’s regulatory domain to cover tobacco products, including ENDS that fall under the category of tobacco products.

Hence, the FDA controls the import, advertising, sale, packaging, distribution, labeling, and manufacture of all such products. Its regulations also cover the parts and components of ENDS. However, it excludes all accessories. Some examples of such components include:

  • Battery
  • Atomizer
  • Cartomizer
  • Cartridge
  • Clearomizer
  • Tank System
  • Drip Tip
  • Programmable software

4.   FDA Tobacco Regulations

Businesses that produce, modify fabricate, mix, fix, assemble, repack, label, import, or relabel ENDS must also abide by the requirements for manufactures, in addition to the first three laws.

If your company falls into this category, the FDA considers you a tobacco product “manufacture.” Even companies that import finished tobacco products must comply just like tobacco products distributors or manufacturers.

Therefore, you’ll have to register your company and submit the list of products, advertisements, and labeling. Per the regulations, other details you’ll need to submit include an ingredient listing and data.

5.   Protecting American Lungs And Reversing the Youth Tobacco Epidemic Act

In February 2020, the U.S House of Representatives approved a bill to tackle the youth tobacco crisis. The name of this bill was the Protecting American Lungs and Reversing the Youth Tobacco Epidemic Act of 2020.

It bans most flavored tobacco and vaping products such as mint and menthol flavor. Plus, it imposes taxes on nicotine e-cigarettes and affects vape companies.

Conclusion

One vital fact to always keep in mind, law and regulations are always subject to modification via the passing of new legislation, federal decisions, ballot initiatives, high court rulings, or other approved methods. Therefore, It’s always necessary to follow the latest developments and know current information.

Often, understanding the complex rules and how they affect your business can be challenging. Therefore, you may need an attorney in addition to your legal research to clear all your doubts.


#CBD #Hemp
https://cannatechtoday.com/laws-vape-company-u-s/
June 4, 2021 11:00 am

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PubMed: Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis -Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)

PubMed: Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis -Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)

Neurology (ECronicon). 2021 Apr;13(4):86-92. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction and intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it powerfully stimulates the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. When used in the form of the plant marijuana, because of the many compounds that exist in the plant form they could inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee., et al. incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. We caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. We argue that one issue facing the scientific community, has to do with the increasing legalization of Cannabis products in many states across America. We are in favor of some reform in terms of either decriminalization or restrictive legalization especially in control of legal limits of THC. Like other psychoactive compounds at high doses, it is our hypothesis that chronic use of these drugs including high THC content in its various forms (wax, smoke or vapor) resulting in brain reward dysfunction induces an imbalance of neurotransmission and subsequent hypodopaminergia and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. It is further proposed that in order to overcome THC and even other psychoactive drugs of abuse induced anhedonia the coupling of genetic risk testing and pro dopamine regulation is warranted.

PMID:34085060 | PMC:PMC8171216

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“Moving HEMP Forward,” with Richard Rose

Join Mandi Kerr with Richard Rose, founder of The Richard Rose Report, on this episode of Moving HEMP Forward as they talk about celebrating the history of Hemp.

Since 1980, Richard Rose has been innovating award-winning natural foods, over 150. After being in the Inc 500 for a first-mover soy foods success, he turned his sights to hempseed in 1994.

As a result, the hemp products were first-mover in 93% of Canada’s hemp exports to the US.

Full episode on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/posts/knowing-what-52090761

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Insulation with Hemp Makes Good Sense, If Not Yet Profits

Insulation with Hemp Makes Good Sense, If Not Yet Profits

hemp global market projections

By Trevor Yahn-Grode, Data Analyst, New Frontier Data

Among the many hemp fiber product categories vying for respective footholds among the industrial marketplace are construction materials.

Hempcrete – the much-publicized method of construction using a mixture of hemp hurd and lime – has been praised by advocates for its capacity in carbon sequestration, but the novel construction material faces serious threats to adoption in the U.S., not the least being the mountain of red tape required to change municipal building codes on a county-by-county basis. Furthermore, Hempcrete construction requires contractors to learn almost an entirely new method of home construction, creating a steep learning curve which presents an additional barrier to adoption.

Other hemp-based construction materials face lower barriers to entry, as they can replace existing products and fit into existing construction methodologies without having to invent an entirely new category of construction material. Hemp insulation is one such product.

Insulation is necessary in the construction of every residential and commercial structure. In the U.S., it is a $11.4 billion industry, and is forecasted to continue growing over the next five years at a 2.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR). Growth in the insulation market is part of a thriving construction materials industry that is swelling with development. The immense scale of growth in the construction market represents a unique challenge in light of the industry’s outsized carbon footprint.

The construction and operation of buildings is already responsible for roughly 10% of global CO2e emissions, and projected to more than double over the next half-century – the equivalent of building a new New York City each month.

Fiberglass insulation, especially, possesses a substantial carbon footprint. To manufacture it, molten glass must be heated to 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit, and mixed with chemicals and minerals mined from the earth, an incredibly energy intensive process.

As the construction industry seeks to decarbonize, it is looking to bio-based materials as a possible solution. Bio-based alternatives to traditional insulation materials have already seen significant growth over the past decade, with the cellulose insulation market reaching $2.5 billion in 2020. Despite that growth, bio-based insulation accounts for less than 5% of the total insulation market. Hemp insulation manufacturers are seeking to change this with their products, which they claim can provide the same level of quality as their competitors while maintaining carbon neutrality.

Like most other hemp fiber products currently, however, price remains a major obstacle to growth. Current hemp insulation products cost anywhere from 300%-500% more than their carbon-intensive counterparts, restricting adoption to only the most carbon-conscious consumers. Manufacturers of these materials say that their price will come down as production reaches scale, but are also expecting government climate-policy to help them achieve price parity in the near term, either by subsidizing carbon-neutral construction products, or by making carbon-intensive alternative materials like fiberglass insulation more expensive.

The post Insulation with Hemp Makes Good Sense, If Not Yet Profits appeared first on New Frontier Data.

#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/insulation-with-hemp-makes-good-sense-if-not-yet-profits/ June 3, 2021 1:31 pm

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Patent: FOOD COMPOSITION COMPRISING LOW FAT, HEMP PROTEIN, AND NON HEMP PROTEIN AND METHOD OF PREPARAING IT AS EXPANDED FOOD COMPOSITION

Patent:
FOOD COMPOSITION COMPRISING LOW FAT, HEMP PROTEIN, AND NON HEMP PROTEIN AND METHOD OF PREPARAING IT AS EXPANDED FOOD COMPOSITION


#CBD #Hemp
https://register.epo.org/application?number=EP20717013&lng=en&tab=main
June 3, 2021 11:00 am

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PubMed: Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain HOB6, Isolated from Hemp Seed Oil

PubMed: Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain HOB6, Isolated from Hemp Seed Oil

Microbiol Resour Announc. 2021 Jun 3;10(22):e0034421. doi: 10.1128/MRA.00344-21. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

ABSTRACT

Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HOB6 was isolated from hemp seed oil. The strain displays antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens and has potential for development as a biopesticide against cannabis diseases. Its genome was sequenced and annotated, uncovering the ability to encode the biosynthetic pathways for antimicrobial lanthipeptides and nonribosomal peptides.

PMID:34080899 | DOI:10.1128/MRA.00344-21

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34080899/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210604070005&v=2.14.4 June 3, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Sex differences in the acute pharmacological and subjective effects of smoked cannabis combined with alcohol in young adults

PubMed: Sex differences in the acute pharmacological and subjective effects of smoked cannabis combined with alcohol in young adults

Psychol Addict Behav. 2021 Jun 3. doi: 10.1037/adb0000749. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The prevalence of co-use of alcohol and cannabis is increasing, particularly among young adults. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol alone and cannabis alone have been observed in animals and humans. However, sex differences in the acute pharmacological effects of cannabis combined with alcohol have not yet been studied. In young adults, aged 19-29 years, we aimed to examine sex differences following an intoxicating dose of alcohol (target 0.08% breath alcohol content) combined with a moderate dose of cannabis (12.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC) using an ad libitum smoking procedure. Method: Using a within-subjects design, 28 regular cannabis users (16 males; 12 females) received in random order: (a) placebo alcohol and placebo cannabis, (b) active alcohol and placebo cannabis, (c) placebo alcohol and active cannabis, and (d) active alcohol and active cannabis. Blood samples for THC were collected and measures of vital signs, subjective drug effects, and cognition were collected. Results: In the alcohol-cannabis combined condition, females smoked significantly less of the cannabis cigarette compared to males (p < .001), although both sexes smoked similar amounts in the other conditions. There was minimal evidence that females and males differed in THC blood concentrations, vitals, subjective effects, or cognitive measures. Conclusions: In the alcohol-cannabis combined condition, females experienced the same acute pharmacological and subjective effects of alcohol and cannabis as males, after smoking less cannabis, which has potential implications for informing education and policy. Further research is warranted on sex differences in cannabis pharmacology, as well as the combined effects of alcohol and cannabis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID:34081489 | DOI:10.1037/adb0000749

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PubMed: The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination

PubMed: The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination

Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2021 May 31:102047. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102047. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies with Cannabis Sativa plant extracts and endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, and antitussive properties in the airways of allergic and non-allergic animals. However, the potential therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of respiratory diseases has not been widely investigated, in part because of local irritation of airways by needing to smoke the cannabis, poor bioavailability when administered orally due to the lipophilic nature of cannabinoids, and the psychoactive effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) found in cannabis. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of two of the non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) alone and in combination, in a model of pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The second purpose was to explore the effects of two different cannabinoid formulations administered orally (PO) and intraperitoneally (IP). Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil was used as the sole solvent for one formulation, whereas the second formulation consisted of a Cremophor® EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil, CrEL)-based micellar solution.

RESULTS: Exposure of guinea pigs to LPS induced a 97 ± 7 % and 98 ± 3% increase in neutrophils found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) at 4 hours and 24 hours, respectively. Administration of CBD and CBG formulated with MCT oil did not show any significant effects on the LPS-induced neutrophilia measured in the BAL fluid when compared with the vehicle-treated groups. Conversely, the administration of either cannabinoid formulated with CrEL induced a significant attenuation of the LPS induced recruitment of neutrophils into the lung following both intraperitoneal (IP) and oral (PO) administration routes, with a 55 – 65% and 50 – 55% decrease in neutrophil cell recruitment with the highest doses of CBD and CBG respectively. A combination of CBD and CBG (CBD:CBG = 1:1) formulated in CrEL and administered orally was also tested to determine possible interactions between the cannabinoids. However, a mixture of CBD and CBG did not show a significant change in LPS-induced neutrophilia. Surfactants, such as CrEL, improves the dissolution of lipophilic drugs in an aqueous medium by forming micelles and entrapping the drug molecules within them, consequently increasing the drug dissolution rate. Additionally, surfactants increase permeability and absorption by disrupting the structural organisation of the cellular lipid bilayer.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study has provided evidence that CBD and CBG formulated appropriately exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Our observations suggest that these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may have beneficial effects in treating diseases characterised by airway inflammation.

PMID:34082108 | DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102047

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34082108/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210604070005&v=2.14.4 June 3, 2021 10:00 am

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Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference

Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference

On June 29, 2021, Cannabis Industry Journal is hosting the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference. From Noon to 5 pm EST, you’ll get access to five veterans of the extraction market discussing a variety of topics related to the ins and outs of extracting cannabis and hemp.

Hear from subject matter experts who will share their perspectives on cannabis and hemp extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, post-processing, risk management, hazards and controls, optimization, closed loop hydrocarbon extraction, machine learning algorithms and more.

Alex Hearding, Chief Risk Management Officer at the National Cannabis Risk Management Association (NCRMA) will kick things off with a session exploring the Hazards and Controls of Extraction with Liquified Petroleum Gases. Dr. Markus Roggen, Founder & CEO of Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures, will follow that up with a discussion surrounding the kinetics and thermodynamics of cannabis extraction.

Other talks from the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference include:

  • The Quest to Discover the Limnits of CO2 Extraction
    • Jeremy Deihl, co-founder & CTO of Green Mill Supercritical
  • The Future of Cannabis Concentrates: Developments in Hydrocarbon Extraction and Manufacturing
    • Michelle Sprawls, Laboratory Director at CULTA
  • Process Scale Up in the Cannabis/Hemp Industry
    • Darwin Millard, Committee ViceChair on ASTM International’s D37.04 on Processing & Handling of Cannabis

You can check out the agenda in its entirety and register here. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask speakers questions during the live Q&A session that follows each session. Registration is complimentary. For sponsorship opportunities, contact RJ Palermo at [email protected]

The post Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

Mark Your Calendars: The Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference


June 2, 2021 5:11 pm

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CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies

CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies

Charlotte’s Web Holdings announced a new collaboration with the University of Colorado-Boulder and their Research and Education Addressing Cannabis and Health (REACH) Center. The University’s REACH Center will conduct a preclinical study on how hemp oil can influence sleep quality and anxiety.

Charlotte’s Web and University of Colorado-Boulder Collaborative Study to Assess CBD and CBN’s Potential to Support Improved Sleep (CNW Group/Charlotte’s Web Holdings, Inc.)

The study will use Charlotte’s Web hemp products, including their full spectrum hemp formulations containing CBN, CBD and less than 0.3% THC. Monika Fleshner, PhD, Professor of Integrative Physiology and member of the Center for Neuroscience at the University of Colorado, will be the project lead and will conduct the study in her Stress Physiology Laboratory. “There is a great need for properly controlled experimental studies that are designed to test the potential neural and physiological impacts of hemp derived phytocannabinoids,” says Dr. Fleshner. “With support from CU REACH and Charlotte’s Web, our research will explore both the efficacy and mechanisms of how these substances can affect complex brain-mediated behavior, such as disturbed sleep.”

Tim Orr, senior vice president of Charlotte’s Web and president of its CW Labs division, is currently working on more than twelve scientific research studies with the company. “Charlotte’s Web is committed to advancing science on the benefits and safety of CBD and other hemp phytocannabinoids through rigorous scientific investigations such as this sleep and anxiety study,” says Orr. “We’re honored to team up with CU’s REACH Center to explore the potential impacts of full-spectrum hemp extract with CBD and CBN on anxiety and sleep quality.”

Long term, Charlotte’s Web expects this study will help build the foundation for future clinical studies to “better understand how specific ratios of cannabinoids and different delivery formats are effective at supporting improved sleep quality and instilling healthier sleep architecture in humans,” reads the press release.

The post CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.


#CBD #Hemp

CU Boulder, Charlotte’s Web Begin Sleep & Anxiety Studies


June 2, 2021 4:39 pm

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PubMed: Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

PubMed: Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

Nutrients. 2021 May 11;13(5):1603. doi: 10.3390/nu13051603.

ABSTRACT

The consumption of fatty acids has increased drastically, exceeding the nutritional requirements of an individual and leading to numerous metabolic disorders. Recent data indicate a growing interest in using cannabidiol (CBD) as an agent with beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the influence of chronic CBD administration on the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio in different lipid fractions, inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress parameters in the white and red gastrocnemius muscle. All the designed experiments were performed on Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard rodent diet for seven weeks and subsequently injected with CBD (10 mg/kg once daily for two weeks) or its vehicle. Lipid content and oxidative stress parameters were assessed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), colorimetric and/or immunoenzymatic methods, respectively. The total expression of proteins of an inflammatory pathway was measured by Western blotting. Our results revealed that fatty acids (FAs) oversupply is associated with an increasing oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which results in an excessive accumulation of FAs, especially of n-6 PUFAs, in skeletal muscles. We showed that CBD significantly improved the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and shifted the equilibrium towards anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFAs, particularly in the red gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, CBD prevented generation of lipid peroxidation products and attenuated inflammatory response in both types of skeletal muscle. In summary, the results mentioned above indicate that CBD presents potential therapeutic properties with respect to the treatment of obesity and related disturbances.

PMID:34064937 | DOI:10.3390/nu13051603

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34064937/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: A Multimethodological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Seven Dioecious Cultivars Grown in Italy: The Effect of Different Harvesting Stages

PubMed: A Multimethodological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Seven Dioecious Cultivars Grown in Italy: The Effect of Different Harvesting Stages

Molecules. 2021 May 14;26(10):2912. doi: 10.3390/molecules26102912.

ABSTRACT

The chemical profile of the female inflorescence extracts from seven Cannabis sativa L. dioecious cultivars (Carmagnola, Fibranova, Eletta Campana, Antal, Tiborszallasi, Kompolti, and Tisza) was monitored at three harvesting stages (4, 14, and 30 September), reaching from the beginning of flowering to end of flowering/beginning of seed formation, using untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and targeted (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and spectrophotometry) analyses. The tetrahydrocannabinol content was always below the legal limits (<0.6%) in all the analyzed samples. The NMR metabolite profile (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and minor compounds) subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) showed a strong variability according to the harvesting stages: samples harvested in stage I were characterized by a high content of sucrose and myo-inositol, whereas the ones harvested in stage II showed high levels of succinic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and threonine. Samples harvested in stage III were characterized by high levels of glucose, fructose, choline, trigonelline, malic acid, formic acid, and some amino acids. The ratio between chlorophylls and carotenoids content indicated that all plants grew up exposed to the sun, the Eletta Campana cultivar having the highest pigment amount. Tiborszallasi cultivar showed the highest polyphenol content. The highest antioxidant activity was generally observed in stage II. All these results suggested that the Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences of each analyzed dioecious hemp cultivar presented a peculiar chemical profile affected by the harvesting stage. This information could be useful for producers and industries to harvest inflorescences in the appropriate stage to obtain samples with a peculiar chemical profile suitable for proper applications.

PMID:34068911 | DOI:10.3390/molecules26102912

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34068911/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Analysis of Cannabinoids Concentration in Cannabis Oil Galenic Preparations: Harmonization between Three Laboratories in Northern Italy

PubMed: Analysis of Cannabinoids Concentration in Cannabis Oil Galenic Preparations: Harmonization between Three Laboratories in Northern Italy

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 May 14;14(5):462. doi: 10.3390/ph14050462.

ABSTRACT

Medical cannabis is increasingly being used in the treatment and support of several diseases and syndromes. The quantitative determination of active ingredients (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, and cannabidiol, CBD) in galenic oily preparations is prescribed by law for each produced batch. The aim of this work is to describe the organization of the titration activity centralized at three regional reference laboratories in Northern Italy. Pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases have been defined in order to guarantee high quality standards. A cross-validation between laboratories allowed for the definition of the procedures that guarantee the interchangeability between reference laboratories. The risk management protocol adopted can be useful for others who need to undertake this activity.

PMID:34069020 | DOI:10.3390/ph14050462

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34069020/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Development and Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Setup Leading to Quantification of 11 Cannabinoids Derived from Medicinal Cannabis

PubMed: Development and Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Setup Leading to Quantification of 11 Cannabinoids Derived from Medicinal Cannabis

Biology (Basel). 2021 May 28;10(6):481. doi: 10.3390/biology10060481.

ABSTRACT

In this study, the optimal setup of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was designed and developed, leading to the quantitation of 11 distinct cannabinoids (cannabidivann (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivann (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabinol (CBN), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabichomere (CBC) and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA-A)) extracted from the flowers of medicinal cannabis (sp. Sativa). Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction was performed at 37 °C, a pressure of 250 bar with the maximum theoretical density of CO2 (893.7 kg/m3), which generated the highest yield of cannabinoids from the flower-derived extract. Additionally, a cold separator (separating chamber) was used and positioned immediately after the sample containing chamber to maximize the yield. It was also found that successive washing of the extract with fresh scCO2 further increased yields. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD (uHPLC-DAD) was used to develop a method for the quantification of 11 cannabinoids. The C18 stationary phase was used in conjunction with a two solvent system gradient program resulting in the acquisition of the well-resolved chromatogram over a timespan of 32 min. The accuracy and precision of isolated cannabinoids across inter-and intra-day periods were within acceptable limits (<±15%). The assay was also fully validated and deemed sensitive from linearity, LOQ, and LOD perspective. The findings of this body of work are expected to facilitate improved conditions for the optimal extraction of select cannabinoids using scCO2, which holds promise in the development of well-characterized medicinal cannabis formulations. As to our best knowledge, this is the first study to report the uHPLC quantification method for the analysis of 11 cannabinoids from scCO2 extract in a single run with more than 1 min peak separation.

PMID:34071473 | DOI:10.3390/biology10060481

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34071473/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Antioxidant Activity of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae under Non-Stress and H(2)O(2)-Induced Oxidative Stress Conditions

PubMed: Antioxidant Activity of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae under Non-Stress and H(2)O(2)-Induced Oxidative Stress Conditions

Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 May 22;10(6):830. doi: 10.3390/antiox10060830.

ABSTRACT

The oil extracted from hemp seeds has significant nutritional and biological properties due to the unique composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various antioxidant compounds. The potential of this oil for the prevention of oxidative stress and for the treatment of oxidative-stress-induced ailments is of increasing interest. Most studies of hemp seed oil were conducted in-vitro, meaning we lack information about effects and activity in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the hypothesis that hemp seed oil at different concentrations improves the oxidative state of D. melanogaster, under non-stress as well as hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress. We analyzed the effects of hemp seed oil on oxidative stress markers and on the life cycle of D.melanogaster under non-stress and hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress conditions. D.melanogaster larvae were exposed to hemp seed oil concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 125 μL/mL. The results revealed that under non-stress conditions, oil concentrations up to 62.5 µL/mL did not induce negative effects on the life cycle of D. melanogaster and maintained the redox status of the larval cells at similar levels to the control level. Under oxidative stress conditions, biochemical parameters were significantly affected and only two oil concentrations, 18.7 and 31.2 µL/mL, provided protection against hydrogen peroxide stress effects. A higher oil concentration (125 μL/mL) exerted negative effects on the oxidative status and increased larval mortality. The tested oil was characterized chemically by NMR, transesterification, and silylation, followed by GC-MS analyses, and was shown to contain polyunsaturated fatty acid triglycerides and low levels of tocopherols. The high levels of linoleic and linolenic acids in the oil are suggested to be responsible for the observed in vivo antioxidant effects. Taken together, the results show that hemp seed oil is effective for reducing oxidative stress at the cellular level, thus supporting the hypothesis. The obtained results point to the potential of hemp seed oil for the prevention and treatment of conditions caused by the action of reactive oxygen species.

PMID:34067432 | DOI:10.3390/antiox10060830

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34067432/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Cannabinoids, Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloids of Cannabis

PubMed: Cannabinoids, Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloids of Cannabis

Molecules. 2021 May 8;26(9):2774. doi: 10.3390/molecules26092774.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world. It was introduced into western medicine during the early 19th century. It contains a complex mixture of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid-type constituents. More than 500 compounds have been reported from C. sativa, of which 125 cannabinoids have been isolated and/or identified as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are C21 terpeno-phenolic compounds specific to Cannabis. The non-cannabinoid constituents include: non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and others. This review discusses the chemistry of the cannabinoids and major non-cannabinoid constituents (terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenolics, and alkaloids) with special emphasis on their chemical structures, methods of isolation, and identification.

PMID:34066753 | DOI:10.3390/molecules26092774

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066753/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Mild Abiotic Stress Affects Development and Stimulates Hormesis of Hemp Aphid Phorodon cannabis

PubMed: Mild Abiotic Stress Affects Development and Stimulates Hormesis of Hemp Aphid Phorodon cannabis

Insects. 2021 May 8;12(5):420. doi: 10.3390/insects12050420.

ABSTRACT

The hemp aphid Phorodon cannabis Passerini is a well- known (Asia, Europe) or newly emerging (North America) insect. It is a monophagous insect pest causing considerable damage in field and glasshouse cultivations. The aim of this work was to study the effects of meteorological (temperature) and agronomical (herbicide) factors on the biology of the hemp aphid. In one experiment, hemp plants were kept at constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 °C, and aphid survival and fecundity were measured. In a related experiment conducted at 20 °C, plants were treated with field-appropriate rates of a selective graminicide containing quizalofop-P-tefuryl (40 gL-1, 4.38%, HRAC group 1), commonly used to control weeds in hemp, and aphid enzyme activity was measured in addition to population parameters. We found that hemp aphids could live, feed and reproduce within the whole studied range of temperatures, demonstrating its great evolutionary plasticity. However, the optimal temperature for development was 25 °C, at which the insect lived and reproduced for 25 and 15 days, respectively, with an average fecundity of 7.5 nymphs per reproduction day. The herbicide treatment increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), β-glucosidase, S-glutathione transferase (GST), oxidoreductive peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the aphids, but only on certain days after treatment, which indicates a mild stress in aphid tissues, related to a higher reproduction and changed feeding behavior; aphids moved from the actively growing tips compared to untreated plants. The results of these experiments are discussed in terms of the impact on the future management of this pest.

PMID:34066736 | DOI:10.3390/insects12050420

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066736/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Identification of Potential Distinguishing Markers for the Use of Cannabis-Based Medicines or Street Cannabis in Serum Samples

PubMed: Identification of Potential Distinguishing Markers for the Use of Cannabis-Based Medicines or Street Cannabis in Serum Samples

Metabolites. 2021 May 13;11(5):316. doi: 10.3390/metabo11050316.

ABSTRACT

Increasing prescription numbers of cannabis-based medicines raise the question of whether uptake of these medicines can be distinguished from recreational cannabis use. In this pilot study, serum cannabinoid profiles after use of cannabis-based medicines were investigated, in order to identify potential distinguishing markers. Serum samples after use of Sativex®, Dronabinol or medical cannabis were collected and analyzed for 18 different cannabinoids, using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Analytes included delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabicyclol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, tetrahydocannabinolic acid A, cannabidiolic acid, cannabinolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, cannabichromenic acid, cannabicyclolic acid, tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid and cannabidivarinic acid. Cannabinoid profiles of study samples were compared to profiles of street cannabis user samples via principal component analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Potential distinguishing markers for Dronabinol and Sativex® intake were identified, including 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios ≥1 and increased concentrations of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol or cannabichromene. Larger quantities of minor cannabinoids suggested use of cannabis. Use of medical and street cannabis could not be distinguished, except for use of a cannabidiol-rich strain with higher cannabidiol/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabichromene/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios. Findings of the study were used to classify forensic serum samples with self-reported use of cannabis-based medicines.

PMID:34068332 | DOI:10.3390/metabo11050316

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34068332/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: The (Poly)Pharmacology of Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Molecular Mechanisms and Targets

PubMed: The (Poly)Pharmacology of Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Molecular Mechanisms and Targets

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 5;22(9):4876. doi: 10.3390/ijms22094876.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, has been proposed for the treatment of a wide panel of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, epilepsy and drug addiction due to the ability of its versatile scaffold to interact with diverse molecular targets that are not restricted to the endocannabinoid system. Albeit the molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of CBD have yet to be fully elucidated, many efforts have been devoted in the last decades to shed light on its complex pharmacological profile. In particular, an ever-increasing number of molecular targets linked to those disorders have been identified for this phytocannabinoid, along with the modulatory effects of CBD on their cascade signaling. In this view, here we will try to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the molecular basis underlying the therapeutic effects of CBD involved in the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID:34062987 | DOI:10.3390/ijms22094876

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34062987/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Medium-throughput zebrafish optogenetic platform identifies deficits in subsequent neural activity following brief early exposure to cannabidiol and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol

PubMed: Medium-throughput zebrafish optogenetic platform identifies deficits in subsequent neural activity following brief early exposure to cannabidiol and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol

Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11515. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90902-3.

ABSTRACT

In light of legislative changes and the widespread use of cannabis as a recreational and medicinal drug, delayed effects of cannabis upon brief exposure during embryonic development are of high interest as early pregnancies often go undetected. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) until the end of gastrulation (1-10 h post-fertilization) and analyzed later in development (4-5 days post-fertilization). In order to measure neural activity, we implemented Calcium-Modulated Photoactivatable Ratiometric Integrator (CaMPARI) and optimized the protocol for a 96-well format complemented by locomotor analysis. Our results revealed that neural activity was decreased by CBD more than THC. At higher doses, both cannabinoids could dramatically reduce neural activity and locomotor activity. Interestingly, the decrease was more pronounced when CBD and THC were combined. At the receptor level, CBD-mediated reduction of locomotor activity was partially prevented using cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptor inhibitors. Overall, we report that CBD toxicity occurs via two cannabinoid receptors and is synergistically enhanced by THC exposure to negatively impact neural activity late in larval development. Future studies are warranted to reveal other cannabinoids and their receptors to understand the implications of cannabis consumption on fetal development.

PMID:34075141 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-90902-3

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34075141/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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PubMed: Metabolomic Analysis of Cannabinoid and Essential Oil Profiles in Different Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Phenotypes

PubMed: Metabolomic Analysis of Cannabinoid and Essential Oil Profiles in Different Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Phenotypes

Plants (Basel). 2021 May 12;10(5):966. doi: 10.3390/plants10050966.

ABSTRACT

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cannabinoids and terpenoids have therapeutic effects on human and animal health. Cannabis plants can often have a relatively high heterogeneity, which leads to different phenotypes that have different chemical profiles despite being from the same variety. Little information exists about cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles in different hemp phenotypes within the same variety. For this study, 11 phenotypes from three different varieties (“Carmagnola” selected (CS), “Tiborszallasi” (TS), and “Finola” selection (FS)) were analyzed. The components of essential oil (29) were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 10 different cannabinoids of each phenotype were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that according to the components of essential oil, FS and TS plants were more uniform than CS plants, where there were great differences between CI and CII phenotypes. The content of cannabinoid CBD-A was the highest in all four FS phenotypes. By comparing cannabinoid profiles, FS was clearly separated from TS and CS, while these two varieties were not clearly distinguishable. Phenotypes TV and CI had the highest total content of Δ-9-THC, while all phenotypes of FS had the highest total content of CBD. The highest total content of CBG was determined in phenotype CI. Obtained results are useful for the development of new supplementary ingredients, for different pharmacy treatments, and for further breeding purposes.

PMID:34066131 | DOI:10.3390/plants10050966

#CBD #Hemp https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34066131/?utm_source=WordPress&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=None&utm_content=1jYCQzi_o_qLYr-oQfnMhShgOXkvGma3vcnBGJtrBhuJMOvEVJ&fc=None&ff=20210603070036&v=2.14.4 June 2, 2021 10:00 am

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Amid the U.K.’s CBD Boom, Some Sound Concerns for Its European Success

Amid the U.K.’s CBD Boom, Some Sound Concerns for Its European Success

By Oliver Bennett, Special Contributor to New Frontier Data

As the pandemic tentatively recedes and nonessential shopping re-establishes some previous normalcy, CBD is gaining further inroads to mainstream retail activity in the post-COVID environment. In the U.K., CBD start-up Trip has joined Sainsbury’s Future Brands initiative and gained USD $5 million (GBP £3.52 million) to help launch its RTD cans and CBD oils into the markets including the U.S.

There is added significance given that Sainsbury’s is the U.K.’s second-largest supermarket chain – and rather than the pharmacies and boutiques commonly stocking CBD, it primarily operates big-shed grocery stores. It is also consistent, then, with the Food Standards Agency (FSA) rules to classify CBD products as novel foods. Trip, for its part, is rolling out drinks and oils across the high-end members club Soho House, and has established a partnership with London-headquartered multinational delivery company Deliveroo, demonstrating how even broader elements of the market are being addressed.

Suffice it to say that the CBD market is fast-growing in the U.K., and now worth more than both the vitamin C and -D markets in the wellness sector. CBD has for some while been available on High Street shelves of retailers such as Holland & Barrett, and Boots, with boutique wellness stores and pop-ups also selling vapes. Such segments have grown expansively since the 2017 change to CBD’s novel food status, and comprise the world’s second-largest CBD market, according to a report from the Association for the Cannabinoid Industry (ACI) and Centre for Medicinal Cannabis (CMC) called Green Shoots. As Paul Birch, cofounder of the ACI and CMC, asserts: “The size of this cannabinoid sector is now impossible to ignore.”

Demand for CBD grew during the U.K.’s pandemic lockdowns, with the market now estimated as worth £690 million (USD $980 million) – up from £400 million (USD $568 million) in 2020, and more than 2x over the oft-quoted 2019 figure of about £300 million (USD $426 million). It has been predicted that the U.K.’s CBD industry will surpass £1 billion (USD $1.42 billion) by 2025, making it the second-largest market behind the U.S., helped by a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40.4% throughout 2020-2025.

Now is the market’s time to attain maturity, notes the Green Shoots report in calling both for a dedicated agency to licence and oversee the CBD industry, and a National Centre of Excellence to gather evidence for a baseline to support CBD’s efficacy in the wellness and medical domains. CBD is legal to be sold in the U.K. both over the counter and as a prescribed medicine, yet still needs to be proven reliable by having its claims tested and confirmed.

In moving toward those goals, the U.K.’s Association for the Cannabinoid Industry (ACI) has introduced a new 2022 Accelerator Package membership program to help CBD stakeholders navigate food safety regulations and hasten their success. The ACI package’s safety message is imperative, and its membership program is designed to further guide fledgling CBD products through the U.K.’s novel foods regime. It also hopes to raise public consciousness raising about cannabinoids and food safety in the U.K.

With the U.K. already a leader in Europe’s CBD industry, it may offer leadership elsewhere in the continent. Alphagreen, the U.K.’s leading CBD retailer for selling CBD since entering the segment in 2019, is set to expand across six other European nations – Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, and Poland. The broader availability affords CBD consumers to use the more convenient platform as a one-stop shop for a wider choice of products. Alphagreen has come to represent a de facto index for the CBD market, having expanded exponentially from its original listing of four brands with 50 products, to 160 brands with over 2,800 products.

As it continues, the CBD industry branches into ever more niches: As in the U.S., beverages mark a fast-growing category, both in CBD-infused alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Pet food supplements, too, are growing apace, along with the aforementioned beauty and wellness products.

Consequently, the U.K.’s CBD market seems set to build on its historic strengths and move forward as a constituent component of the country’s post-COVID reconstruction. Nevertheless, some significant constraints persist, including the sector’s unregulated uncertainties and reliance on imports, notably from Switzerland.

For instance, despite CBD’s veritable momentum full-steam ahead, U.K. hemp farmers are up in arms, as they find themselves unable to extract CBD from hemp flower due to a U.K. Home Office policy disallowing their extraction of CBD from the whole hemp plant, instead offering licences which permit only the extraction of stalks and seeds. The policy has been decried as uncompetitive, while a report calls for a business model more like that of Switzerland (a key exporter), where farmers can grow crops containing up to 1.0% THC and avoid essentially ditching 80% of the crop. For the U.K.’s CBD rush to be sustainable, such supply-chain obstacles need to be overcome.

The post Amid the U.K.’s CBD Boom, Some Sound Concerns for Its European Success appeared first on New Frontier Data.

#CBD #Hemp https://newfrontierdata.com/cannabis-insights/amid-the-u-k-s-cbd-boom-some-sound-concerns-for-its-european-success/ June 1, 2021 11:59 pm

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