PubMed: Paclitaxel-Associated Mechanical Sensitivity and Neuroinflammation Are Sex-, Time-, and Site-Specific and Prevented through Cannabigerol Administration in C57Bl/6 Mice

PubMed: Paclitaxel-Associated Mechanical Sensitivity and Neuroinflammation Are Sex-, Time-, and Site-Specific and Prevented through Cannabigerol Administration in C57Bl/6 Mice

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 12;25(8):4277. doi: 10.3390/ijms25084277.

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most prevalent and dose-limiting complications in chemotherapy patients. One identified mechanism underlying CIPN is neuroinflammation. Most of this research has been conducted in only male or female rodent models, making direct comparisons regarding the role of sex differences in the neuroimmune underpinnings of CIPN limited. Moreover, most measurements have focused on the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and/or spinal cord, while relatively few studies have been aimed at characterizing neuroinflammation in the brain, for example the periaqueductal grey (PAG). The overall goals of the present study were to determine (1) paclitaxel-associated changes in markers of inflammation in the PAG and DRG in male and female C57Bl6 mice and (2) determine the effect of prophylactic administration of an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid, cannabigerol (CBG). In Experiment 1, male and female mice were treated with paclitaxel (8-32 mg/kg/injection, Days 1, 3, 5, and 7) and mechanical sensitivity was measured using Von Frey filaments on Day 7 (Cohort 1) and Day 14 (Cohort 2). Cohorts were euthanized on Day 8 or 15, respectively, and DRG and PAG were harvested for qPCR analysis of the gene expression of markers of pain and inflammation Aig1, Gfap, Ccl2, Cxcl9, Tlr4, Il6, and Calca. In Experiment 2, male and female mice were treated with vehicle or 10 mg/kg CBG i.p. 30 min prior to each paclitaxel injection. Mechanical sensitivity was measured on Day 14. Mice were euthanized on Day 15, and PAG were harvested for qPCR analysis of the gene expression of Aig1, Gfap, Ccl2, Cxcl9, Tlr4, Il6, and Calca. Paclitaxel produced a transient increase in potency to produce mechanical sensitivity in male versus female mice. Regarding neuroinflammation, more gene expression changes were apparent earlier in the DRG and at a later time point in the PAG. Also, more changes were observed in females in the PAG than males. Overall, sex differences were observed for most markers at both time points and regions. Importantly, in both the DRG and PAG, most increases in markers of neuroinflammation and pain occurred at paclitaxel doses higher than those associated with significant changes in the mechanical threshold. Two analytes that demonstrated the most compelling sexual dimorphism and that changed more in males were Cxcl9 and Ccl2, and Tlr4 in females. Lastly, prophylactic administration of CBG protected the male and female mice from increased mechanical sensitivity and female mice from neuroinflammation in the PAG. Future studies are warranted to explore how these sex differences may shed light on the mechanisms of CIPN and how non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as CBG may engage these targets to prevent or attenuate the effects of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents on the nervous system.

PMID:38673862 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25084277

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38673862/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240427102433&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 April 27, 2024 10:00 am