PubMed: Phytocannabinoids and gingival inflammation: Preclinical findings and a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial with cannabidiol

PubMed: Phytocannabinoids and gingival inflammation: Preclinical findings and a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial with cannabidiol

J Periodontal Res. 2024 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/jre.13234. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and (2) to clinically monitor the effect of CBD in subjects with periodontitis.

BACKGROUND: The use of phytocannabinoids is a new approach in the treatment of widely prevalent periodontal disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cannabinoid receptors were analyzed by western blot and interleukin production detected using enzyme immunoassay. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway was studied via monitoring the mRNA level of heme oxygenase-1. Antimicrobial effects were determined by standard microdilution and 16S rRNA screening. In the clinical part, a placebo-control double-blind randomized study was conducted (56 days) in three groups (n = 90) using dental gel without CBD (group A) and with 1% (w/w) CBD (group B) and corresponding toothpaste (group A – no CBD, group B – with CBD) for home use to maintain oral health. Group C used dental gel containing 1% chlorhexidine digluconate (active comparator) and toothpaste without CBD.

RESULTS: Human gingival fibroblasts were confirmed to express the cannabinoid receptor CB2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cells exhibited increased production of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8, with deceasing levels upon exposure to CBD. CBD also exhibited antimicrobial activities against Porphyromonas gingivalis, with an MIC of 1.5 μg/mL. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway was also demonstrated. In the clinical part, statistically significant improvement was found for the gingival, gingival bleeding, and modified gingival indices between placebo group A and CBD group B after 56 days.

CONCLUSIONS: Cannabidiol reduced inflammation and the growth of selected periodontal pathogenic bacteria. The clinical trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement after CBD application. No adverse effects of CBD were reported by patients or observed upon clinical examination during the study. The results are a promising basis for a more comprehensive investigation of the application of non-psychotropic cannabinoids in dentistry.

PMID:38311974 | DOI:10.1111/jre.13234

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38311974/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240205072132&v=2.18.0 February 5, 2024 11:00 am