PubMed: Establishment of a human organoid-based evaluation system for assessing interspecies infection risk of animal-borne coronaviruses

PubMed: Establishment of a human organoid-based evaluation system for assessing interspecies infection risk of animal-borne coronaviruses

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2024 Dec;13(1):2327368. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2024.2327368. Epub 2024 Mar 26.

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a major threat to global public health. Several lines of evidence have shown that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), along with two other highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) originated from bats. To prevent and control future coronavirus outbreaks, it is necessary to investigate the interspecies infection and pathogenicity risks of animal-related coronaviruses. Currently used infection models, including in vitro cell lines and in vivo animal models, fail to fully mimic the primary infection in human tissues. Here, we employed organoid technology as a promising new model for studying emerging pathogens and their pathogenic mechanisms. We investigated the key host-virus interaction patterns of five human coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2 original strain, Omicron BA.1, MERS-CoV, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-OC43) in different human respiratory organoids. Five indicators, including cell tropism, invasion preference, replication activity, host response and virus-induced cell death, were developed to establish a comprehensive evaluation system to predict coronavirus interspecies infection and pathogenicity risks. Using this system, we further examined the pathogenicity and interspecies infection risks of three SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV), including WIV1 and rRsSHC014S from bats, and MpCoV-GX from pangolins. Moreover, we found that cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive plant extract, exhibits significant inhibitory effects on various coronaviruses in human lung organoid. Cannabidiol significantly enhanced interferon-stimulated gene expression but reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. In summary, our study established a reliable comprehensive evaluation system to analyse infection and pathogenicity patterns of zoonotic coronaviruses, which could aid in prevention and control of potentially emerging coronavirus diseases.

PMID:38531008 | DOI:10.1080/22221751.2024.2327368

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38531008/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240326192345&v=2.18.0.post9+e462414 March 26, 2024 10:00 am