PubMed: The mechanism by which cannabidiol (CBD) suppresses TNF-α secretion involves inappropriate localization of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE)

PubMed: The mechanism by which cannabidiol (CBD) suppresses TNF-α secretion involves inappropriate localization of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE)

Cell Immunol. 2024 Jan 17;397-398:104812. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2024.104812. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa that exerts anti-inflammatory mechanisms. CBD is being examined for its putative effects on the neuroinflammatory disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). One of the major immune mediators that propagates MS and its mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are macrophages. Macrophages can polarize into an inflammatory phenotype (M1) or an anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2a). Therefore, elucidating the impact on macrophage polarization with CBD pre-treatment is necessary to understand its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. To study this effect, murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) were pre-treated with CBD (10 µM) or vehicle (ethanol 0.1 %) and were either left untreated (naive; cell media only), or stimulated under M1 (IFN-γ + lipopolysaccharide, LPS) or M2a (IL-4) conditions for 24 hr. Cells were analyzed for macrophage polarization markers, and supernatants were analyzed for cytokines and chemokines. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on M1-polarized cells for the metalloprotease, tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE), as this enzyme is responsible for the secretion of TNF-α. Overall results showed that CBD decreased several markers associated with the M1 phenotype while exhibiting less effects on the M2a phenotype. Significantly, under M1 conditions, CBD increased the percentage of intracellular and surface TNF-α but decreased secreted TNF-α. This phenomenon might be mediated by TACE as staining showed that CBD sequestered TACE intracellularly. CBD also prevented RelA nuclear translocation. These results suggest that CBD may exert its anti-inflammatory effects by reducing M1 polarization and decreasing TNF-α secretion via inappropriate localization of TACE and RelA.

PMID:38245915 | DOI:10.1016/j.cellimm.2024.104812

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38245915/?utm_source=Chrome&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1Ds1JEbG0OWaBdqM3tTUGjkFhFGaOtMecPdpuvzbuubWi6d9Fn&fc=20231022105433&ff=20240121193051&v=2.18.0 January 21, 2024 11:00 am